Bibliography - Victory: The Triumphant Gay Revolution - Linda Hirshman

Victory: The Triumphant Gay Revolution - Linda Hirshman (2012)



Interviews are by the author unless otherwise indicated.

Achtenberg, Roberta, January 11, 2010.

Ahonen-Jover, Juan, July 10, 2011.

Ahonen-Jover, Ken, July 10, 2011.

Anonymous, June 26, 2011.

Aravosis, John, June 2, 2010.

Banzhaf, Marion, ACT UP Oral History, April 18, 2007.

Basile, Vic, June 3, 2010.

Bellamy, Carol, December 18, 2009.

Benecke, Michelle, April 14, 2011.

Berrill, Kevin, May 5, 2011.

Black, Dustin Lance, April 12, 2010.

Bordowitz, Greg, ACT UP Oral History Project, December 17, 2002.

Boutrous, Theodore, May 2, 2011.

Browne, Robby, April and November 6, 2010.

Browning, Bil, April 9, 2011.

Buchanan, Wade, March 31, 2011.

Campbell, Barbara, November 23, 2010.

Carey, Rea, June 3, 2010.

Carter, David, September 23, 2010.

Cathcart, Kevin, November 12, 2009.

Celeste, Mary, May 3, 2011.

Choi, Dan, June 26, 2010.

Cohen, Bruce, April 16, 2010.

Coles, Matt, March 29, 2011.

Conant, Marc, January 10, 2010.

Dansky, Steven, October 8, 2010.

Dubofsky, Jean, March 18, 2011.

Eigo, Jim, ACT UP Oral History Project, March 5, 2004.

Eleveld, Kerry, April 15, 2011.

Evans, Arthur, January 13, 2010.

Fauci, Anthony, November 22, 2010.

Finkelstein, Avram, January 7, 2011.

Foreman, Matt, April 18, 2011.

Fouratt, Jim, October 24, 2009; August 17, 2010.

Francis, Don, January 13, 2010.

Freedman, Alfred, November 17, 2009.

Friedman-Kien, Alvin, February 12, 2009.

Garvy, Helen, September 10, 2010.

Gill, Tim, e-mail interview, June 29, 2011.

Gillibrand, Kirsten, May 10, 2011.

Gitlin, Todd, December 9, 2009; September 8, 2010.

Gold, Mitchell, March 17, 2011.

Griffin, Chad, April 13 and April 19, 2011.

Haft, Marilyn, November 4, 2009.

Hoose, Jerry, October 6, 2010.

Hyde, Sue, February 15, 2011.

Jacobs, Rick, April 15, 2010.

Jones, Cleve, February 1, 2010.

Kameny, Franklin, September 30, 2009; July 23, 2010.

Kaufman, Moises, The Laramie Project DVD, MovieWeb, undated.

Kelley, Bill, July 24, 2011.

Kendell, Kate, April 13, 2011.

Kilhefner, Don, April 13, 2010.

Koch, Edward I., December 18, 2009.

Kors, Geoffrey, April 27, 2011.

Kramer, Larry, November 13, 2009.

Kushner, Tony, October 2, 2010.

Lanigan-Schmidt, Tommy, October 13, 2010.

Lavery, Michael, November 2010.

Leitsch, Dick, October 26, 2009.

Lyon, Phyllis, March 23, 2011.

Marans, Jon, October 24, 2009.

March, Artemis (née March Hoffman), August 23, 2010.

Marcus, Eric, July 29, 2009; November 16, 2011.

Martin, Keith, October 2, 2010.

McCarty, Marlene, November 19, 2010.

McGehee, Robin, March 4, 2011.

Miller, Gary, April 11, 2009.

Mixner, David B., May 21, 2010.

Mungello, David, September 7, 2010.

Nash, Phil, April 4, 2011.

Nesline, Michael, interview by Sarah Schulman, ACT UP Oral History Project, March 24, 2002.

Northrop, Ann, November 17, 2010.

O’Brien, John, October 10, 2010.

Ocamb, Karen, April 25, 2011.

Pepper, James, August, 21, 2010.

Perry, Troy, April 16 and April 27, 2010.

Petrelis, Michael, ACT UP Oral History Project, April 21, 2003.

Pomerantz, Leslie Fay, February 2, 2011.

Reiner, Greg, fall 2010.

Reiner, Rob, April 14, 2010.

Rogers, Michael, June 3, 2010.

Rubenfeld, Abby, March 31, 2011.

Russell, Glenda, April 16, 2011.

Russell, Ina, September 2009.

Sarvis, Aubrey, May 9, 2011.

Schook, Tea, March 21, 2011.

Schulman, Sarah, November 19, 2010.

Shelley, Martha, November 28, 2009.

Signorile, Michelangelo, ACT UP Oral History Project, September 20, 2003.

Silver, Carol Ruth, December 2009.

Socarides, Richard, May 27, June 2, June 7, and June 9, 2010.

Solmonese, Joe, May 2, 2011.

Solomon, Marc, April 15, 2010.

Spitzer, Robert, December 10, 2009.

Steadman, Pat, March 14, 2011.

Steffan, Joseph, February 22, 2011.

Stewart, Therese, May 3, 2011.

Towle, Andy, April 16, 2011.

Tribe, Laurence, April 7, 2011.

Truscott, Lucian, IV, September 16, 2010.

Turner, Lisa, April 19, 2011.

Van Sant, Gus, April 16, 2010.

Westmoreland, Tim, December 17, 2010.

Whelan, Edward, June 2, 2011.

Wicker, Randy, November 2, 2009.

Wockner, Rex, April 17, 2011, and numerous times thereafter.

Wolfson, Evan, May 6, May 10, and May 12, 2010.

Woods, Dan, May 20, 2011.

Yandura, Paul, June 3, 2010.

Yee, Sylvia, March 24, 2011.

Young, Allen, September 1, 2010.

Books and Journal Articles

Allyn, David. Make Love, Not War: The Sexual Revolution: An Unfettered History. Boston and New York: Little, Brown, 2001.

Altman, Dennis. The Homosexualitzation of America: The Americanization of the Homosexual. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1982.

Andersen, Ellen Ann. Out of the Closets and into the Courts: Legal Opportunity Structure and Gay Rights Litigation. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2006.

Andriote, John-Manuel. Victory Deferred: How AIDS Changed Gay Life in America. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

Arendt, Hannah. Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil. New York: Viking Press, 1963.

Armstrong, Elizabeth A., and Suzanna M. Crage. “Movements and Memory: The Making of the Stonewall Myth.” American Sociological Review 71 (2006): 724–51.

Ayers, Ian, and Jennifer Gerarda Brown. Straightforward: How to Mobilize Heterosexual Support for Gay Rights. Princeton, N.J., and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2005.

Baim, Tracy, ed. Obama and the Gays: A Political Marriage. Chicago: Prairie Avenue Productions, 2010.

Bancroft, J., and I. Marks. “Electric Aversion Therapy of Sexual Deviations.” Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 61 (1968): 796–9.

Bayer, Ronald. Homosexuality and American Psychiatry: The Politics of Diagnosis. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1981.

Beemyn, Brett, ed. Creating a Place for Ourselves: Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Community Histories. New York: Routledge, 1997.

Bérubé, Allan. Coming Out Under Fire: The History of Gay Men and Women in World War II, 20th anniversary ed. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010. The first edition was published in 1990.

Boyd, Nan Alamilla. “ ‘Homos Invade S.F.!’: San Francisco’s History as a Wide-Open Town.” In Creating a Place for Ourselves: Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Community Histories, edited by Brett Beemyn73–84. New York: Routledge, 1997.

Branch, Taylor. At Canaan’s Edge: America in the King Years, 1965–68. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2006.

———. Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954–63. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1988.

———. Pillar of Fire: America in the King Years, 1963–65. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1998.

Bransford, Stephen. Gay Politics vs. Colorado and America: The Inside Story of Amendment 2. Cascade, Colo.: Sardis Press, 1994.

Brier, Jennifer. Infectious Ideas: U.S. Political Responses to the AIDS Crisis. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2009.

Bronski, Michael. A Queer History of the United States. Boston: Beacon Press, 2011.

Brundage, James A. Law, Sex, and Christian Society in Medieval Europe. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Cain, Patricia A. Rainbow Rights: The Role of Lawyers and Courts in the Lesbian and Gay Civil Rights Movement. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press/Perseus Books Group, 2000.

Canaday, Margot. The Straight State: Sexuality and Citizenship in Twentieth-Century America. Princeton, N.J., and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2009.

Carden, Michael. Sodomy: A History of a Christian Biblical Myth. London and Oakville, Conn.: Equinox, 2004.

Carpenter, Edward. The Intermediate Sex. Fairford, Gloucester, U.K.: Echo Library, 2007. Originally published in 1912.

Carter, David. Stonewall: The Riots That Sparked the Gay Revolution. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 2004.

Chauncey, George. Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890–1940. New York: BasicBooks, 1994.

———. Why Marriage? The History Shaping Today’s Debate over Gay Equality. New York: Basic Books, 2004.

Clendinen, Dudley, and Adam Nagourney. Out for Good: The Struggle to Build a Gay Rights Movement in America. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1999.

Cohen, Peter F. Love and Anger: Essays on AIDS, Activism, and Politics. New York: Haworth Press, 1998.

Collins, Gail. When Everything Changed: The Amazing Journey of American Women, from 1960 to the Present. New York: Little, Brown, 2009.

Comte, Auguste. The Positive Philosophy of Auguste Comte. Translated by Harriet Martineau. Bristol, England: Thoemmes, 2001. Reprint of the 1853 edition.

Cott, Nancy F. Public Vows: A History of Marriage and the Nation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000.

Crewdson, John. Science Fictions: A Scientific Mystery, a Massive Cover-up, and the Dark Legacy of Robert Gallo. Boston, New York, and London: Little, Brown, 2002.

Crimp, Douglas. Melancholia and Moralism: Essays on AIDS and Queer Politics. Cambridge, Mass., and London: MIT Press, 2002.

Cummings, Scott L., and Douglas NeJaime. “Lawyering for Marriage Equality.” UCLA Law Review 57 (June 2010): 1235.

Currah, Paisley, Richard M. Juang, and Shannon Price Minter, eds. Transgender Rights. Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press, 2006.

D’Emilio, John. Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities: The Making of a Homosexual Minority in the United States, 1940–1970. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1983.

———. Lost Prophet: The Life and Times of Bayard Rustin. New York: Free Press, 2003.

DeYoung, Karen. Soldier: The Life of Colin Powell. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2006.

Duberman, Martin B. About Time: Exploring the Gay Past. New York: Meridian Books, 1991.

———. Stonewall. New York: Plume Books, 1993.

———. Waiting to Land: A (Mostly) Political Memoir, 1985–2008. New York and London: New Press, 2009.

Dugan, Robert P., Jr. Winning the New Civil War. New York: Multnomah Books, 1991.

Echols, Alice. Hot Stuff: Disco and the Remaking of American Culture, New York: W. W. Norton, 2010.

Ely, John Hart. “The Wages of Crying Wolf.” Yale Law Journal 82, no. 5 (April 1973): 920–49.

Endean, Steve. Bringing Lesbian and Gay Rights into the Mainstream: Twenty Years of Progress. New York: Harrington Park Press, 2006.

Engel, Stephen M. The Unfinished Revolution: Social Movement Theory and the Gay and Lesbian Movement. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Epstein, Steven. Impure Science: AIDS, Activism, and the Politics of Knowledge. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, 1996.

Ettelbrick, Paula. “Since When Is Marriage a Path to Liberation?” Chapter Four in Same-Sex Marriage Pro and Con, edited by Andrew Sullivan. New York: Vintage Books, 1997.

Evans, Arthur. Critique of Patriarchical Reason. San Francisco: White Crane Press, 1997.

Faas, Ekbert. Young Robert Duncan: Portrait of the Poet as a Homosexual in Society. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Black Sparrow Press, 1983.

Faderman, Lillian, and Stuart Timmons. Gay L.A.: A History of Sexual Outlaws, Power Politics, and Lipstick Lesbians. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, 2006.

Farred, Grant. “Endgame Identity? Mapping the New Left Roots of Identity Politics.” New Literary History 31, no. 4 (2000): 627–48.

Fisher, James. Understanding Tony Kushner. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2008.

Frank, Nathaniel. Unfriendly Fire: How the Gay Ban Undermines the Military and Weakens America. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, Thomas Dunne Books, 2009.

Friedman, Lawrence M. A History of American Law, 3rd ed. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2005.

Gallo, Marcia M. Different Daughters: A History of the Daughters of Bilitis and the Rise of the Lesbian Rights Movement. New York: Carroll and Graf, 2006.

Gerstmann, Evan. Same-Sex Marriage and the Constitution, 2nd ed. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Gitlin, Todd. The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage. New York: Bantam, 1987.

Glazer, Nathan, and Daniel P. Moynihan. Beyond the Melting Pot, 2nd ed. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1970.

Gould, Deborah B. Moving Politics: Emotion and ACT UP’s Fight Against AIDS. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2009.

Gross, Larry. Up from Invisibility: Lesbians, Gay Men, and the Media in America. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.

Gross, Larry, and James D. Woods, eds. The Columbia Reader on Lesbians and Gay Men in Media, Society, and Politics. New York: Columbia University Press, 1999.

Haider-Markel, Donald P. “Lesbian and Gay Politics in the States: Interest Groups, Electoral Politics, and Public Policy.” In The Politics of Gay Rights, edited by Craig A. Rimmerman, Kenneth D. Wald, and Clyde Wilcox. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

———. “The Politics of Social Regulatory Policy: State and Federal Hate Crime Policy and Implementation Effort.” Political Research Quarterly 51, no. 1 (March 1998): 69–88.

Haggerty, George E. Gay Histories and Cultures: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland, 2000.

Hay, Harry. Radically Gay: Gay Liberation in the Words of Its Founder. Edited by Will Roscoe. Boston: Beacon Press, 2001.

Heap, Chad C. Slumming: Sexual and Racial Encounters in American Nightlife, 1885–1940. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2009.

Henriksen, Kelly E. “Note & Comment: Gays, the Military, and Judicial Deference: When the Courts Must Reclaim Equal Protection as Their Area of Expertise.” Administrative Law Journal 9 (Winter 1996): 1273.

Hirshman, Linda R. Get to Work: A Manifesto for Women of the World. New York: Viking, 2006.

Hobbes, Thomas. On the Citizen. Edited and translated by Richard Tuck and Michael Silverthorne. Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Translation of De Cive.

Hodges, Ben, ed. Forbidden Acts: Pioneering Gay and Lesbian Plays of the Twentieth Century. New York: Applause Theatre and Cinema Books, 2003.

Jacobs, James B., and Kimberly Potter. Hate Crimes: Criminal Law and Identity Politics. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Jay, Karla, and Allen Young. Out of the Closets: Voices of Gay Liberation. New York and London: New York University Press, 1992.

Jones, Gareth H. History of the Law of Charity, 1532–1827. London: Cambridge University Press, 1969.

Johnson, David K. The Lavender Scare: The Cold War Persecution of Gays and Lesbians in the Federal Government. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2004.

Johnson, John W. Griswold v. Connecticut: Birth Control and the Constitutional Right of Privacy. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 2005.

Johnson, Olatunde C. “The Story of Bob Jones University v. United States: Race, Religion, and Congress’ Extraordinary Acquiescence.” In Statutory Interpretation Stories, edited by William Eskridge and Elizabeth Garrett. New York: Foundation Press, 2010. Columbia Public Law Research Paper No. 10–229.

Jordan, Mark D. The Invention of Sodomy in Christian Theology. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1997.

Keen, Lisa, and Suzanne B. Goldberg. Strangers to the Law: Gay People on Trial. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1998.

Kennedy, Elizabeth Lapovsky, and Madeline D. Davis. Boots of Leather, Slippers of Gold: The History of a Lesbian Community. New York: Penguin Books, 1993.

———. “I Could Hardly Wait to Get Back to That Bar; Lesbian Bar Culture in Buffalo in the 1930s and 1940s.” In Creating a Place for Ourselves: Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Community Histories, edited by Brett Beemyn, 29–66. New York: Routledge, 1997.

Kinsey, Alfred C., and the Institute for Sex Research. Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1953.

Kinsey, Alfred C., et al. Sexual Behavior in the Human Male. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders; Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1948.

Kluger, Richard. Simple Justice: The History of Brown v. Board of Education and Black America’s Struggle for Equality. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1975.

Kramer, Larry. Faggots. New York: Grove Press, 2000.

———. Reports from the Holocaust: The Story of an AIDS Activist. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1994.

Krebs, Ronald R. Fighting for Rights: Military Service and the Politics of Citizenship. Ithaca, N.Y., and London: Cornell University Press, 2006.

Kurland, Philip B. “The Supreme Court, 1963 Term: Foreword: Equal in Origin and Equal in Title to the Legislative and Executive Branches of the Government.” Harvard Law Review 78 (November 1964): 143–76.

Kutchins, Herb, and Stuart A. Kirk. Making Us Crazy: DSM: The Psychiatric Bible and the Creation of Mental Disorders. New York: Free Press, 1997.

Lewis, George B. “Lifting the Ban on Gays in the Civil Service.” Public Administration Review 57, no. 5 (September–October 1997): 387–95.

Loffreda, Beth. Losing Matt Shepard: Life and Politics in the Aftermath of Anti-Gay Murder. New York: Columbia University Press, 2000.

Mansbridge, Jane, and Aldon D. Morris. Oppositional Consciousness: The Subjective Roots of Social Protest. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2001.

Marcus, Eric. Making Gay History: The Half-Century Fight for Lesbian and Gay Equal Rights. New York: Perennial, 2002.

Marotta, Toby. The Politics of Homosexuality. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1981.

Mecca, Tommi Avicolli, ed. Smash the Church, Smash the State! The Early Years of Gay Liberation. San Francisco: City Lights Books, 2009.

Miller, Henry I. To America’s Health: A Proposal to Reform the Food and Drug Administration. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, 2000.

Miller, Jim. “Democracy Is in the Streets”: From Port Huron to the Siege of Chicago. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1987.

Miller, Neil. Out of the Past: Gay and Lesbian History from 1869 to the Present, revised and updated. New York: Alyson Books, 2006.

Minton, Henry L. Departing from Deviance: A History of Homosexual Rights and Emancipatory Science in America. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

Mixner, David. Stranger Among Friends. New York: Bantam Books, 1996.

Mohr, Richard D. The Long Arc of Justice: Lesbian and Gay Marriage, Equality, and Rights. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994.

Morris, Aldon D., and Carol McClurg Mueller. Frontiers in Social Movement Theory. New Haven, Conn., and London: Yale University Press, 1992.

Mucciaroni, Gary. Same Sex, Different Politics: Success and Failure in the Struggles over Gay Rights. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2008.

Mueller, Carol McClurg. “Building Social Movement Theory.” In Frontiers in Social Movement Theory, edited by Aldon D. Morris and Carol McClurg Mueller, 3–25. New Haven, Conn., and London: Yale University Press, 1992.

Murdoch, Joyce, and Deb Price. Courting Justice: Gay Men and Lesbians v. the Supreme Court. New York: Basic Books, 2002.

Murray, Stephen O. American Gay. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Newman, Mark. The Civil Rights Movement. Westport, Conn., and London: Praeger, 2004.

Newton, Esther. Cherry Grove, Fire Island: Sixty Years in America’s First Gay and Lesbian Town. Boston: Beacon Press, 1993.

Nicolas, Peter, and Mike Strong. The Geography of Love: Same-Sex Marriage and Relationship Recognition in America (The Story in Maps). University of Washington School of Law Research Paper No. 2011–15.

Nimmons, David. The Soul Beneath the Skin: The Unseen Hearts and Habits of Gay Men. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2002.

Nisbet, Robert A. “The French Revolution and the Rise of Sociology in France.” American Journal of Sociology 49, no. 2 (September 1943).

Olson, Mancur, Jr. The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1965.

Perrow, Charles, and Mauro F. Guillén. The AIDS Disaster: The Failure of Organizations in New York and the Nation. New Haven, Conn., and London: Yale University Press, 1990.

Pinello, Daniel R. America’s Struggle for Same-Sex Marriage. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Rauch, Jonathan. Gay Marriage: Why It Is Good for Gays, Good for Straights, and Good for America. New York: Times Books/Henry Holt, 2004.

Rayside, David Morton. On the Fringe: Gays and Lesbians in Politics. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1998.

Rimmerman, Craig A., Kenneth D. Wald, and Clyde Wilcox, eds. The Politics of Gay Rights. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Robinson, Eugene. Disintegration: The Splintering of Black America. New York: Doubleday, 2010.

Rosen, Ruth. The World Split Open: How the Modern Women’s Movement Changed America. New York: Viking, 2000.

Rosenberg, Gerald N. The Hollow Hope: Can Courts Bring About Social Change? 2nd ed. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2008.

Russell, Ina, ed. Jeb and Dash: A Diary of Gay Life, 1918–1945. Boston and London: Faber and Faber, 1994.

Sack, Emily J. “The Domestic Relations Exception, Domestic Violence, and Equal Access to Federal Courts.” Washington University Law Review 84, no. 6 (2006): 1441–1512.

Sandel, Michael J. Liberalism and the Limits of Justice, 2nd ed. Cambridge, U.K., and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Schiavi, Michael. Celluloid Activist: The Life and Times of Vito Russo. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2011.

Schulman, Sarah. My American History: Lesbian and Gay Life During the Reagan/Bush Years. New York: Routledge, 1994.

Shamoo, Adil E. Principles of Research Data Audit. New York: Routledge, 1989.

Shepard, Benjamin, and Ronald Hayduk. From ACT UP to the WTO: Urban Protest and Community Building in the Era of Globalization. London and New York: Verso, 2002.

Shepard, Judy. The Meaning of Matthew: My Son’s Murder in Laramie, and a World Transformed. New York: Hudson Street Press, 2009.

Shilts, Randy. And the Band Played On: Politics, People, and the AIDS Epidemic. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 1987.

———. The Mayor of Castro Street: The Life and Times of Harvey Milk. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1982.

Shumsky, Ellen. “The Radical Lesbian Story: An Evolution of Consciousness.” In Smash the Church, Smash the State! edited by Tommi Avicolli Mecca. Pages 190–95.

Simpson, Reagan Wm., and Mary R. Vasaly. The Amicus Brief: How to Be a Good Friend to the Court, 2nd ed. Chicago: Tort Trial & Insurance Practice Section, American Bar Association, 1998.

Spencer, Kate. “Same Sex Couples and the Right to Marry—European Perspectives.” Cambridge Students Law Review 6 (2010): 155.

Stalin, Joseph. “Marxism and the National Question.” In Stalin, Works, vol. 2, 303–14. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1953.

Sullivan, Andrew. Virtually Normal: An Argument About Homosexuality. New York: Knopf, 1995.

Svetvilas, Chuleenan. “Challenging Prop. 8: The Hidden Story: How Hollywood Activists Seized Control of the Fight for Gay Marriage.” California Lawyer, January 2010.

Tarrow, Sidney. Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious Politics, 2nd ed. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Thompson, Mark, ed. Long Road to Freedom: The Advocate History of the Gay and Lesbian Movement. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1994.

Timmons, Stuart. The Trouble with Harry Hay: Founder of the Modern Gay Movement. Boston: Alyson, 1990.

Tobin, Kay, and Randy Wicker. The Gay Crusaders. New York: Paperback Library, 1972.

Todd, Ross. “Marriage Brokers: Behind the Scenes of the Odd Couple’s Groundbreaking Litigation.” The American Lawyer, March 2011.

Vaid, Urvashi. Virtual Reality: The Mainstreaming of Gay and Lesbian Liberation. New York: Doubleday Anchor Books, 1995.

Vining, Donald. A Gay Diary, 1933–1946. New York: Hard Candy Books, 1979.

Waaldijk, Kees. “Others May Follow: The Introduction of Marriage, Quasi-Marriage, and Semi-Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in European Countries.” New England Law Review 38, no. 3 (2003): 569.

Wescott, Glenway. Continual Lessons: The Journals of Glenway Wescott, 1937–1955. Edited by Robert Phelps with Jerry Rosco. New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 1990.

White, C. Todd. Pre-gay L.A.: A Social History of the Movement for Homosexual Rights. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2009.

Wilson, James Q. The Amateur Democrat: Club Politics in Three Cities. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1966.

Wolfson, Evan. “Fighting to Win and Keep the Freedom to Marry: The Legal, Political, and Cultural Challenges Ahead.” National Journal of Sexual Orientation Law 1 (1995): 259–301.

———. Why Marriage Matters: America, Equality, and Gay People’s Right to Marry. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2004.

Newspaper Articles, Magazine Articles, Documentaries, and Media Reports

Barbaro, Michael. “Behind N.Y. Gay Marriage, an Unlikely Mix of Forces.” New York Times, June 26, 2011.

Barnes, Robert. “Kagan Defends Former Bush Official Who Is Representing House in Same-Sex Marriage Case.” Washington Post, April 29, 2011.

Branch, Taylor. “Closets of Power.” Harper’s Magazine, October, 1982.

Capehart, Jonathan. “For Obama, a Hit and a Miss on Gay Rights.” Washington Post, June 21, 2009.

Carpenter, Dale. “How the Law Accepted Gays.” New York Times, April 28, 2011.

Didion, Joan. “The Women’s Movement.” New York Times, July 30, 1972.

Drake, Tim. “From the Ark to the Barque: Hadley Arkes Speaks About His Reception into the Catholic Church.” National Catholic Register Daily News, August 24, 2010.

Dwyer, Devin. “Maine Votes ‘No’ on Gay Marriage.” ABC News, November 4, 2009.

“Editorial: A Basic Civil Right,” New York Times, June 11, 2010.

“Editorial: The Duty of Counsel,” New York Times, April 28, 2011.

Egan, Jennifer. “Uniforms in the Closet: The Shadow Life of a Gay Marine.” New York Times Magazine, June 28, 1998.

Epstein, Rob. The Times of Harvey Milk. Documentary, 1984.

Garvey, Gerald, and John DiIulio. “Only Connect?” The New Republic, April 26, 1993.

Green, Joshua. “They Won’t Know What Hit Them.” The Atlantic, March 2007.

Greenhouse, Linda. “The Law: Echo of ’87 Bork Uproar Rings Softly in Abortion Debate.” New York Times, April 28, 1989.

Hulse, Carl. “Senate Repeals Ban against Openly Gay Military Personnel.” New York Times, December 19, 2010.

Klein, Rick. “Meehan Targeting ‘Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell.’ ” Boston Globe, November 18, 2006.

Kramer, Larry. “1,112 and Counting.” New York Native, March 14–27, 1983.

Mailer, Norman. “The Prisoner of Sex.” Harper’s, March 1971.

Martin, Douglas. “Tyron Garner, 39, Plaintiff in Pivotal Sodomy Case, Dies.” New York Times, September 14, 2006.

Miller, Jared. “Opponents Say Existing Statutes Sufficient; State Avoids Hate Crime Legislation.” Star-Tribune (Casper, Wyoming) Capital Bureau, October 11, 2008.

Montopoli, Brian. “Dan Choi, Other Gay Rights Protesters Arrested After Chaining Selves to White House Fence.” CBS News, April 20, 2010.

Morgan, Thomas. “Mainstream Strategy for AIDS Group.” New York Times, July 22, 1988.

Morrisroe, Patricia. “AIDS: One Man’s Story.” New York, August 19, 1985.

Phillips, Frank. “Legislators Vote to Defeat Same-Sex Marriage Ban.” Boston Globe City and Region Desk, June 14, 2007.

Rauch, Jonathan. “Families Forged by Illness.” New York Times, June 4, 2006.

Rich, Frank. “Journal: Bashing to Victory.” New York Times, February 14, 1996.

Schwartz, John. “Court Rules Against Ban on Gays in the Military.” New York Times, July 7, 2011.

Spiegel, Alix. “The Dictionary of Disorder: How One Man Revolutionized Psychiatry.” The New Yorker, January 3, 2005.

Sullivan, Amy. “Inaugural Pastor: The Two Faces of Rick Warren.” Time, January 18, 2009.

Sullivan, Andrew. “What’s So Bad about Hate.” New York Times Magazine, September 26, 1999.

Thomas, Evan. “The War over Gay Marriage.” Newsweek, July 7, 2003.

Vargas, Jose Antonio. “Gay Rights Site Runs ‘Outing’ Ad Aimed at the Hill.” Washington Post, July 9, 2004.

VerMeulen, Michael. “The Gay Plague,” New York, May 31, 1982.

Warren, Jennifer, and Richard C. Paddock. “Randy Shilts, Chronicler of AIDS Epidemic, Dies.” Los Angeles Times, February 18, 1994.

Whelan, Ed. “Obama’s Dive on DOMA.” National Review, February 23, 2011.

Wong, Kristina. “Today’s Qs for O’s WH.” ABC News, June 17, 2009.

Zahorsky, Rachel M. “Sometime-Foes Boies and Olson Honored with ABA Medal for Successful Joint Efforts.” ABA Journal, August 8, 2011.

Online Articles and Blog Posts

“Advocacy Group Says Military Rooting Out Gays.” CNN. Posted February 26, 1997.–02–26/us/9702_26_gays.military_1_michelle-benecke-homosexuals-servicemembers-legal-defense-network?_s=PM:US.

Ali, Ambreen. “Why Hunger Strikes Fail: It’s an Extreme Tactic, Yet It’s Also One That Rarely Works.”, June 7, 2010,

Aravosis, John. “GetEQUAL Protests Bancroft PLLC over Defense of Bigoted DOMA Law.” Gay.Americablog. Posted April 25, 2011.

———. “Obama Defends DOMA in Federal Court. Says Banning Gay Marriage Is Good for the Federal Budget. Invokes Incest and Marrying Children.” America blog. Posted June 12, 2009.

Bazelon, Emily. “A Bold Stroke.” LegalAffairs. Posted May/June 2004.

Berman, Russell. “Gay-Rights Advocates Say Dem Leader Hoyer Saved ‘Don’t Ask’ Repeal.” The Hill, December 21, 2010,

Boyce, Martin. “40 Years Across the Table, Stonewall Vets Talk with LGBT Youth.” YouTube video. Posted June 13, 2009.

Camperio, A., Ciani P. Cermelli, and G. Zanzotto. “Sexually Antagonistic Selection in Human Male Homosexuality.” PLoS ONE 3, no. 6 (2008): e2282.

Cerny, Milton. “Tax Exempt Organizations: It’s Been a Memorable Twenty Years.” Tax Notes, November 12, 1992. McGuireWoods blog.

Clarknt67. “Live from NY! Jeanette Is Marrying Kawane Today.” Milk Men and Women, Daily Kos. Posted July 24, 2011.!-Jeanette-Is-Marrying-Kawane-Today.

Clinton, Bill. “Remarks by President Clinton at Human Rights Campaign Dinner.” PFLAG Talk and TGS PFLAG Virtual Library. Posted November 8, 1997.

Cullen, Dave. “Quiet Bombshell in Matthew Shepard Trial.” Salon. Posted November 1, 1999.

Ellen puppy episode. YouTube video. Posted April 30, 1997.

Gaus, Gerald, and Shane D. Courtland. “Liberalism.” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2011 edition), edited by Edward N. Zalta.

Gerash, Jerry. “Beth Chayim Chadashim Drash.” Denver Gay Revolt. Posted October 12, 2001.

Gerstein, Josh. “Eric Holder Rejects Attacks on Paul Clement over DOMA Defense.” Politico, April 26, 2011,

Hardisty, Jean. “Constructing Homophobia: Colorado’s Right-Wing Attack on Homosexuals.” Public Eye (March 1993),

“Have You No Sense of Decency.”

Henninger, Daniel. “Drug Lag.” In The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.

Highleyman, Liz. “Past Out: Who Was Carl Wittman.” Seattle Gay News. Posted May 5, 2006.

Human Rights Campaign. Report, 1996.

“In U.S., Broad, Steady Support for Openly Gay Service Members,” Gallup Poll, May 10, 2010.

Jasper, James. Passion and Purpose: Action Theory of Social Movements. Chapter 1, “After the Big Paradigms: Social Movement Theory Today.”

“John Rich Says Chely Wright Misunderstood When He Asked Her If She Was Gay.” Celebitchy. Posted May 6, 2010.

“KABC on LGBT Rights Protest Greeting President Obama.” YouTube video. Posted May 28, 2009.

London, Kathleen. “The History of Birth Control.” Yale–New Haven Teachers Institute.

Maddow, Rachel. “Right to Serve w/Lt. Dan Choi of Knights Out.” YouTube video. Posted March 31, 2009.

“Man Beaten in Apparent Anti-Gay Attack.” Associated Press; New York Post. Posted October 12, 2009.

McInerny, Ralph, and John O’Callaghan. “Saint Thomas Aquinas.” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2010 edition), edited by Edward N. Zalta.

“New Details Emerge in Matthew Shepard Murder.” ABC News 20/20. Posted November 26, 2004.

“Obama Makes Demonstration a Punchline.” Unite the Fight blog. Posted May 28, 2009.

“Obama Signs Hate Crimes Bill into Law.” CNN Politics. Posted October 28, 2009.

“Obama Supporter: ‘God Delivered Me from Homosexuality.’ ” CNN Politicalticker blog. Posted October 29, 2007.

“Photo Flash: HAIR at the National Equality March in Washington, D.C.” Broadway World. Posted October 13, 2009.

Pickett, Brent. “Homosexuality.” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2011 edition), edited by Edward N. Zalta.

Pierotti, Greg. “Laramie Sequel Gives Voice to Shepard’s Killer: Greg Pierotti Interviewed Convicted Killer Aaron McKinney for 10 Hours.” Associated Press; Posted September 29, 1999.

“President Obama Signs Byrd Shepard Hate Crimes Bill into Law.” Bay Windows. Posted October 28, 2009.

Proposition 8 Trial Re-enactment. Posted January 11–27, 2010, and June 16, 2010.

Provencal, Vernon L. “The Family in Aristotle.”

Reilly, Ryan J. “Boehner Picks Bush Solicitor General Paul Clement to Defend DOMA.” TPMMuckraker, April 18, 2011,

Roman. “DOMA-Defending Law Firm Employees Targeted by Online Campaign.” All-Lawyers Info. Posted April 23, 2011.

Schubert, Frank, and Jeff Flint. “Case Studies: Passing Prop 8.” Campaigns and Elections. Posted February 1, 2009,

Schwartz, Richard A. “How the Film and Television Blacklists Worked.”

Shal, Dayna. Letter to Senator Bill Frist. January 23, 2004.

Slajda, Rachel. “Gates to Congress: Repeal DADT Now.” TPMMuckraker, November 30, 2010,

Suggs, Donald. “True Colors.” POZ. Posted July 1997.

Townsend, Mark. “Democratic Party in Manhattan.” Manhattan Young Democrats blog. Posted March 17, 2010.

White, Graham. “Medieval Theories of Causation.” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2009 edition), edited by Edward N. Zalta.

Wolfson, Evan. “The Law of Interstate Marriage Recognition: A Summary of Legal Issues.” Wider Church and Justice and Witness Ministries, United Church of Christ, 1996.

Wong, Kristina. “Today’s Qs for O’s WH—6/17/2009.” ABC News blog. Posted June 17, 2009.–6172009/.


Note: These are the websites used in assembling the historical materials for the book, not the sites for current blogging and politics. For a review of the gay revolution online, see chapter 11.

ACT UP Oral History Project: The ACT UP Oral History Project is a collection of interviews with surviving members of the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power, New York. The project is coordinated by Jim Hubbard and Sarah Schulman, with camera work by James Wentzy (in New York) and (on the West Coast) S. Leo Chiang and Tracy Wares.

AIDS Quilt: All about the quilt, its history and travels.

Anti-Defamation League Hate Crimes:

Bay Windows: The website of the New England gay newspaper, Bay Windows; general coverage.

“Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell, Don’t Pursue”: Digital Library Project of the Robert Crown Law Library at Stanford Law School.

Gay Homeland Foundation: The Gay Homeland Foundation collects important political works and recommendations for books, articles, and other media.

GLBTQ: The largest website devoted to gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and queer education and culture and houses the largest, most comprehensive encyclopedia of glbtq culture in the world. Helpful essays on almost every subject.

Human Rights Campaign Archives: The Human Rights Campaign Archives back to 1975 are at Cornell. This is a guide to the collection.

Internet History Sourcebooks Project:

LGBT Movement Advancement Project: The link to the Equality Maps of the LGBT Movement Advancement Project.

LGBTQ Civil Rights Movement: Website of a course at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, “The LGBTQ Civil Rights Movement 1960–1990: Exploring History and Current Consequences.”

Matthew Shepard Online Resources: John Aravosis’s archives, including material about Matthew Shepard.

New York Law School: Lesbian/Gay Law Notes, at New York Law School, maintains running coverage of the rapidly expanding and evolving legal campaign.

New York Public Library: The online guide to the extensive, well-catalogued collection of materials at the New York Public Library Gay and Lesbian Collections and AIDS/HIV Collections. is produced by the Center for Lesbian and Gay Studies (CLAGS), located at the City University of New York Graduate Center. The site is directed by Jonathan Ned Katz. A collaborative history site with a wide range of historical essays.

Perry v. Brown: A complete reenactment of the Boies/Olson challenge to Prop 8, Perry v. Schwarzenegger, now Perry v. Brown. A pdf of the Perry v. Schwarzenegger transcript is at the Americans for Equal Rights website,

Queer Rhetoric Project: The Queer Rhetoric Project is a free online archive of political texts, speeches, and activism relating to gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender rights.

Rainbow History Project: Archive of the history, arts, and culture relevant to sexually diverse communities in metropolitan Washington, DC.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) is an invitation-only, online encyclopedia. All entries and substantive updates are refereed by members of a distinguished editorial board before they are made public. Scholarly yet readable essays on a wide range of topics in philosophy.

The Body: Online site for all things AIDS.

University of Southern California: Gay and Lesbian archives at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, collection with a special emphasis on Los Angeles, and a collection of all the back issues of ONE magazine.

Various organizations have websites. Most of them include useful reports and surveys. They include:

Alliance Defense Fund:

American Civil Liberties Union:

American Rhetoric Online Speech Bank:

California Democratic Council:

Centers for Disease Control:

Courage Campaign: The Courage Campaign focuses heavily on California politics and includes a big element of online activism, “Take Action” buttons on each subject. A wedding-planning website.

Gallup Poll:

Gay and Lesbian Advocates and Defenders: Gay and Lesbian Advocates and Defenders includes a very useful feature with the full text of important decisions.

Gay Men’s Health Crisis:

Howard Brown Health Center, Chicago:

Human Rights Campaign: The Human Rights Campaign website includes a very useful state by state law feature.

Human Rights Campaign: The Human Rights Campaign website includes the history of support for the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA) since 1974.

International Court System: Information and links about the International Court System.

Kaiser Family Foundation:

Lambda Legal:

’Lectric Law Library:

LGBT Mentoring Project:

National Center for Lesbian Rights:

National Gay and Lesbian Task Force: The National Gay and Lesbian Task Force website includes useful pdf’s of their reports.

National Institutes of Health:

On the Issues: Blog that focuses on politicians’ positions on gay rights.



Toby Marotta Community-Roots Archive:

Transgender Law and Policy Institute: Along with its sister organization,, provides a range of resources about transgender law and policy, including recent decisions and legislation state by state.

United States Department of Justice:

United States Senate:

Wider Church and Justice and Witness Ministries of the United Church of Christ:

Victory Fund: The website of the Victory Fund includes useful information about its history.

William H. Percy:

Legal Cases and Government Reports

Baehr v. Lewin, 74 Haw. 530, 852 P.2d 44 (1993); reconsideration and clarification granted in part, 74 Haw. 645, 852 P.2d 74 (1993).

Bowers v. Hardwick, 478 U.S. 186 (1986).

California v. Ferlinghetti (1957).

Department of Agriculture v. Moreno, 413 U.S. 528 (1973).

Evans v. Romer, 854 P.2d 11270 (Colo. 1993).

Evans v. Romer, 882 P.2d 1335 (Colo. 1994).

Gill v. Office of Personnel Management, 699 F.Supp.2d 374 (D.Mass. 2010).

Glenn, Yuille, Ouellette, and Combs v. Holder, 10–2273 (6th Cir. 2010).

Goldman v. Weinberger, 475 U.S. 503.

Goodridge vDept. of Public Health, 798 N.E.2d 941 (Mass. 2003).

Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479 (1965).

Hollingsworth v. Perry, 130 S.Ct. 705 (2010).

Kameny v. Brucker, petition for a writ of certiorari, no. 676, U.S. Supreme Court (1960). Kameny Papers, Library of Congress.

Lawrence v. Texas, 539 U.S. 558.

Log Cabin Republicans v. Gates, 10–56634 (9th Cir. 2010).

Memoirs v. Massachusetts, 383 U.S. 413 (1966).

Norton v. Macy, 417 F.2d 1161 (D.C. Cir. 1969).

One, Inc. v. Oleson, 241 F.2d 772 (1957), rev’d., 355 U.S. 371 (1958).

People v. Onofre, 415 N.E. 2d 936 (NY 1980).

Perry v. Brown (formerly known as Perry v. Schwarzenegger), 10–16696 (9th Cir. 2011).

Romer v. Evans, 517 U.S. 620 (1996).

Roth v. United States, 354 U.S. 476 (1957).

Smelt v. United States, C.D.Cal. Case No. 8:2009-cv-00286.

Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), H.R. Report 104–664 (1996).

Hearing before the Subcommittee on the Constitution of the Committee on the Judiciary, H.R., 108th Cong., Second Session, March 30, 2004, Serial No. 70.

“Memorandum for Secretaries of the Military Departments, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Inspector General of the Department of Defense,” March 24, 1997,