Victory: The Triumphant Gay Revolution - Linda Hirshman (2012)


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xi Robert M. “Robby” Browne, 2007 Corcoran Real Estate: Robby Browne, interview by the author, April 2010.

xii compelling American society to acknowledge them: “President Obama Signs Byrd Shepard Hate Crimes Bill into Law,”; the website of the Human Rights Campaign keeps a rolling list of all state laws,; history of support for ENDA since 1974,

xii In July 2010, a federal judge: Lesbian/Gay Law Notes, at New York Law School, maintains running coverage of the rapidly expanding and evolving legal campaign,

xiii gay media are now pooh-poohing: “John Rich Says Chely Wright Misunderstood When He Asked Her If She Was Gay,” Celebitchy, May 6, 2010,

xiii New York Times editorial called same-sex marriage: “A Basic Civil Right,” New York Times, June 11, 2010, viewed online at Gallup poll on same-sex marriage, viewed online at

xiii were considered sinful by the church: Dudley Clendinen and Adam Nagourney, Out for Good, 12; Johnson, passim.

xiii what we philosophers call a “liberal (small L) state”: For a perfectly serviceable summary of the liberal tradition, see Gerald Gaus and Shane D. Courtland, “Liberalism,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2011 edition).

xiv “oppositional consciousness”: Jane Mansbridge and Aldon D. Morris, Oppositional Consciousness; Mancur Olson, The Logic of Collective Action.

xv New social-movement theorists: Carol McClurg Mueller, “Building Social Movement Theory, in Aldon D. Morris and Carol McClurg Mueller, Frontiers in Social Movement Theory, 3–25.

xv Classical or new, each of the movements: Inter alia, the three volumes of Taylor Branch’s America in the King Years; Richard Kluger, Simple Justice; Ruth Rosen, The World Split Open; Gail Collins, When Everything Changed, 104–5; Gerald N. Rosenberg, The Hollow Hope.

xvi liberalism pretends to be morally neutral: Inter alia, Michael J. Sandel, Liberalism and the Limits of Justice.

xvi “Is Good”: Franklin Kameny, interview by author, September 30, 2009.

xvi “It was more than just being gay”: Arthur Evans, interview by author, January 13, 2010.

Chapter 1

Like everyone writing about anything to do with the movement after the publication of Gay New York in 1996, I am immeasurably indebted to the seminal work of historian George Chauncey on the period 1890–1940. The picture of the “gay male community” pieced together from his painstaking archival work held up remarkably well when applied to the later period, for which there are still living witnesses.

When twenty-year-old “Jeb Alexander”: Jeb and Dash, edited by Ina Russell, 31. Jeb is a pseudonym. Jeb’s diaries, published just as Chauncey was finishing Gay New York, provide an ongoing original source for this chapter. All references to Jeb and his circle come from the diaries, except where otherwise noted. Since Jeb’s niece, Ina Russell, who published the diaries, chose to call him by his first “name,” I will follow suit.

The word “homosexual”: Jim Miller, “Democracy Is in the Streets,” Introduction, xi–xvii; George Chauncey, Gay New York,12.

flooded into American cities: Chauncey, Gay New York, 11–12.

chain of migration to American cities: Ibid., 271–2.

whole neighborhoods: Ibid., chapter 6.

women would have to wait decades: Elizabeth Lapovsky Kennedy and Madeline D. Davis, “I Could Hardly Wait to Get Back to That Bar,” in Brett Beemyn, ed., Creating a Place for Ourselves, 28–29.

divided into subcultures: Chauncey, Gay New York, 182–3.

a secret language: Ibid., 286–8.

Prohibition had transformed the urban restaurant scene: Ibid., 164–7.

The making of the gay male world: Thomas Hobbes, On the Citizen (De Cive), chapter 8.

semipublic institutions of gay culture: Chauncey, Gay New York, chapters 8 (on the baths) and 9 (on the balls).

so crowded with men having sex: Chad C. Heap, Slumming, 271.

However comforting camp culture was: Chauncey, Gay New York, 296.

he left his diaries: Ina Russell, interview by the author, September 2009.

from other gay men whom he happened to meet: Chauncey, Gay New York, 276.

openly advertised drag entertainment: Ibid., chapter 11.

10 New York when the state liquor authority: Ibid., chapter 12.

11 “Arden” was initiated into lesbian life: Elizabeth Lapovsky Kennedy and Madeline D. Davis, Boots of Leather, Slippers of Gold, 34–36.

11 keeping the gay patrons to the most exquisite standards: Chauncey, Gay New York, 350–51.

11 diarist Donald Vining: Like Jeb and Dash, Donald Vining’s diary, A Gay Diary, 1933–1946, is another original source of the material from the early years. Vining’s deflowering appears in Chauncey, Gay New York, 152.

12 The only bar that fought back: Chauncey, Gay New York, 338.

12 they had found a place: Esther Newton, Cherry Grove, Fire Island, 35.

13 San Francisco’s North Beach became a center of integration: Nan Boyd, “ ‘Homos Invade S.F.!’ ” in Beemyn, Creating a Place for Ourselves, 79–84.

14 World War II changed the lives of everyone: Allan Bérubé, Coming Out Under Fire. Bérubé is the George Chauncey of “gay men and women in World War II.”

15 Robert Fleischer: Ibid., 8.

15 Richard von Krafft-Ebing: Ronald Bayer, Homosexuality and American Psychiatry, 19–20.

16 Magnus Hirschfeld: Ibid., 21.

16 treatments like electric shock: J. Bancroft and I. Marks, “Electric Aversion Therapy.”

16 a scientific analysis of homosexual case studies: Henry L. Minton, Departing from Deviance.

17 psychiatrists, Drs. Henry Sullivan and Winfred Overholser: Bérubé, Coming Out Under Fire, 9–11.

18 Vining did the obvious thing: Vining, A Gay Diary, 1933–1946, 278, 300.

19 civilians poached military uniforms: Bérubé, Coming Out Under Fire, 107–8.

19 Marty Klausner, who was caught in the closet door: Ibid., 102.

19 the army had replaced: Ibid., 139–41.

20 it was the doctors’ diagnosis: Ibid., 133, 140.

20 a “blue” discharge as mentally unfit: Ibid., 228.

20 “Why they don’t just round us all up and kill us”: Ibid., 232.

20 aided by the nascent racial civil rights movement: Ibid., 238–49.

21 They were explicitly excluded: Ibid., 243.

21 Jewish family didn’t look scary to Fleischer: Ibid., 250.

21 how many gay veterans: David K. Johnson, The Lavender Scare, 163–4.

22 The New York Veterans Benevolent Association: Bérubé, Coming Out Under Fire, 249.

23 Macdonald had warned Duncan not to sign his name: Ibid., 250–1; Ekbert Faas, Young Robert Duncan, 147–60.

25 when she discovered his boyhood journals: Perry v. Brown, trial day 6,

26 the community of African Americans: Mark Newman, The Civil Rights Movement, 8–26.

26 split the racial civil rights movement: Eugene Robinson, Disintegration: The Splintering of Black America, 51–60.

26 The women of the feminist movement: Ruth Rosen, The World Split Open, 335–6; Linda R. Hirshman, Get to Work, passim.

27 gay-rights organization was born: Stuart Timmons, The Trouble with Harry Hay, 144.

Chapter 2

29 Stalin didn’t much like homosexuals: Stuart Timmons, The Trouble with Harry Hay, 96.

29 a traitor to his class: Ibid., chapters 1–4 for Harry’s early years.

31 There were crowds: Ina Russell, ed., Jeb and Dash, 51–162.

31 aristocrats called it madness: Auguste Comte, Course of Positive Philosophy (1830–1842); for a translation of Comte’s work, see The Positive Philosophy of Auguste Comte, translated by Harriet Martineau; see also Robert A. Nisbet, “The French Revolution and the Rise of Sociology in France.”

32 There was nothing political to discuss, Geer said: Timmons, The Trouble with Harry Hay, 69.

32 Technically, Geer was right: Grant Farred, “Endgame Identity?”is a good example of the long dialogue.

32 Stalin was moved to address the subject: In 1913, Stalin wrote a description; Joseph Stalin, “Marxism and the National Question,” 303–14, in Stalin, Works, vol. 2, 417, n. 130.

33 Hay believed: Timmons, The Trouble with Harry Hay, 136.

33 they gained a foothold: Mark Newman, The Civil Rights Movement, 21.

33 the ideas that he would use: Timmons, The Trouble with Harry Hay, 132.

34 fabulous head shot: Ibid., cover.

34 not reconcile his two worlds: Ibid., 97–101.

35 learning and teaching every aspect of Marxist thought: Ibid., 101–22.

35 “Music, the Barometer of the Class Struggle”: Harry Hay, Radically Gay, 122–6.

35 what he had to say: David K. Johnson, Lavender Scare, 169–70.

35 Red and lavender, the scares began: Ibid., 15–39.

36 “we had to get started”: Timmons, The Trouble with Harry Hay, 132.

36 what else might be possible: Ibid., 132–5.

36 Bachelors for Wallace: Hay, Radically Gay, 60–77.

37 could not find one person to join him: Timmons, The Trouble with Harry Hay, 136–8.

37 Hay, always thinking:,_1948–1953.

38 a few male cross-dressers: Paisley Currah, Richard M. Juang, and Shannon Price Minter, eds., Transgender Rights, 171.

38 “beyond the melting pot”: Nathan Glazer and Daniel P. Moynihan, Beyond the Melting Pot.

38 Rudi Gernreich: Timmons, The Trouble with Harry Hay, 139–42.

40 the gay movement in America was officially launched: Ibid., 143–4.

40 Dale Jennings: Ibid., 144.

40 Mattachines: Ibid., 150.

41 organized in cells: Ibid.

42 as many as 150 people: Ibid., 154–6.

42 “We’re going to make an issue of this thing”: Ibid., 164–5.

43 a major civil rights initiative: Ibid., 165–6.

43 “Victory!”: Ibid., 167–71.

44 The first issue of ONE magazine: January 1953,

44 they sent a questionnaire: Timmons, The Trouble with Harry Hay, 174.

44 a column about their “strange new pressure group”: John D’Emilio, Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities, 76–77.

45 HUAC was particularly feared in California: Richard A. Schwartz, “How the Film and Television Blacklists Worked,”

45 HUAC was holding hearings: D’Emilio, Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities, 76.

46 the fuss over Welles: Johnson, Lavender Scare, 65–7.

46 “I was fired for disloyalty”: Ibid., 67.

46 behaviors were immoral and their feelings were crazy: Ibid., 112–8.

47 after 1950 the homosexual security threat was a legislative fact: Ibid., 101–16.

47 Executive Order 10450: Ibid., 103.

47 Historian David Johnson estimates: Ibid., 166–9.

48 “boom—right on the corner of Twenty-first and Virginia”: Ibid., 158.

48 called a meeting: Timmons, The Trouble with Harry Hay, 176–7.

48 terms of argument for the gay revolution: D’Emilio, Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities, 78–79.

49 content of their character: Ibid., 79.

49 their greatest contribution: Ibid., 81.

49 disappearance into the heterosexual society: Currah, Juang, and Minter, eds., Transgender Rights, 177.

50 McCarthy who won (again): Timmons, The Trouble with Harry Hay, 177–9.

50 “highest possible public respect”: D’Emilio, Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities, 81.

50 The last thing they wanted: Letter from Kinsey, ibid., 84.

50 a tiny group of San Francisco lesbians: Phyllis Lyon, interview by the author, March 23, 2011.

51 the Mattachine Society couldn’t have chosen a worse time to cave in: “Have You No Sense of Decency,”

52 “You want to do something?”: Lyon, interview by the author.

52 Allen Ginsberg was reciting his poem: D’Emilio, Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities, 177.

53 a young gay man named Cleve Jones: Cleve Jones, interview by the author, February 1, 2010.

53 prosecute the bookstore owner: D’Emilio, Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities, 177–81.

53 Roth v. United States: 354 U.S. 476 (1957).

53 a local judge acquitted Ferlinghetti: California v. Ferlinghetti (1957),

53 ONE Is Not Grateful”: ONE archive.

54 ONE sued the postmaster in Los Angeles, Otto K. Oleson: One, Inc. v. Oleson, 241 F.2d 772 (1957), rev’d., 355 U.S. 371 (1958).

56 ONE did on the issue that followed: ONE archive.

56 Frank Kameny was, he says, innocently taking a piss: Kameny v. Brucker, petition for a writ of certiorari, no. 676, U.S. Supreme Court (1960), Kameny Papers, Library of Congress.

57 they picked on Kameny: Franklin Kameny, interview by the author, September 30, 2009; Eric Marcus, Making Gay History, 81.

57 As a boy: Kameny, interview by the author, July 23, 2010.

58 that homosexuals were no more deserving of persecution: Kameny, interview by the author, September 30, 2009.

58 subversive, and so not eligible for an equal share in the liberal state:

58 Kameny wrote: Kameny v. Brucker.

58 no no no no no no no no, never: Kameny, interview by the author, July 23, 2010.

59 commenced doing everything: Kameny, interviews by the author, September 30, 2009, and July 23, 2010.

59 formed a confederation: D’Emilio, Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities, 161.

59 Kameny helped found a DC chapter of the ACLU: Kameny, interview by the author, September 30, 2009.

Chapter 3

61 the Michigan sky erupted in light: Jim Miller, “Democracy Is in the Streets,” 123.

61 “It was the Sixties that did it”: Franklin Kameny, interview by the author, September 30, 2009.

62 Jim Fouratt: Martin B. Duberman, Stonewall, 59–60; Jim Fouratt, interview by the author, October 24, 2009.

62 Being who you were: Todd Gitlin, The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage, 19–21.

62 the new generation was a crowd: Gitlin, The Sixties, 16–21; Todd Gitlin, interview by the author, December 9, 2009.

63 terminally boring and the terrifyingly terminal: Gitlin, The Sixties, 23; Allen Young, interview by the author, September 1, 2010.

63 Burning books: Young, interview.

63 Gitlin, whose family story: Gitlin, interview.

64 checking her bedroom for Nazis: Gitlin, The Sixties, 25.

64 explosive reports: Hannah Arendt, Eichmann in Jerusalem.

64 Carol Ruth Silver: Carol Ruth Silver, interview by the author, December 2009.

64 Martha Shelley: Martha Shelley, interview by the author, November 28, 2009.

65 Dick Leitsch came to New York: Dick Leitsch, interview by the author, October 26, 2009.

65 HUAC visit to San Francisco: Gitlin, The Sixties, 82–83.

66 They sat down at the lunch counter: Ibid., 81–82.

66 James Pepper, sixteen-year-old homosexual scion: James Pepper, interview by the author, August 21, 2010.

66 a little band of homosexuals sat down at a bar: D’Emilio, Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities, 207–8.

67 Kameny watched the various movement marches: Kameny, interview by the author, September 30, 2009.

67 Rustin was its John the Baptist: D’Emilio, Lost Prophet, 326–58.

68 led ten homosexuals to their places in front of the White House: Ibid., 165.

68 Carl Wittman had had it up to here: “Wittman, Carl,” in, citing “Us and the New Left,” Fag Rag 22/23 (Fall 1978), 1, 22.

68 the eruption of women from the Left: Gitlin, The Sixties, 362–77.

69 psychiatrists had advanced the idea: Ronald Bayer, Homosexuality and American Psychiatry, 15–40.

70 Randy Wicker really did not like most women: Randy Wicker, interview by the author, November 2, 2009.

70 Dick Leitsch thinks: Leitsch, interview.

70 he has never read “Sex and Caste”: Jim Fouratt, interview by the author, August 17, 2010.

70 “A Gay Manifesto”:

71 it certainly aroused lesbian women:

71 Daughters of Bilitis and their newsletter, The Ladder: Marcia M. Gallo, Different Daughters, 159–62.

71 describes Randy Wicker: “Randolfe Wicker,” in

71 Wicker was an everything activist: D’Emilio, Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities, 158–9.

72 Wicker made the connection: Wicker, interview.

72 regime of criminal laws governing people’s sexual practices: Kathleen London, “The History of Birth Control,”; Lawrence A. Friedman, A History of American Law, 444–9.

72 from the illiberal institution of the church: James A. Brundage, Law, Sex and Christian Society in Medieval Europe, 245–8.

72 The roots of the injunctions: Mark D. Jordan, The Invention of Sodomy in Christian Theology, 30–31.

72 Catholic theologian Thomas Aquinas said: Brent Pickett, “Homosexuality,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2011 edition),; Michael Carden, Sodomy: A History of a Christian Biblical Myth, 183–5.

72 with the writings of the ancient pagan Greek philosophers: Ralph McInerny and John O’Callaghan, “Saint Thomas Aquinas,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2010 edition),

72 Aristotle believed: Graham White, “Medieval Theories of Causation,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2009 edition),

73 Presto, sins against nature: George E. Haggerty, Gay Histories and Cultures: An Encyclopedia, 225; “The Law in England, 1290–1885,”

73 obviously has some connection to survival (or is harmless): A. Camperio Ciani, P. Cermelli, and G. Zanzotto, “Sexually Antagonistic Selection in Human Male Homosexuality,” PLoS ONE 3, no. 6 (2008), e2282.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002282.

73 “the Sex Freedom League”: Wicker, interview; David Allyn, Make Love, Not War, 44–47.

73 flying semen: Ibid., 46.

74 “filthy-speech” protest movement: Ibid., 48.

74 Fanny Hill: Memoirs v. Massachusetts, 383 U.S. 413 (1966).

75 Alfred Kinsey reported: Alfred Kinsey and the Institute for Sex Research, Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953).

75 a biologist: Allyn, Make Love, Not War, 33.

75 a nudie-magazine publisher: Ibid., 26–27.

75 middle-aged copywriter: Ibid., 19–21.

76 the Playboy Foundation: Marilyn Haft, interview by the author, November 4, 2009.

77 Connecticut, for example, had a century-old law: Allyn, Make Love, Not War, 37.

77 the legal campaign for consequence-free sex: John W. Johnson, Griswold v. Connecticut: Birth Control and the Constitutional Right of Privacy.

78 people sure don’t want the state: Linda Greenhouse, “The Law: Echo of ’87 Bork Uproar Rings Softly in Abortion Debate,” New York Times, April 28, 1989,

80 New York gay radicals were different in kind: Leitsch, interview; Wicker, interview; Fouratt, interview; D’Emilio, Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities, 158–60.

82 Kameny to give one of their monthly lectures: D’Emilio, Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities, 163.

82 four years of activism: Ibid., 164–75.

82 For the first time the DC circuit court reversed: Ibid., 154–5; Kameny, interview, September 30, 2009.

83 Norton v. Macy: 417 F.2d 1161 (D.C. Cir. 1969).

83 getting the police out of the bathrooms and the bars: Leitsch, interview.

85 Leitsch and his same-sex bar liberators continued to push the envelope: Ibid.

86 Jim Fouratt remembers: Fouratt, interview.

86 movement stalwart Carl Wittman, had a harder time: Liz Highleyman, “Past Out,”; Todd Gitlin, interview by the author, September 8, 2010.

87 Wittman’s sexual commitment: David Mungello, interview by the author, September 7, 2010.

87 a “refugee camp” for “homosexuals” from “Amerika”: Wittman, “Gay Manifesto,”; D’Emilio, Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities, 186–95.

87 Presto, a “newspaper”: Lillian Faderman and Stuart Timmons, Gay L.A., 159.

89 called the 1964 New Year’s ball: D’Emilio, Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities, 195.

90 Wittman’s “Gay Manifesto”: There are copies of Wittman’s Gay Manifesto on the Internet, as noted above, and it is collected in any number of anthologies, including Karla Jay and Allen Young, Out of the Closets, 330–42.

91 the flaws that would ultimately take them down: Mark Newman, The Civil Rights Movement, 125–8; Ruth Rosen, The World Split Open, 82–86.

92 Allen Young, the big-deal journalist: Young, interview.

Chapter 4

95 schedule a meeting: David Carter, Stonewall, 210, 216.

96 one of the first histories: Martin B. Duberman, Stonewall.

96 scathing criticism: Jim Fouratt, interview by the author, October 24, 2009; Randy Wicker, interview by the author, November 2, 2009.

96 what a dump: Carter, Stonewall, 66–88.

97 a bunch of runaway street kids: Ibid., 57–66.

98 From the moment the police entered the bar: The basic factual description of the events of June 28 is from Carter, Stonewall; the Pine quotation is on page 147.

99 a very different movement: Todd Gitlin, The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage, 242–60.

100 “ ‘OK boys, you’ve become men’ ”: Ibid., 252.

100 Stonewall was its child: Fouratt, interview; Carter, Stonewall, 134, 148; “Stonewall Rebellion Discussion,”

101 Every queen in that riot changed: Martin Boyce, “40 Years Across the Table, Stonewall Vets Talk with LGBT Youth,”

102 a ruling from the New York Court of Appeals: Alice Echols, Hot Stuff: Disco and the Remaking of American Culture, 44.

102 the homosexual state of nature: Boyce, “40 Years.”

103 The next night: Carter, Stonewall, 182–94.

104 he wrote a manifesto: Ibid., 195–6.

104 burn down the nearby offices of the Village Voice: Ibid., 201–5.

105 “Some of my best friends are gay”: Lucian Truscott IV, interview by the author, September 16, 2010.

105 The last thing Mattachine president Dick Leitsch wanted: Dick Leitsch, interview by the author, October 26, 2009; Carter, Stonewall, 210.

106 not any lesbian: Martha Shelley, interview by the author, November 28, 2009.

107 John O’Brien had reserved a meeting room at Alternate U: Carter, Stonewall, 217–8.

108 Hoose’s story: Jerry Hoose, interview by the author, October 6, 2010.

108 GLF stalwart Steven Dansky: Steven Dansky, interview by the author, October 8, 2010.

109 both used the word “chills”: Hoose, interview; Dansky, interview.

110 five hundred dollars to the Black Panthers: Carter, Stonewall, 232,; John O’Brien, interview by the author, October 10, 2010.

111 newfound identity: Carter, Stonewall, 232.

112 “Artemis March” (née March Hoffman) went to meetings every night: Artemis March, interview by the author, August 23, 2010.

112 The gay men’s movement was too hot: D’Emilio, Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities, 236–7; Dudley Clendinen and Adam Nagourney, Out for Good, 88–95.

113 The new organization, the Radicalesbians: Ellen Shumsky, “The Radical Lesbian Story: An Evolution of Consciousness,” in Tommi Avicolli Mecca, Smash the Church, Smash the State!, 190–95.

114 no way Arthur Evans was going to make any of those mistakes: Arthur Evans, interview by the author, January 13, 2010.

115 Evans and Bell and the other two critical renegades: Clendinen and Nagourney, Out for Good, 46–51.

116 “You can’t get much more American than that”: Evans, interview.

116 the constitution and bylaws of their new organization:

118 They bought an abandoned firehouse: Clendinen and Nagourney, Out for Good, 76.

118 “existence precedes essence”: Evans, interview.

119 the Snake Pit: Clendinen and Nagourney, Out for Good, 51–56.

119 the indefatigable Marty Robinson: Evans, interview; Tommy Langan-Schmidt, interview by the author, October 13, 2010.

120 the GAA determined to bring lawless disorder to the officials: Evans, interview.

121 right on the museum steps: Clendinen and Nagourney, Out for Good, 52.

122 When the racial movement moved north: Mark Newman, The Civil Rights Movement, 115–6.

122 they were met with mockery and derision: Norman Mailer, “The Prisoner of Sex,” Harper’s, March 1971; Joan Didion, “The Women’s Movement,” New York Times, July 30, 1972,

124 Rodwell, as always, was undeterred: Martin Duberman, Stonewall, 226–7, 270–80.

125 a parade about Stonewall: The details about the planning of the parade are largely from Elizabeth A. Armstrong and Suzanna M. Crage, “Movements and Memory: The Making of the Stonewall Myth.”

126 Just showing up is a political statement: Toby Marotta, The Politics of Homosexuality, 167.

126 both Los Angeles and Chicago: Ellen Ann Andersen, Out of the Closets and into the Courts, 741.

127 As the months before the march passed, Rodwell had: Duberman, Stonewall, 276–80; Michael Lavery, interview by the author, November 11, 2010.

Chapter 5

129 “I march in that parade every year now”: Richard Socarides, interviews by the author, May 27, 2010, June 7, 2010, and June 9, 2010.

130 “Marched in 1970 Parade”: Observation by the author, June 28, 2010.

131 Frank Kameny had had his eye on: Franklin Kameny, interview by the author, September 30, 2009.

131 Feminism battled Freud: Ruth Rosen, The World Split Open, 17–18, 149–50.

131 a band of activists disrupted the San Francisco meeting: Ronald Bayer, Homosexuality and American Psychiatry, 102–3. This first action was in alliance with feminist activists.

131 homosexuals speak for themselves: Ibid., passim.

133 the scene in the Regency Room: “Zapping the Shrinks,”

133 “never needed a microphone to be heard”: Kameny, interview, September 30, 2009.

134 Evelyn Hooker: Eric Marcus, Making Gay History, 3–5, 33–35, 59. I am indebted to Eric Marcus for introducing me to the critical role played by this early nongay ally.

134 He speculated about whether homosexuality: Bayer, Homosexuality and American Psychiatry, 21–28.

135 homosexuality was listed: Ibid., 39.

135 studying its homosexual patients for signs of “cure”: Ibid., 28–38.

135 Robert Spitzer would later admit: Robert Spitzer, interview by the author, December 10, 2009.

135 every weapon in the psychiatric arsenal: J. Bancroft and I. Marks, “Electric Aversion Therapy of Sexual Deviations.”

135 a veritable psychiatric gauntlet: Paisley Currah, Richard M. Juang, and Shannon Price Minter, eds., Transgender Rights, 276–9; Allan Horwitz, Creating Mental Illness, 15.

136 some scientifically defensible diagnoses and provable treatments: Herb Kutchins and Stuart A. Kirk, Making Us Crazy.

136 Szasz and the other “antipsychiatrists”: Bayer, Homosexuality and American Psychiatry, 54–60.

136 gay militants started disrupting: Ibid., 92.

137 going to a psychiatrist was considered collaboration: Ibid., 96.

137 divisions within the profession: Alfred Freedman, interview by the author, November 17, 2009.

137 Robert Spitzer: Spitzer, interview.

138 Gold took Spitzer with him: Bayer, Homosexuality and American Psychiatry, 124–6.

139 “Victory for Homosexuals”: “Doctors Rule Homosexuality Not Abnormal,” New York Times.

139 on December 15, 1999: Freedman, interview.

140 it was the gay challenge that started him down the road of rethinking: Spitzer, interview.

140 DSM III and Spitzer: Alix Spiegel, “The Dictionary of Disorder: How One Man Revolutionized Psychiatry,” The New Yorker, January 3, 2005,

141 Perry decided to die: Troy Perry, interview by the author, April 16, 2010. Unless otherwise indicated, the MCC story is derived from this interview.

142 called Perry: Dennis Altman, The Homosexualization of America, 27.

143 beat him to death: Elizabeth A. Armstrong and Suzanna M. Crage, “Movements and Memory,” 735.

144 During the AIDS epidemic: Troy Perry, interview by the author, April 27, 2010.

147 Michael Lavery was in that temple of reason: Michael Lavery, interview by the author, November 11, 2010.

148 NAACP Legal Defense Fund: Mark Newman, The Civil Rights Movement, 5.

148 The ACLU had played a major role: “Tribute: The Legacy of Ruth Bader Ginsburg and the WRP Staff,”

148 New York judges didn’t think “homosexual”: Ellen Ann Andersen, Out of the Closets and into the Courts, 1–2.

148 the church-inflected world of benevolence and charity: Gareth H. Jones, History of the Law of Charity, 3–4.

149 Lambda was a sorry bunch: Andersen, Out of the Closets, 28–31.

149 Haft was determined to make a name for herself: Marilyn Haft, interview by the author, November 4, 2009.

151 the civil service lifted the prohibition on employment of gay people: George B. Lewis, “Lifting the Ban on Gays in the Civil Service.”

151 California led the way: Lillian Faderman and Stuart Timmons, Gay L.A., 180.

152 struck down the New York sodomy laws: People v. Onofre, 415 N.E. 2d 936 (NY 1980); Patricia A. Cain, Rainbow Rights, 169.

153 was the improbable game changer: Dudley Clendinen and Adam Nagourney, Out for Good, 154–7.

153 Mrs. Feinstein sought out the assistance of the new gay organization: Carol Ruth Silver, interview by the author, December 2009.

154 Jim Foster, head of the SIR political committee, knew: Gary Miller, interview by the author, April 11, 2009.

154 Foster was one of the many socially privileged guys: Clendinen and Nagourney, Out for Good, 161–2.

155 California Democratic Council: California Democratic Council, “About Us,”

155 the Alice B. Toklas Democratic Club held its first meeting: Clendinen and Nagourney, Out for Good, 161–3; Miller, interview.

155 the New York clubs were organized: Mark Townsend, “Democratic Party in Manhattan,”

156 They really didn’t think they needed a parade: Miller, interview; Silver, interview.

156 Foster mobilized: Clendinen and Nagourney, Out for Good, 132–6.

157 Voeller and a handful of other bourgeois professionals abandoned: Ibid., 188–95; Marcus, Making Gay History, 187–8.

157 found them unpalatable allies: Currah, Juang, and Minter, eds., Transgender Rights, 142.

157 the most conventional movement script: Clendinen and Nagourney, Out for Good, 193–5.

158 The Task Force was not clearly destined for survival: Ibid., 196–8.

158 alliance between gay men and lesbian women: Ibid., 261–3.

159 I rolled over in bed: Eric Marcus, interview by the author, November 16, 2011. Costanza presented the meeting to Marcus as just a part of her normal duties as public liaison. When Marcus interviewed O’Leary for Making Gay History she swore him to secrecy about how she proposed the meeting since Costanza was still not publicly out.

159 Homosexuals at the White House: Clendinen and Nagourney, Out for Good, 287–9.

160 the Gay Rights National Lobby was launched: Ibid., 258–60.

161 a gay political action committee (PAC): Ibid., 432–40; Vic Basile, interview by the author, June 3, 2010.

161 the rise of Harvey Milk: Randy Shilts, The Mayor of Castro Street, passim; Shilts did much of the original research on the Milk story; Silver, interview; Cleve Jones, interview by the author, February 1, 2010.

162 fell out of fashion in social movement theory: James Jasper, Passion and Purpose: Action Theory of Social Movements, chapter 1, “After the Big Paradigms: Social Movement Theory Today,”

164 a shift in the story: Probably the most revealing sentence in Randy Shilts’s entire Milk hagiography is the quotation of Milk’s favorite saying: “You’re never given power. You have to take it.” Shilts, The Mayor of Castro Street, 193.

164 the Alice folks were too timid: Ibid., 73–75.

165 President Jimmy Carter’s Internal Revenue Service: Milton Cerny, “Tax Exempt Organizations: It’s Been a Memorable Twenty Years,” McGuireWoods blog,; Robert P. Dugan Jr., Winning the New Civil War, 127–9.

165 Anita Bryant, who started an organization: Clendinen and Nagourney, Out for Good, 291–330; Marcus, Making Gay History, 213–5.

165 The successful fight against the Briggs initiative: Clendinen and Nagourney, Out for Good, 365–9, 377–90; Shilts, The Mayor of Castro Street, 238–50.

166 Milk’s death: Ibid., 267–9, 324–39.

166 They turned their political wrath: Ibid., 340–1.

166 Milk became an icon: Ibid., passim; Rob Epstein, The Times of Harvey Milk (documentary, 1984); Dustin Lance Black, Milk (screenplay).

Chapter 6

169 When Steve Endean arrived in Washington: Dudley Clendinen and Adam Nagourney, Out for Good, 396–8.

169 Williams was mostly in the bag: Ibid., 440.

169 Chicago’s Howard Brown Clinic: “Howard Brown Health Center,”

169 was praying he would not get caught: Taylor Branch, “Closets of Power,” Harper’s, October 1982.

169 activist Cleve Jones: Cleve Jones, interview by the author, February 1, 2010.

170 Human Rights Campaign (HRC) had: Human Rights Campaign, 1996 Report,

170 The president of the United States spoke: “Remarks by President Clinton at Human Rights Campaign Dinner,”

170 (GMHC) was spending $30 million: Donald Suggs, “True Colors,”

170 But Roscoe Browne’s mother had to pay: Robby Browne, interview by the author, November 6, 2010; Barbara Campbell, interview by the author, November 23, 2010; Jennifer Warren and Richard C. Paddock, “Randy Shilts, Chronicler of AIDS Epidemic, Dies,” Los Angeles Times, February 18, 1994; Cleve Jones, interview.

171 “We die/they do nothing”: “ACT UP Action at the FDA and HHS Rally,” DIVA TV documentary 01299 (1988), New York Public Library,

172 the boat dock on the river Styx: Alvin Friedman-Kien, interview by the author, February 12, 2009.

173 At almost exactly the same moment: Randy Shilts, And the Band Played On, 55–56.

173 On June 5, 1981: Ibid., 68.

173 the world’s emergency squad: Ibid., 4.

174 he knew immediately that a crisis was at hand: Don Francis, interview by the author, January 13, 2010.

174 the last issue the conservative Reagan administration: Charles Perrow and Mauro F. Guillén, AIDS Disaster, 50–54.

174 Mayor Ed Koch had little time: Edward I. Koch, interview by the author, December 18, 2009.

174 his job did not include: Shilts, And the Band Played On, 310.

174 National Institutes of Health (NIH), also did as little as it could: Ibid., 93–95; Francis, interview; “Summary of the Workshop on Kaposi’s Sarcoma,”

175 “they were not interested in a disease that affects gay men”: Friedman-Kien, interview.

175 the august Dr. Gallo: John Crewdson, Science Fictions, 39; Shilts, And the Band Played On, 151, 173, 201.

175 Tim Westmoreland was on a routine visit to the CDC: Tim Westmoreland, interview by the author, December 17, 2010.

175 Waxman did what he could: Shilts, And the Band Played On, 143–4.

175 And so it went: Westmoreland, interview; Jennifer Brier, Infectious Ideas, 82–83.

176 Fifteen hundred people died from AIDS in 1983: AIDS deaths cited are from CDC MMWR, “Update: Trends in AIDS Incidence, Deaths, and Prevalence—United States, 1996,”; there is always slippage and recalculation in mortality reports, but the numbers are clearly roughly accurate.

176 Great, Friedman-Kien thought: The story about Friedman-Kien at Kramer’s apartment is endemic to the AIDS literature. This particular version comes from the author’s interview with Friedman-Kien.

177 only thing they were angry about was being told: Shilts, And the Band Played On, 91; Brier, Infectious Ideas, 32–40.

177 Cleve Jones was reported to be: Jones, interview.

177 NO WAY,” they caroled merrily: Michael VerMeulen, “The Gay Plague,” New York, May 31, 1982.

177 When Roscoe Browne told his brother: Robby Browne, interview by the author, November 6, 2010.

178 what would the gay revolution have achieved: Brier, Infectious Ideas, 29, 32.

178 who was on their side: Ibid., 80–81; Perrow and Guillén, AIDS Disaster, 8.

178 professional morality of medicine completely obscured all other considerations: Anthony Fauci, interview by the author, November 22, 2010; Friedman-Kien, interview; Francis, interview.

179 educating interest groups in how to lobby him: Westmoreland, interview.

179 “Most of us still didn’t have a clue”: Steve Endean, Bringing Lesbian and Gay Rights into the Mainstream, 128–9.

179 Lambda did find its docket: Abby Rubenfeld, interview by the author, March 31, 2011.

180 first recognized the magnitude of the peril: Deborah B. Gould, Moving Politics, 92–93; Clendinen and Nagourney, Out for Good, 476–7.

180 make a bedrock change: John-Manuel Andriote, Victory Deferred, 223.

182 He wrote furious hortative essays: “1,112 and Counting” is reproduced from the New York Native, many places, inter alia,

182 the founders of GMHC threw him out: Shilts, And the Band Played On, 275.

182 essentially started all its programs: Ibid., 150.

182 By 1985, GMHC had volunteers: Perrow and Guillén, AIDS Disaster, 107–12; “Joan Tisch: Face to Face with a Living Legend,”

183 money manager Jim Pepper out: James Pepper, interview by the author, August 21, 2010.

184 a “heroic narrative of early AIDS activism”: Gould, Moving Politics, 142.

184 Dr. Francis joined the flood of men: Francis, interview; Marc Conant, interview by the author, January 10, 2010.

185 only San Francisco had the public-private collaboration: Andriote, Victory Deferred, 138.

Chapter 7

187 learned that their life expectancy: The oral histories of ACT UP at the New York Public Library and the San Francisco Main Library,, include many stories that implicitly reveal the link between the discovery of infected status while there was still time for extended activism. Published stories include, for example, “Lone PWA Survivor Remembers,”–9915.aspx.

188 Supreme Court decision radicalized the gay movement: The most extended analysis and treatment of the Bowers effect is Deborah B. Gould, Moving Politics. Although I disagree with her that there was a paucity of political opportunities in 1986, see, infra, at pp. 188–93; clearly, the emotive power of the government’s insult greatly fueled the eruption of militant activism.

188 Thirty-nine-year-old Victor Bender: Patricia Morrisroe, “AIDS: One Man’s Story,” New York, August 19, 1985.

189 FODs (Friends of Dan): Vic Basile, interview by the author, June 3, 2010; Barbara Campbell, interview by the author, November 23, 2010; David Mixner, Stranger Among Friends, 233–4.

189 Larry Kramer’s article of the same name: Gould, Moving Politics, 93–100.

191 talk of possible treatments increased exponentially: Steven Epstein, Impure Science, 187–94.

191 In 1984, someone leaked to congressional staffer Tim Westmoreland: Tim Westmoreland, interview by the author, December 17, 2010.

192 money for research began resembling a meaningful response: Randy Shilts, And the Band Played On, 492–3; Craig A. Rimmerman, Kenneth D. Wald, and Clyde, Wilcox, eds., The Politics of Gay Rights, 232.

192 sent its lobbyists to Lowell Weicker: Basile, interview.

192 elites were divided: Anthony Fauci, interview by the author, November 22, 2010; Jennifer Brier, Infectious Ideas, 89.

192 Old activists stirred to life: Dudley Clendinen and Adam Nagourney, Out for Good, 543; Gould, Moving Politics, 129–30; Avram Finkelstein, interview by the author, January 7, 2011.

193 the Nazi analogy: Gould, Moving Politics, 128, 168–9; Finkelstein, interview.

193 Supreme Court justice Lewis Powell’s gay law clerk: Joyce Murdoch and Deb Price, Courting Justice.

193 Bowers v. Hardwick: 478 U.S. 186 (1986).

194 Bowers was an ugly surprise: Patricia A. Cain, Rainbow Rights, 172–9.

194 The Supreme Court decision triggered street protests: Gould, Moving Politics, 175–6; Cain, Rainbow Rights, 179–81.

195 Lavender Hill Mob traveled to Atlanta: Gould, Moving Politics, 129; Clendinen and Nagourney, Out for Good, 543.

195 Larry Kramer had agreed: Gould, Moving Politics, 131; Clendinen and Nagourney, Out for Good, 547.

195 Kramer told the crowd: Larry Kramer, Reports from the Holocaust, 127–36.

195 booked the room for a meeting every week: “Historical Story of Kramer’s 1987 Speech,” via LGBT Center website,

196 he decided he’d go to the follow-up meeting: Michael Nesline, interview March 24, 2002, by Sarah Schulman, ACT UP Oral History Project, A Program of Mix—The New York Lesbian & Gay Experimental Film Festival.

196 “gay white men realized they did not have the privilege they thought they had”: Ann Northrop, interview by the author, November 17, 2010.

196 White men have contacts: Northrop, interview; Larry Kramer, interview by the author, November 13, 2009.

197 attracts the cameras: Benjamin Shepard and Ronald Hayduk, From ACT UP to the WTO, 89.

197 On March 24, 1987:;

197 ACT UP demonstrators handed out an information sheet:

197 the normally well-behaved HRC demonstrated: Gould, Moving Politics, 153; Basile, interview.

198 Every radical movement, gay or not, that came after: Shepard and Hayduk, From ACT UP to the WTO, 1–9.

198 “ACT UP was the single most important thing the gay population ever achieved”: Kramer, interview.

198 put together some contemporary teaching materials: Shepard and Hayduk, From ACT UP to the WTO, x–xii.

198 How did they do it: Jim Eigo, ACT UP Oral History Project, March 5, 2004; “Mainstream Strategy for AIDS Group,” New York Times, July 22, 1988,

199 “I ran the show just like I used to produce the news”: Northrop, interview.

200 ACT UP artists: Marlene McCarty, interview by the author, November 19, 2010.

200 “It was my life”: Greg Bordowitz, interview, ACT UP Oral History Project, December 17, 2002.

201 Seize control of the FDA:; Michelangelo Signorile, ACT UP Oral History Project, September 20, 2003.

201 the Food and Drug Administration had it coming: Daniel Henninger, “Drug Lag,” in The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics; for a less ideological analysis, see Henry I. Miller, To America’s Health: A Proposal to Reform the Food and Drug Administration, and Adil E. Shamoo, Principles of Research Data Audit.

204 speeding up the process: Brier, Infectious Ideas, 166; Fauci, interview.

205 The St. Patrick’s action: Northrop, interview; Michael Petrelis, ACT UP Oral History Project, April 21, 2003.

206 But the price was high: Petrelis, interview; John-Manuel Andriote, Victory Deferred, 247–8; Gould, Moving Politics, 285–6.

207 Dr. Anthony Fauci looked out: Fauci, interview; “HIV Frontlines: An Interview with Anthony Fauci, M.D.,” The Body,; “The Age of AIDS: Interviews: Larry Kramer,” Frontline (PBS),

208 he must have seemed like a god: Epstein, Impure Science, 286–7.

208 ACT UP was always a provisional alliance: Andriote, Victory Deferred, 250–3; Gould, Moving Politics, 303–20; Epstein, Impure Science, 287–94.

209 conventional movement trap: Andriote, Victory Deferred, 250–3; Gould, Moving Politics, 328–94; Epstein, Impure Science, 287–94.

209 “save the whales”: Gould, Moving Politics, 354.

209 the split between the men and the women: Brier, Infectious Ideas, 179–82; Sarah Schulman, interview by the author, November 19, 2010; Marion Banzhaf, ACT UP Oral History Project, April 18, 2007.

210 the sessions were, to put it mildly, contentious: Epstein, Impure Science, 292.

210 be suspended: Gould, Moving Politics, 366. Gould notes the confusion in the debates, citing the oral history interviews with the various factions.

210 Treatment Action Group: Brier, Infectious Ideas, 183–4; Kramer, interview; Northrop, interview.

211 Cleve Jones had figured this out: Cleve Jones, interview by the author, February 1, 2010.

212 the NAMES Project took the quilt: The Names Project, “History of the Quilt,”

212 One of them was for Roscoe Browne: Robby Browne, interview by the author, November 6, 2010.

214 well over a billion dollars a year on AIDS research: Andriote, Victory Deferred, 256.

215 Cleve Jones got out of his deathbed: Jones, interview.

Chapter 8

217 gorgeous day in Hollywood, California: Details of the evening from the video on file with author.

217 What a way it had been: David B. Mixner, Stranger Among Friends; David B. Mixner, interview by the author, May 21, 2010.

218 start the first gay political action committee: Dudley Clendinen and Adam Nagourney, Out for Good, 356–7.

218 In a stunning debut: Mixner, Stranger Among Friends, 132–3.

218 Human Rights Campaign Fund: Clendinen and Nagourney, Out for Good, 433.

218 Senator Edward Kennedy was the keynote speaker: Ibid., 472.

219 competition within the Democratic Party: Mixner, Stranger Among Friends, 196–200.

219 The flood of money: Ibid., 201; Guide to the Human Rights Campaign Records, 1975–2005, Collection number 7712, Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library,; “The Victory Fund: A Brief History,”

219 lawyers’ organization had an income: Ellen Ann Andersen, Out of the Closets and into the Courts, 45–46.

220 “We can’t do this”: Clendinen and Nagourney, Out for Good, 529; Mixner, Stranger Among Friends, 152.

221 a call from his old friend Bill Clinton: Mixner, Stranger Among Friends, 204; Mixner, interview.

221 Lesbian activists found out: Sue Hyde, interview by the author, February 15, 2011.

221 Some soldiers started asking: Nathaniel Frank, Unfriendly Fire, 17–18.

221 racial civil rights movement: Ronald R. Krebs, Fighting for Rights, 171–5.

221 Massachusetts senator Paul Tsongas: Mixner, Stranger Among Friends, 204–7.

222 When Bill and Hillary Clinton came: Ibid., 210–2.

224 When Mixner went: Ibid., 161.

224 connected to the gay community: Mixner, interview.

224 regulations governing gays in the military would be changed: Mixner, Stranger Among Friends, 4–5.

225 gay organizations had a field day: Frank, Unfriendly Fire, 77–78.

225 Task Force got involved: Hyde, interview.

225 found his voice: Joseph Steffan, interview by the author, February 22, 2011; Frank, Unfriendly Fire, 19–22.

226 Congressman Barney Frank explained: David Morton Rayside, On the Fringe, 237.

227 the three antigay crusaders: Frank, Unfriendly Fire, 28.

228 “your reasoning would have kept you from the mess hall a few decades ago”: Karen DeYoung, Soldier, 230.

229 “change the meaning of who they are”: Frank, Unfriendly Fire, 275–6, quoting Gerald Garvey and John DiIulio in The New Republic, April 1993.

229 roadmap to the social change: Frank, Unfriendly Fire, 78–79.

230 chained himself to the White House fence: Mixner, Stranger Among Friends, 338.

230 a harder target: marriage: Evan Wolfson, interviews by the author, May 10, 2010, and May 12, 2010.

232 goes back to antiquity: Vernon L. Provencal, “The Family in Aristotle,”,

233 renewed agitation for marriage equality: Jonathan Rauch, Gay Marriage, 4; Paula Ettelbrick, “Since When Is Marriage a Path to Liberation?”

233 sue the state: Evan Wolfson, Why Marriage Matters, 29–32.

233 the Hawaii Supreme Court reversed: Baehr v. Lewin, 74 Haw. 530, 852 P.2d 44 (1993), reconsideration and clarification granted in part, 74 Haw. 645, 852 P.2d 74 (1993).

234 “full faith and credit”: U.S. Constitution, Article IV.

234 the 1996 presidential primary season: Frank Rich, “Journal: Bashing to Victory,” New York Times, February 14, 1996.

234 to draft a law:;

235 chaired by . . . Henry Hyde: Hearing before the Subcommittee on the Constitution of the Committee on the Judiciary, H.R., 108th Cong., Second Session, March 30, 2004, Serial No. 70; Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), H.R. Report 104–664 (1996).

236 Socarides says he argued as hard as he could: Richard Socarides, interviews by the author, May 27, June 7, and June 9, 2010.

236 federal study of the impact: Letter from Dayna Shal to Senator Bill Frist,

236 he had a plan: Wolfson, interviews.

236 big winds at his back: George Chauncey, Why Marriage? At nn. 12–14; note 10; Evan Wolfson, “Fighting to Win and Keep the Freedom to Marry,” 259.

237 “the ick factor”: Evan Thomas, “The War over Gay Marriage,” Newsweek, July 7, 2003.

238 people with otherwise conventional desires: Jonathan Rauch, “Families Forged by Illness,” New York Times, June 4, 2006.

238 marriage was a realm of insecurity and inequality: Nancy F. Cott, Public Vows: A History of Marriage and the Nation.

239 the state had long deferred to the church: Ibid., 5–6.

239 converted to Catholicism : Tim Drake, “From the Ark to the Barque: Hadley Arkes Speaks About His Reception into the Catholic Church,” National Catholic Register Daily News, August 24, 2010,

240 doing something extra: Ronald R. Krebs, Fighting for Rights, 4.

Chapter 9

243 Romer v. Evans: 517 U.S. 620 (1996).

244 political efforts at the local level: Craig A. Rimmerman, Kenneth D. Wald, and Clyde Wilcox, eds., The Politics of Gay Rights, 269–87.

245 a perfect example of the process: Jerry Gerash, “Beth Chayim Chadashim Drash,” October 12, 2001,

245 passed an ordinance: Lisa Keen and Suzanne B. Goldberg, Strangers to the Law, 5–6.

246 But there were the queens:

247 Once there was community, politics followed: Pat Steadman, interview by the author, March 14, 2011; Tea Schook, interview by the author, March 21, 2011; Ina Russell, interview by the author, September, 2009; Phil Nash, interview by the author, April 4, 2011.

247 In 1990, Denver policewoman Angela Romero: Keen and Goldberg, Strangers to the Law, 27.

248 Colorado for Family Values: Ibid., 3–4, 7–9; Ellen Ann Andersen, Out of the Closets and into the Courts, 153.

248 Colorado for Family Values proposed: Romer v. Evans.

249 had never succeeded in enacting measures to make life radically worse: Rimmerman, Wald, and Wilcox, eds., The Politics of Gay Rights, 164–5.

249 Pat Steadman was anything but a stranger to the law: Steadman, interview.

249 the coach announced: Jean Hardisty, “Constructing Homophobia.”

250 eight-page broadside: On file with author.

250 having a very bad feeling: Schook, interview; Mary Celeste, interview by the author, May 3, 2011.

251 she had promised to represent them: Steadman, interview; Jean Dubofsky, interview by the author, March 18, 2011.

251 the legal profession’s role in the gay revolution: Dale Carpenter, “How the Law Accepted Gays,” New York Times, April 28, 2011.

253 The lawyers and the lawsuits came in perfect sync: Matt Coles, interview by the author, March 29, 2011.

253 Romer was it: The strategy is set forth in Keen and Goldberg, in Dubofsky, interview, and in Coles, interview.

255 a Supreme Court precedent: Department of Agriculture v. Moreno, 413 U.S. 528 (1973).

256 the Colorado Supreme Court agreed: Evans v. Romer, 854 P.2d 11270 (Colo. 1993).

257 The Colorado Supreme Court: Evans v. Romer, 882 P.2d 1335 (Colo. 1994).

258 Larry Tribe wrote a brief: Reagan Wm. Simpson and Mary R. Vasaly, How to Be a Good Friend to the Court, 67–79.

258 representatives of a whole range of thinking: Philip B. Kurland, “The Supreme Court, 1963 Term: Foreword,” 143; John Hart Ely, “The Wages of Crying Wolf: A Comment on Roe v. Wade,” 920.

260 On October 10, 1995: Romer v. Evans Oral Argument,–1999/1995/1995_94_1039/argument; Dubofsky, interview.

260 something like Dred Scott: Laurence Tribe, interview by the author, April 7, 2011.

262 there was literally “no presence” from the LGBT community: Lisa Turner, interview by the author, April 19, 2011.

264 Task Force started a federation:; transgender,; for the Sylvia Rivera Law Project, see Paisley Currah, Richard M. Juang, and Shannon Price Minter, eds., Transgender Rights, 226.

264 a scared freshman: Tim Gill, e-mail interview by the author, June 29, 2011.

265 Gill and his allies: Joshua Green, “They Won’t Know What Hit Them,” The Atlantic, March 2007.

266 arrested him and another man: Lawrence v. Texas, 539 U.S. 558 (2003); Douglas Martin, “Tyron Garner, 39, Plaintiff in Pivotal Sodomy Case, Dies,” New York Times, September 14, 2006, A recent book heavily contests the facts as recited in the opinion. Dale Carpenter, Flagrant Conduct (New York, W. W. Norton, 2012).

266 not spoiling for a federal fight: Andersen, Out of the Closets, 101–11; Rubenfeld, interview.

267 One of the people waiting was Larry Tribe: Tribe, interview.

269 Matthew Shepard’s short life was ebbing: John Aravosis, Matthew Shepard Online Resources Archive,; Loffreda, Losing Matt Shepard; “New Details Emerge in Matthew Shepard Murder,”; Judy Shepard, The Meaning of Matthew.

270 John Aravosis was sitting at his computer: John Aravosis, interview by the author, June 2, 2010.

271 Kevin Berrill thought he’d heard everything: Kevin Berrill, interview by the author, May 5, 2011.

272 he went to the ADL: The ADL Hate Crimes website is at

275 efforts in the states: Donald P. Haider-Markel, “Lesbian and Gay Politics in the States,” in Rimmerman, Wald, and Wilcox, eds., 204–6; Task Force Timeline,; Task Force history,; Donald P. Haider-Markel, “The Politics of Social Regulatory Policy: State and Federal Hate Crime Policy and Implementation Effort.”

275 The 1995 murder of anatomically female Brandon Teena: Currah, Juang, and Minter, eds., Transgender Rights, 183.

276 it would not pass: Jared Miller, “Opponents Say Existing Statutes Sufficient; State Avoids Hate Crime Legislation,” Star-Tribune (Casper, Wyoming) Capital Bureau, October 11, 2008,–665b–5593-b186-f69a96d32a37.html.

276 seemed to be working perfectly: Dave Cullen, “Quiet Bombshell in Matthew Shepard Trial,”; Loffreda, Losing Matt Shepard, 138–9; Matthew Shepard Online Resources,

279 It was the foundation’s biggest donor: International Court System website,–021510.html.

279 Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr., Hate Crimes Prevention Act: “Obama Signs Hate Crimes Bill into Law,”

279 the usual opponents: Glenn, Yuille, Ouellette, and Combs v. Holder, United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit 10–2273 (6th Cir. 2010); James B. Jacobs and Kimberly Potter, Hate Crimes: Criminal Law and Identity Politics; Andrew Sullivan, “What’s So Bad about Hate,” New York Times Magazine, September 26, 1999.

279 attacked forty-nine-year-old gay Jack Price: “Man Beaten in Apparent Anti-Gay Attack,” Associated Press, October 12, 2009,

280 the play saved more gay lives: Greg Reiner, interview by the author, fall 2010.

280 It was time, Kaufman felt: The Laramie Project DVD: Moises Kaufman Interview,

281 “I’m never getting out of here”: Greg Pierotti, “Laramie Sequel Gives Voice to Shepard’s Killer: Greg Pierotti Interviewed Convicted Killer Aaron McKinney for 10 Hours,” Associated Press,

Chapter 10

283 the April 30, 1997, episode of the sitcom Ellen:

285 They would be the Servicemembers Legal Defense Network: Michelle Benecke, interview by the author, April 14, 2011; Nathaniel Frank, Unfriendly Fire, 179, 182, 190.

287 the press started taking the goings-on seriously: Jennifer Egan, “Uniforms in the Closet: The Shadow Life of a Gay Marine,” New York Times Magazine, June 28, 1998; “Advocacy Group Says Military Rooting Out Gays,” February 26, 1997,–02–26/us/9702_26_gays.military_1_michelle-benecke-homosexuals-servicemembers-legal-defense-network?_s=PM:US; “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell, Don’t Pursue,” a Digital Library Project of the Robert Crown Law Library at Stanford Law School,

288 issued a guideline: “Memorandum for Secretaries of the Military Departments, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Inspector General of the Department of Defense,” March 24, 1997,

288 Not soon enough for Private (FC) Barry Winchell: Frank, Unfriendly Fire, 193–7; Benecke, interview.

289 a bill to repeal DADT: Rick Klein, “Meehan Targeting ‘Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell,’ ” Boston Globe, November 18, 2006,

289 order the state to marry same-sex couples: Goodridge vDept. of Public Health, 798 N.E.2d 941 (Mass. 2003).

290 tried to take control of events: Scott L. Cummings and Douglas NeJaime, “Lawyering for Marriage Equality,” 1235; Kate Spencer, “Same Sex Couples and the Right to Marry—European Perspectives,” 155,; Kees Waaldijk, “Others May Follow: The Introduction of Marriage, Quasi-Marriage, and Semi-Marriage for Same-Sex Couples in European Countries,” 569,

290 Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court chief justice Margaret: Emily Bazelon, “A Bold Stroke,”–2004/feature_bazelon_mayjune.

294 the second year it failed: Frank Phillips, “Legislators Vote to Defeat Same-Sex Marriage Ban,” Boston Globe City and Region Desk, June 14, 2007,

294 part of their wedding vows:

295 must enact a constitutional amendment: George W. Bush, 2004 State of the Union Address,

295 Michael Rogers got pissed: Michael Rogers, interview by the author, June 3, 2010; Jose Antonio Vargas, “Gay Rights Site Runs ‘Outing’ Ad Aimed at the Hill,” Washington Post, July 9, 2004.

295 John Aravosis, had the same reaction: John Aravosis, interview by the author, June 2, 2010.

296 tech-savvy gay guys: Andy Towle, interview by the author, April 16, 2011; Bil Browning, interview by the author, April 9, 2011.

297 Rex Wockner had been the secret information system: Rex Wockner, interview by the author, April 17, 2011, and numerous times thereafter.

297 the OutGiving conference:

297 eQualityGiving: Juan and Ken Ahonen-Jover, interview by the author, July 10, 2011.

298 He dispatched his adviser: Lisa Turner, interview by the author, April 19, 2011.

298 was furious: Paul Yandura, interview by the author, June 3, 2010.

Chapter 11

301 Newsom was going to order his clerk to start issuing marriage licenses: Daniel R. Pinello, America’s Struggle for Same-Sex Marriage, 73–80; Therese Stewart, interview by the author, May 3, 2011; Kate Kendell, interview by the author, April 13, 2011.

302 the agreement to wait: Scott L. Cummings and Douglas NeJaime, “Lawyering for Marriage Equality,” 1269–71.

303 the anti–gay-marriage forces: Ibid., 1293–4;,

303 Schubert Flint Public Affairs: Frank Schubert and Jeff Flint, “Case Studies: Passing Prop 8,” February 1, 2009,–8.thtml.

304 the schoolkids campaign sent the ball clear out of the park: David Fleischer, “What Defeat in California Can Teach Us about Winning Future Ballot Measures on Same-Sex Marriage,” LGBT Mentoring Project, August 3, 2010,–8-report/TheProp8Report.pdf?attachauth=ANoY7coq7hzcTJeGlEjkz-lqlkdlqrGNcQ–5CEG3x7Y0SgVXnvR1ltuDJoaneQcIGQArBXCBtc–8j4jJ0NMxVGthqZqkwLpJBu9lfXvgmHTNqiXkcNBsK3wu5Fv3-Oxz2NPIRx-cTB7eriPZGQcdRzlOUC4kP7ZGq_wAuNBV2GYMO18RhFdPXLncmfoKc6WZ7aBc1fFn-j1qOeiVVz–69KrZoDbZJ1xltA%3D%3D&attredirects=0.

305 the option got less attractive: NELLCO Legal Scholarship Repository, Columbia Public Law and Legal Theory Working Papers, Columbia Law School, March 11, 2010; Olatunde C. Johnson, “The Story of Bob Jones University v. United States.

306 ran to an actual gay political consultant, Los Angeles’s Chad Griffin: Chad Griffin, interview by the author, April 13, 2010, and April 19, 2011.

308 Chad Griffin was in a suite at the posh St. Francis Hotel: Griffin, interview, April 19, 2011.

308 Lesbian community-college teacher Robin McGehee was: Robin McGehee, interview by the author, March 4, 2011.

308 Milk screenwriter Dustin Lance Black was not surprised: Lance Black, interview by the author, April 12, 2010.

308 Evan Wolfson’s first funder, saw: Matt Foreman, interview by the author, April 18, 2011.

309 became instant friends: Rob Reiner, interview by the author, April 14, 2010.

311 claimed they were taken completely by surprise: Chuleenan Svetvilas, “Challenging Prop. 8: The Hidden Story: How Hollywood Activists Seized Control of the Fight for Gay Marriage,”

312 admiring journalists uncovered stories: Ross Todd, “Marriage Brokers: Behind the Scenes of the Odd Couple’s Groundbreaking Litigation,”

312 Smelt v. United States: C.D.Cal. Case No. 8:2009-cv-00286.

312 Gill v. Office of Personnel Management: 699 F.Supp.2d 374 (2010).

313 The picture was all over the Internet:

316 refusing to defend Prop 8: Lambda Legal Newsroom, July 27, 2011, Perry v. Brown (formerly known as Perry v. Schwarzenegger),

316 Pugno Protect Marriage coalition had to move to intervene:

316 “Why not?” he asked: Americans for Equal Rights Trial Transcript,

316 David Boies had his way with the defense’s so-called “expert” witnesses: Stewart, interview.

316 The one witness brave enough to face Boies in the courtroom:

316 keeping the trial from being broadcast to the public: Hollingsworth v. Perry,

317 the American Bar Association awarded Boies and Olson: Rachel M. Zahorsky, “Sometime-Foes Boies and Olson Honored with ABA Medal for Successful Joint Efforts,”

317 Someone sent the brief to blogger John Aravosis: John Aravosis, “Obama Defends DOMA in Federal Court. Says Banning Gay Marriage Is Good for the Federal Budget. Invokes Incest and Marrying Children,” America Blog, June 12, 2009,

318 God had delivered him from homosexuality: “Obama Supporter: ‘God Delivered Me from Homosexuality,’ ” Politicalticker blog, October 29, 2007,

318 given an interview to an official gay publication: Kerry Eleveld, interview by the author, April 15, 2011.

318 evangelical minister Rick Warren to give the invocation: Amy Sullivan, “Inaugural Pastor: The Two Faces of Rick Warren,” Time, January 18, 2009,,8599,1872453,00.html#ixzz1X0JKG.

319 instantly crossed into the mainstream media: Kristina Wong, “Today’s Qs for O’s WH—6/17/2009,” June 17, 2009,; Jonathan Capehart, “For Obama, a Hit and a Miss on Gay Rights,” Washington Post, June 21, 2009,

319 dates his radicalization: Richard Socarides, interviews by the author, May 27, June 2, 7, and 9, 2010.

319 Judge Joseph Tauro, struck down DOMA:–3/.

320 McGehee had had a Cinderella rise: McGehee, interview.

320 Jones figured he had found a natural: Ibid.

320 showed up at the march: “Photo Flash: HAIR at the National Equality March in Washington, D.C.,” Broadway World, October 13, 2009,

321 without a murmur about DADT: Aubrey Sarvis, interview by the author, May 9, 2011.

321 déjà vu all over again: Devin Dwyer, “Maine Votes ‘No’ on Gay Marriage,” ABC News, November 4, 2009,

Chapter 12

323 “I’m gay,” he announced:

323 newly appointed senator, Kirsten Gillibrand: Kirsten Gillibrand, interview by the author, May 10, 2011.

324 organized a demonstration: “Rally for LGBT Equality with President Obama,”

324 The Courage Campaign: Rick Jacobs, interview by the author, April 15, 2010.

324 Choi debuted his signature move:

324 what the protesters could possibly be demanding: “Obama Makes Demonstration a Punchline,”

325 the polls were overwhelmingly in favor of allowing gays to serve: “In U.S., Broad, Steady Support for Openly Gay Service Members,” Gallup, May 10, 2010,

326 wrote a letter to President Obama:

326 says the hearing was the turning point: Aubrey Sarvis, interview by the author, May 9, 2011.

327 but no one paid him any mind: Ambreen Ali, “Why Hunger Strikes Fail: It’s an Extreme Tactic, Yet It’s Also One That Rarely Works,”, June 7, 2010,

328 the movement’s federal-litigation initiative suddenly bore fruit: Log Cabin Republicans v. Gates,; Gill v. OPM, 699 F.Supp.2d 374 (D.Mass., 2010); Perry v. Schwarzenegger,

328 unequaled in the rest of the constitutional scheme: Kelly E. Henriksen, “Note & Comment: Gays, The Military, and Judicial Deference: When the Courts Must Reclaim Equal Protection as Their Area of Expertise,” 1273; Goldman v. Weinberger, 475 U.S. 503.

329 to be citizens within marriage: Emily J. Sack, “The Domestic Relations Exception, Domestic Violence, and Equal Access to Federal Courts.”

329 the lawyer for Log Cabin Republicans: Dan Woods, interview by the author, May 20, 2011.

330 Secretary Gates: Rachel Slajda, “Gates to Congress: Repeal DADT Now,” TPMMuckraker, November 30, 2010,

331 repeal as a stand-alone bill: Carl Hulse, “Senate Repeals Ban against Openly Gay Military Personnel,” New York Times, December 19, 2010,

332 House Majority Leader Steny Hoyer worked the phones: Russell Berman, “Gay-Rights Advocates Say Dem Leader Hoyer Saved ‘Don’t Ask’ Repeal,” The Hill, December 21, 2010,

333 And the military had changed: Sarvis, interview.

334 who chained himself to the White House fence that spring: Brian Montopoli, “Dan Choi, Other Gay Rights Protesters Arrested after Chaining Selves to White House Fence,” CBS News, April 20, 2010,–503544_162–20002942–503544.html.

334 finally lost patience with the military: John Schwartz, “Court Rules against Ban on Gays in the Military,” New York Times, July 7, 2011,

334 well-placed Senate staffer: Anonymous, interview by the author, June 26, 2011.

334 Solmonese went to a liberal fund-raiser: Joe Solmonese, interview by the author, May 2, 2011.

336 legal cupid Mary Bonauto filed the same lawsuit:–223.html.

336 Richard Socarides was watching: Richard Socarides, interview by the author, June 2, 2011.

337 “sabotage out into the open”: Ed Whelan, “Obama’s Dive on DOMA,” National Review, February 23, 2011,

337 recognized exactly what was at stake: Edward Whelan, interview by the author, June 2, 2011.

338 sent a letter to the law firms:–200-Letter-RE-DOMA-Defense.pdf.

338 Paul Clement, now a partner at behemoth firm King & Spalding: Ryan J. Reilly, “Boehner Picks Bush Solicitor General Paul Clement to Defend DOMA,” TPMMuckraker, April 18, 2011,

338 heard from HRC:

338 The blogosphere lit up: Roman, “DOMA-Defending Law Firm Employees Targeted by Online Campaign,” All-Lawyers Info, April 23, 2011,

338 withdrawing from its defense of DOMA: John Aravosis, post on Gay.Americablog, “GetEQUAL Protests Bancroft PLLC over Defense of Bigoted DOMA Law,” April 25, 2011,

339 into Atticus Finch: Editorial, “The Duty of Counsel,” New York Times, April 28, 2011,; Josh Gerstein, “Eric Holder Rejects Attacks on Paul Clement over DOMA Defense,” Politico, April 26, 2011,; Robert Barnes, “Kagan Defends Former Bush Official Who Is Representing House in Same-Sex Marriage Case,” Washington Post, April 29, 2011,

340 Victory in New York: Michael Barbaro, “Behind N.Y. Gay Marriage, an Unlikely Mix of Forces,” New York Times, June 26, 2011,; Evan Wolfson, interview by the author, May 6, 2011.

342 they shared a kiss: Clarknt67, “Live from NY! Jeanette Is Marrying Kawane Today,” Milk Men and Women, Daily Kos, July 24, 2011,!-Jeanette-Is-Marrying-Kawane-Today.


343 there is a lot left to be done: Right after I spoke to Socarides, one of the million institutions Colorado’s Tim Gill sponsors, Movement Advancement Project, issued a “Momentum Report,” an analysis of LGBT equality in the US, which sums it up nicely. The report to Gill’s annual Outgiving Conference was much more blunt than the written report released later. Here’s the presentation: And here’s the link to the Equality Maps:

345 high of almost fifty thousand in 1996: