The Complete Chess Course From Beginning To Winning Chess! (2016)
How to Play the e-pawn Openings
Black sometimes adopts this defense to evade the Giuoco Piano or Evans Gambit. However, the result is a cramped game for him. Therefore this defense is not recommended for Black.
White - Black
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Be7
Black’s last move is the characteristic move of this defense.
Position after 4.d4!
If Black plays 4…exd4 the sequel might be 5.Nxd4 d6 6.0-0 Nf6 7.Nc3 0-0 8.h3 when Black has a cramped position reminiscent of Philidor’s Defense (page 228).
The key move of White’s plan: Black is to be permanently tied up.
White must prevent Black’s only way of seeking freedom - by …f5.
6…Nf6 7.c4 0-0
On 7…Nbd7 8.Nc3 0-0 9.h3 Nc5 10.Bc2 a5 11.Be3 and Black’s position is crowded just as badly as in the text line.
8.h3! c6 9.Nc3 Na6 10.Be3 Nc7 11.0-0 Nfe8 12.Qc2!
White has much the better game. Black’s position is sadly constricted.