Politics in Minutes (2016)

Other eco-movements

Like other political movements, the Green movement contains people who have combined environmentalism with other beliefs. They include eco-socialists, Green anarchists and ecofeminists. Eco-socialism, also known as Green socialism, combines aspects of socialism or Marxism with environmentalism. Adherents argue that the global capitalist system causes not only poverty and social exclusion, but also degrades the environment and is wasteful of resources.

Green or eco-anarchism emphasizes ecology, as well as critiquing hierarchical and state structures. Influenced by the writings of American environmentalist Henry Thoreau and French anarchist Élisée Reclus, eco-anarchists argue that social reorganization must work with nature. Ecofeminism emerged in the 1970s; the term was probably first used by Françoise d’Eaubonne, who started a ‘Ecologie-Feminisme’ movement in France in 1972, declaring that the destruction of the planet was inevitable if power remained in male hands.