Guide to Literary Agents: The Most Trusted Guide to Getting Published (Market) (2015)
Check out agents before you query.
Many people wouldn’t buy a used car without at least checking the odometer, and savvy shoppers would consult the blue books, take a test drive and even ask for a mechanic’s opinion. Much like the savvy car shopper, you want to obtain the best possible agent for your writing, so you should do some research on the business of agents before sending out query letters. Understanding how agents operate will help you find an agent appropriate for your work, as well as alert you about the types of agents to avoid.
Many writers take for granted that any agent who expresses interest in their work is trustworthy. They’ll sign a contract before asking any questions and simply hope everything will turn out all right. We often receive complaints from writers regarding agents after they have lost money or have work bound by contract to an ineffective agent. If writers put the same amount of effort into researching agents as they did writing their manuscripts, they would save themselves unnecessary grief.
The best way to educate yourself is to read all you can about agents and other authors. Organizations such as the Association of Authors’ Representatives (AAR; aar-online.org), the National Writers Union (NWU; nwu.org), American Society of Journalists and Authors (ASJA; asja.org) and Poets & Writers, Inc. (pw.org), all have informational material on finding and working with an agent.
Publishers Weekly (publishersweekly.com) covers publishing news affecting agents and others in the publishing industry. The Publishers Lunch newsletter (publishersmarketplace.com) comes free via e-mail every workday and offers news on agents and editors, job postings, recent book sales and more.
Even the Internet has a wide range of sites where you can learn basic information about preparing for your initial contact, as well as specific details on individual agents. You can also find online forums and listservs, which keep authors connected and allow them to share experiences they’ve had with different editors and agents. Keep in mind, however, that not everything printed on the Web is solid fact; you may come across the site of a writer who is bitter because an agent rejected his manuscript. Your best bet is to use the Internet to supplement your other research.
Once you’ve established what your resources are, it’s time to see which agents meet your criteria. Below are some of the key items to pay attention to when researching agents.
LEVEL OF EXPERIENCE
Through your research, you will discover the need to be wary of some agents. Anybody can go to the neighborhood copy center and order business cards that say “literary agent,” but that title doesn’t mean she can sell your book. She may lack the proper connections with others in the publishing industry, and an agent’s reputation with editors can be a major strength or weakness.
Agents who have been in the business awhile have a large number of contacts and carry the most clout with editors. They know the ins and outs of the industry and are often able to take more calculated risks. However, veteran agents can be too busy to take on new clients or might not have the time to help develop an author. Newer agents, on the other hand, may be hungrier, as well as more open to unpublished writers. They probably have a smaller client list and are able to invest the extra effort to make your book a success.
If it’s a new agent without a track record, be aware that you’re taking more of a risk signing with her than with a more established agent. However, even a new agent should not be new to publishing. Many agents were editors before they were agents, or they worked at an agency as an assistant. This experience is crucial for making contacts in the publishing industry, and learning about rights and contracts. The majority of listings in this book explain how long the agent has been in business, as well as what she did before becoming an agent. You could also ask the agent to name a few editors off the top of her head who she thinks may be interested in your work and why they sprang to mind. Has she sold to them before? Do they publish books in your genre?
If an agent has no contacts in the business, she has no more clout than you do. Without publishing prowess, she’s just an expensive mailing service. Anyone can make photocopies, slide them into an envelope and address them to “Editor.” Unfortunately, without a contact name and a familiar return address on the envelope, or a phone call from a trusted colleague letting an editor know a wonderful submission is on its way, your work will land in the slush pile with all the other submissions that don’t have representation. You can do your own mailings with higher priority than such an agent could.
Agents should be willing to discuss their recent sales with you: how many, what type of books and to what publishers. Keep in mind, though, that some agents consider this information confidential. If an agent does give you a list of recent sales, you can call the publishers’ contracts department to ensure the sale was actually made by that agent. While it’s true that even top agents are not able to sell every book they represent, an inexperienced agent who proposes too many inappropriate submissions will quickly lose her standing with editors.
You can also find out details of recent sales on your own. Nearly all of the listings in this book offer the titles and authors of books with which the agent has worked. Some of them also note to which publishing house the book was sold. Again, you can call the publisher and affirm the sale. If you don’t have the publisher’s information, simply go to your local library or bookstore to see if they carry the book. Consider checking to see if it’s available on websites like Amazon.com, too. You may want to be wary of the agent if her books are nowhere to be found or are only available through the publisher’s website. Distribution is a crucial component to getting published, and you want to make sure the agent has worked with competent publishers.
TYPES OF FEES
Becoming knowledgeable about the different types of fees agents may charge is vital to conducting effective research. Most agents make their living from the commissions they receive after selling their clients’ books, and these are the agents we’ve listed. Be sure to ask about any expenses you don’t understand so you have a clear grasp of what you’re paying for. Described below are some types of fees you may encounter in your research.
Occasionally, an agent will charge for the cost of photocopies, postage and long-distance phone calls made on your behalf. This is acceptable, so long as she keeps an itemized account of the expenses and you’ve agreed on a ceiling cost. The agent should only ask for office expenses after agreeing to represent the writer. These expenses should be discussed up front, and the writer should receive a statement accounting for them. This money is sometimes returned to the author upon sale of the manuscript. Be wary if there is an upfront fee amounting to hundreds of dollars, which is excessive.
Agencies that charge reading fees often do so to cover the cost of additional readers or the time spent reading that could have been spent selling. Agents also claim that charging reading fees cuts down on the number of submissions they receive. This practice can save the agent time and may allow her to consider each manuscript more extensively. Whether such promises are kept depends upon the honesty of the agency. You may pay a fee and never receive a response from the agent, or you may pay someone who never submits your manuscript to publishers.
Officially, the Association of Authors’ Representatives’ (AAR) Canon of Ethics prohibits members from directly or indirectly charging a reading fee, and the Writers Guild of America (WGA) does not allow WGA signatory agencies to charge a reading fee to WGA members, as stated in the WGA’s Artists’ Manager Basic Agreement. A signatory may charge you a fee if you are not a member, but most signatory agencies do not charge a reading fee as an across-the-board policy.
WARNING SIGNS! BEWARE OF…
· Excessive typos or poor grammar in an agent’s correspondence.
· A form letter accepting you as a client and praising generic things about your book that could apply to any book. A good agent doesn’t take on a new client very often, so when she does, it’s a special occasion that warrants a personal note or phone call.
· Unprofessional contracts that ask you for money up front, contain clauses you haven’t discussed or are covered with amateur clip-art or silly borders.
· Rudeness when you inquire about any points you’re unsure of. Don’t employ any business partner who doesn’t treat you with respect.
· Pressure, by way of threats, bullying or bribes. A good agent is not desperate to represent more clients. She invites worthy authors but leaves the final decision up to them.
· Promises of publication. No agent can guarantee you a sale. Not even the top agents sell everything they choose to represent. They can only send your work to the most appropriate places, have it read with priority and negotiate you a better contract if a sale does happen.
· A print-on-demand book contract or any contract offering you no advance. You can sell your own book to an e-publisher any time you wish without an agent’s help. An agent should pursue traditional publishing routes with respectable advances.
· Reading fees from $25–$500 or more. The fee is usually nonrefundable, but sometimes agents agree to refund the money if they take on a writer as a client, or if they sell the writer’s manuscript. Keep in mind, however, that payment of a reading fee does not ensure representation.
· No literary agents who charge reading fees are listed in this book. It’s too risky of an option for writers, plus non-fee-charging agents have a stronger incentive to sell your work. After all, they don’t make a dime until they make a sale. If you find that a literary agent listed in this book charges a reading fee, please contact the editor at email@example.com.
Sometimes a manuscript will interest an agent, but the agent will point out areas requiring further development and offer to critique it for an additional fee. Like reading fees, payment of a critique fee does not ensure representation. When deciding if you will benefit from having someone critique your manuscript, keep in mind that the quality and quantity of comments varies from agent to agent. The critique’s usefulness will depend on the agent’s knowledge of the market. Also be aware that agents who spend a significant portion of their time commenting on manuscripts will have less time to actively market work they already represent.
In other cases, the agent may suggest an editor who understands your subject matter or genre, and has some experience getting manuscripts into shape. Occasionally, if your story is exceptional, or your ideas and credentials are marketable but your writing needs help, you will work with a ghostwriter or co-author who will share a percentage of your commission, or work with you at an agreed-upon cost per hour.
An agent may refer you to editors she knows, or you may choose an editor in your area. Many editors do freelance work and would be happy to help you with your writing project. Of course, before entering into an agreement, make sure you know what you’ll be getting for your money. Ask the editor for writing samples, references or critiques he’s done in the past. Make sure you feel comfortable working with him before you give him your business.
An honest agent will not make any money for referring you to an editor. We strongly advise writers not to use critiquing services offered through an agency. Instead, try hiring a freelance editor or joining a writer’s group until your work is ready to be submitted to agents who don’t charge fees.