Fasting for Life: Medical Proof Fasting Reduces Risk of Heart Disease, Cancer, and Diabetes - Francis E. Umesiri (2016)

NOTES

CHAPTER 1

WHY FASTING MATTERS

1. “Thomas A. Edison Quotes,” GoodReads, accessed September 3, 2015, http://www.goodreads.com/quotes/13639-the-doctor-of-the-future-will-give-no-medication-but.

2. “2014 National Diabetes Statistics Report,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, October 24, 2014, accessed September 8, 2015, http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/data/statistics/2014StatisticsReport.html.

3. “Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs),” World Health Organization, January 2015, accessed September 8, 2015, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs317/en/.

4. “Cancer Facts & Figures 2015,” American Cancer Society, accessed September 8, 2015, http://www.cancer.org/research/cancerfactsstatistics/cancerfactsfigures2015/index.

CHAPTER 2

WHEN LESS IS MORE

1. Mark P. Mattson, “Hormesis Defined,” Ageing Research Reviews 7, no. 1 (January 2008): 1–7, doi:10.1016/j.arr.2007.08.007.

2. Bronwen Martin, Mark P. Mattson, and Stuart Maudsley, “Caloric Restriction and Intermittent Fasting: Two Potential Diets for Successful Brain Aging,” Ageing Results Reviews 5, no. 3 (August 2006): 332–353, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16899414.

3. Mark P. Mattson, “Dietary Factors, Hormesis and Health,” Ageing Results Reviews 7, no. 1 (January 2008): 43–48, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17913594.

4. Mattson, “Hormesis Defined.”

5. Steven A. Schroeder, “We Can Do Better—Improving the Health of the American People,” New England Journal of Medicine 357 (September 20, 2007): 1221–1228, accessed September 14, 2015, http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMsa073350.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid.

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid.

10. “Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults—United States, 2011,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Weekly 61, no. 44 (November 9, 2012): 889–894, accessed September 8, 2015, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6144a2.htm.

11. American Chemical Society, Chemistry in Context (New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009), 65.

12. Daniel L. Smith Jr., Tim R. Nagy, and David B. Allison, “Calorie Restriction: What Recent Results Suggest for the Future of Aging Research,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation 40, no. 5 (May 2010): 440–450, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2362.2010.02276.x.

CHAPTER 3

SCIENTIFICALLY SPEAKING

1. “Fasting Quotes,” All About Fasting, accessed September 8, 2015, www.allaboutfasting.com/fasting-quotes.html.

2. P. Caro et al., “Effect of 40 Percent Restriction of Dietary Amino Acids (Except Methionine) on Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Biogenesis, AIF and SIRT1 in Rat Liver,” Biogerontology 10, no. 5 (October 2009): 579–592, doi:10.1007/s10522-008 -9200-4.

3. Frauke Neff et al., “Rapamycin Extends Murine Lifespan but Has Limited Effects on Aging,” Journal of Clinical Investigation 123, no. 8 (2013): 3272–3291, accessed September 8, 2015, http://www.jci.org/articles/view/67674.

4. R. J. Colman et al., “Caloric Restriction Delays Disease Onset and Mortality in Rhesus Monkeys,” Science 325, no. 5937 (July 10, 2009): 201–204, doi:10.1126/science.1173635.

5. Ibid.

6. Bradley J. Willcox et al., “Caloric Restriction, the Traditional Okinawan Diet, and Healthy Aging,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1114 (2007): 434–455, doi:10.1196 /annals.1396.037.

7. Ibid.

8. R. L. Walford et al., “Physiologic Changes in Humans Subjected to Severe, Selective Calorie Restriction for Two Years in Biosphere 2: Health, Aging, and Toxicological Perspectives,” Journal of Toxicological Sciences 52, 2 Supplement (December 1999): 61–65, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10630592.

9. James Rochon et al., “Design and Conduct of the CALERIE Study: Comprehensive Assessment of the Long-Term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy,” Journals of Gerontology, Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 66A, no. 1 (2011): 97–108, http://biomedgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/66A/1/97.

10. A. V. Witte et al., “Caloric Restriction Improves Memory in Elderly Humans,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106, no. 4 (January 27, 2009): 1255–1260, doi:10.1073/pnas.0808587106.

11. Michael Lefevre et al., “Caloric Restriction Alone and With Exercise Improves CVD Risk in Healthy Non-Obese Individuals,” Atherosclerosis 203, no. 1 (March 2009): 206–213, doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2008.05.036.

12. M. Meydani et al., “The Effect of Caloric Restriction and Glycemic Load on Measures of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Humans: Results from the CALERIE Trial of Human Caloric Restriction,” The Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging 15, no. 6 (June 2011): 456–460, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21623467.

13. L. K. Heilbronn et al., “Effect of 6-Month Calorie Restriction on Biomarkers of Longevity, Metabolic Adaptation, and Oxidative Stress in Overweight Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association 295, no. 13 (April 5, 2006): 1539–1548, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16595757.

14. A. E. Civitarese et al., “Calorie Restriction Increases Muscle Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Healthy Humans,” PLOS Medicine 4, no. 3 (March 2007): e76, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17341128.

15. D. E. Larson-Meyer et al., “Effect of Calorie Restriction With or Without Exercise on Insulin Sensitivity, Beta-Cell Function, Fat Cell Size, and Ectopic Lipid in Overweight Subjects,” Diabetes Care 29, no. 6 (June 2006): 1337–1344, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16732018.

CHAPTER 4

WHY FASTING WORKS

1. “Benjamin Franklin Quotes,” BrainyQuote, accessed September 4, 2015, http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/b/benjaminfr379644.html.

2. S. I. Rattan, “Hormesis in Aging,” Ageing Research Reviews 7, no. 1 (January 2008): 63–78, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17964227.

3. Edward J. Masoro, “Role of Hormesis in Life Extension by Caloric Restriction,” Dose Response 5, no 2 (2007): 163–173, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2477693/.

4. Mattson, “Hormesis Defined.”

5. J. Viña et al., “Mechanism of Free Radical Production in Exhaustive Exercise in Humans and Rats; Role of Xanthine Oxidase and Protection by Allopurinol,” IUBMB Life 49, no. 6 (June 2000): 539–544, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11032249.

6. Ibid.

7. Rattan, “Hormesis in Aging.”

8. Ibid.

9. This claim comes from two studies. The first is Masoro’s “Role of Hormesis in Life Extension by Caloric Restriction” in endnote 3. The other is K. P. Keenan et al., “The Effects of Diet, Overfeeding and Moderate Dietary Restriction on Sprague-Dawley Rat Survival, Disease and Toxicology,” Journal of Nutrition 127, supplement 5 (May 1997): 851S–856S, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9164252.

10. Jana Koubova and Leonard Guarente, “How Does Calorie Restriction Work?” Genes & Development 17 (2003): 313–321, http://genesdev.cshlp.org/content/17/3/313.full.

11. A. Munck, P. M. Guyre, and N. J. Holbrook, “Physiological Functions of Glucocorticoids in Stress and Their Relation to Pharmacological Actions,” Endocrine Reviews 5, no. 1 (Winter 1984): 25–44, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6368214.

12. A. G. Schwartz and L. L. Pashko, “Cancer Prevention With Dehydroepiandrosterone and Non-Androgenic Structural Analogs,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry Supplement 22 (1995): 210–217, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8538200.

13. R. S. Sohal and R. Weindruch, “Oxidative Stress, Caloric Restriction, and Aging,” Science 273, no. 5271 (July 5, 1996): 59–63, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8658196.

14. Borut Poljsak, “Strategies for Reducing or Preventing the Generation of Oxidative Stress,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2011 (2011), http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22191011.

15. B. N. Ames, “Micronutrient Deficiencies. A Major Cause of DNA Damage,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 889 (1999): 87–106, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10668486.

16. Borut Poljsak, Dušan Šuput, and Irina Milisav, “Achieving the Balance Between ROS and Antioxidants: When to Use the Synthetic Antioxidants,” Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2013 (2013): 956792, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3657405/.

17. Poljsak, “Strategies for Reducing or Preventing the Generation of Oxidative Stress.”

18. Ibid.; Poljsak, Šuput, and Milisav “Achieving the Balance Between ROS and Antioxidants: When to Use the Synthetic Antioxidants.”

19. Poljsak, “Strategies for Reducing or Preventing the Generation of Oxidative Stress.”

20. X. Qiu et al., “Calorie Restriction Reduces Oxidative Stress by SIRT3-Mediated SOD2 Activation,” Cell Metabolism 12, no. 6 (December 2010): 662–667, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21109198.

21. Mattson, “Hormesis Defined.”

22. Poljsak, “Strategies for Reducing or Preventing the Generation of Oxidative Stress.”

CHAPTER 5

PREVENTING DIABETES

1. Don Colbert, Reversing Diabetes (Lake Mary, FL: Siloam, 2012), 2.

2. These figures come from the Radiological Society of North America, “Restricted Calorie Diet Improves Heart Function in Obese Patients With Diabetes,” November 28, 2011, accessed September 8, 2015, http://www2.rsna.org/timssnet/media/pressreleases/pr_target.cfm?id=560; S. Hammar et al., “Prolonged Caloric Restriction in Obese Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Decreases Myocardial Triglyceride Content and Improves Myocardial Function,” Journal of American College of Cardiology 52, no. 12 (September 16, 2008): 1006–1012, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18786482.

3. “National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2014,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, accessed September 7, 2015, http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/statsreport14/national-diabetes-report-web.pdf.

4. Larson-Meyer et al., “Effect of Calorie Restriction With or Without Exercise on Insulin Sensitivity, Beta-Cell Function, Fat Cell Size, and Ectopic Lipid in Overweight Subjects.”

5. S. Polovina and D. Micić, “The Influence of Diet With Reduction in Calorie Intake on Metabolic Syndrome Parameters in Obese Subjects With Impaired Glucose Tolerance,” Medicinski Pregled 63, no. 7–8 (July–August 2010): 465–469, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21446131.

6. Ibid.

7. M. A. Lane, D. K. Ingram, and G. S. Roth, “Calorie Restriction in Nonhuman Primates: Effects on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease Risk,” Journal of Toxicological Sciences 52, 2 supplement (December 1999): 41–48, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10630589.

8. A. R. Barnosky et al., “Intermittent Fasting vs Daily Calorie Restriction for Type 2 Diabetes Prevention: A Review of Human Findings,” Translational Research 164, no. 4 (October 2014): 302–311, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24993615.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid.

11. J. Merino et al., “Body Weight Loss by Very-Low -Calorie Diet Program Improves Small Artery Reactive Hyperemia in Severely Obese Patients,” Obesity Surgery 23, no. 1 (January 2013): 17–23, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22918551; “UK Prospective Diabetes Study 7: Response of Fasting Plasma Glucose to Diet Therapy in Newly Presenting Type II Diabetic Patients,” UKPDS Group, Metabolism 39, no. 9 (September 1990): 905–912, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2392060.

12. Ibid.

13. “UK Prospective Diabetes Study 7: Response of Fasting Plasma Glucose to Diet Therapy in Newly Presenting Type II Diabetic Patients,” UKPDS Group.

14. Ilaria Malandrucco et al., “Very-Low-Calorie Diet: A Quick Therapeutic Tool to Improve β Cell Function in Morbidly Obese Patients With Type 2 Diabetes,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 95, no. 3 (March 2012): 609–613, http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/95/3/609.long#ref-1.

15. Ibid.

CHAPTER 6

REDUCING CANCER RISKS

1. Valter D. Longo and Luigi Fontana, “Calorie Restriction and Cancer Prevention: Metabolic and Molecular Mechanisms,” Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 31, no. 2 (February 2010): 89–98, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2829867/.

2. National Cancer Institute, NCI Fact Sheets, “Cancer Statistics,” accessed September 7, 2015, http://www.cancer.gov/about-cancer/what-is-cancer/statistics.

3. Longo and Fontana, “Calorie Restriction and Cancer Prevention: Metabolic and Molecular Mechanisms.”

4. D. Kritchevsky, “Caloric Restriction and Cancer,” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology (Tokyo) 47, no. 1 (February 2001): 13–19, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11349885.

5. D. Albanes, “Caloric Intake, Body Weight, and Cancer: A Review,” Nutrition and Cancer 9, no. 4 (1987): 199–217, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3299283.

6. Ibid.

7. Colman et al., “Caloric Restriction Delays Disease Onset and Mortality in Rhesus Monkeys.”

8. Fernando M. Safdie et al., “Fasting and Cancer Treatment in Humans: A Case Series Report,” Aging (Albany NY) 1, no. 12 (December 2009): 988–1007, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2815756/.

9. J. W. Lee et al., “Protein Kinase A-Alpha Directly Phosphorylates FoxO1 in Vascular Endothelial Cells to Regulate Expression of Vascular Cellular Adhesion Molecule-1 mRNA,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry 286, no. 8 (February 25, 2011): 6423–6432, doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.180661.

10. C. W. Cheng et al., “Prolonged Fasting Reduces IGF-1/ PKA to Promote Hematopoietic-Stem-Cell-Based Regeneration and Reverse Immunosuppression,” Cell Stem Cell 14, no. 6 (June 5, 2014): 810–823, doi:10.1016/j.stem.2014.04.014.

11. Lee Changhan et al., “Fasting Cycles Retard Growth of Tumors and Sensitize a Range of Cancer Cell Types to Chemotherapy,” Science Translation Medicine 4, no. 124 (March 7, 2012): 124ra27, doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3003293.

12. Ibid.

13. Olga P. Rogozina et al., “Effect of Chronic and Intermittent Calorie Restriction on Serum Adiponectin and Leptin and Mammary Tumorigenesis,” Cancer Prevention Research (Philadelphia) 4, no. 4 (April 2011): 568–581, doi:10.1158/1940-6207 .CAPR-10-0140.

14. C. Galet et al., “Effects of Calorie Restriction and IGF-1 Receptor Blockade on the Progression of 22Rv1 Prostate Cancer Xenografts,” International Journal of Molecular Sciences 14, no. 7 (July 3, 2013): 13782–95, doi:10.3390/ijms140713782.

CHAPTER 7

CARE FOR YOUR HEART

1. “Abraham Lincoln Quotes,” Brainy Quote, http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/a/abrahamlin137180.html.

2. Colman et al., “Caloric Restriction Delays Disease Onset and Mortality in Rhesus Monkeys.”

3. J. A. Mattison et al., “Impact of Caloric Restriction on Health and Survival in Rhesus Monkeys From the NIA Study,” Nature 489, no. 7415 (September 13, 2012): 318–321, doi:10.1038 /nature11432.

4. Lefevre et al., “Caloric Restriction Alone and With Exercise Improves CVD Risk in Healthy Non-Obese Individuals.”

5. “What Is Atherosclerosis?”, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, accessed November 10, 2015, http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/atherosclerosis.

6. “What Is Atherosclerosis?”, WebMD, accessed November 10, 2015, http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/what-is-atherosclerosis.

7. “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—At-a-Glance,” The American Heart Association and the American Stroke Association, 2015, http://www.heart.org/idc/groups/ahamah-public/@wcm/@sop/@smd/documents/downloadable/ucm_470704.pdf.

8. “What Is Atherosclerosis?” National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and WebMD,

9. C. W. Bales and W. E. Kraus, “Caloric Restriction: Implications for Human Cardiometabolic Health,” Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention 33, no. 4 (2013): 201–208, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23748374.

CHAPTER 8

BOOST YOUR BRAIN

1. “Quote by Plato,” Quotery.com, accessed September 8, 2015, http://www.quotery.com/quotes/i-fast-for-greater-physical-and-mental-efficiency/.

2. Mark Mattson, “Why Fasting Bolsters Brain Power,” TEDx Talk, 2014, accessed September 7, 2015, http://tedxtalks.ted.com/video/Why-Fasting-Bolsters-Brain-Powe.

3. Marwan A. Maalouf, Jong M. Rho, and Mark P. Mattson, “The Neuroprotective Properties of Calorie Restriction, the Ketogenic Diet, and Ketone Bodies,” Brain Research Reviews 59, no. 2 (2009): 293–315, doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2008.09.002.

4. Devin K. Binder and Helen E. Scharfman, “Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor,” Growth Factors 22, no. 3 (September 2004): 123–131, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2504526/pdf/nihms58796.pdf.

5. Tytus Murphy, Gisele Pereira Dias, and Sandrine Thuret, “Effects of Diet on Brain Plasticity in Animal and Human Studies: Mind the Gap,” Neural Plasticity 2014 (2014): 563160, doi:10.1155/2014/563160.

6. John Gabrieli, “The Brain,” MIT OpenCourseware, accessed September 8, 2015, http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/brain-and-cognitive-sciences/9-00sc-introduction-to-psychology-fall-2011/brain-i/MIT9_00SCF11_lec03_brain1.pdf.

7. N. Mizushima et al., “Autophagy Fights Disease Through Cellular Self-Digestion,” Nature 451, no. 7182 (February 28, 2008): 1069–1075, doi:10.1038/nature06639.

8. Ibid.

9. Public image of a neuron retrieved from John Gabrieli, “The Brain,” MIT, http://ocw.mit.edu/courses/brain-and-cognitive-sciences/9-00sc-introduction-to-psychology-fall-2011/brain-i

/MIT9_00SCF11_lec03_brain1.pdf. Public domain: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms/.

10. Information from Mizushima et al., “Autophagy Fights Disease Through Cellular Self-Digestion”; Jin H. Son et al., “Neuronal Autophagy and Neurodegenerative Diseases,” Experimental & Molecular Medicine 44 (2012): 89–98, doi:10.3858/emm.2012 .44.2.031.

11. Mehrdad Alirezaei et al., “Short-Term Fasting Induces Profound Neuronal Autophagy,” Autophagy 6, no. 6 (August 2010): 702–710, doi:10.4161/auto.6.6.12376.

12. Ibid.

13. Maalouf, Rho, and Mattson, “The Neuroprotective Properties of Calorie Restriction, the Ketogenic Diet, and Ketone Bodies.”

14. Ibid.

15. Information comes from Maalouf, Rho, and Mattson, “The Neuroprotective Properties of Calorie Restriction, the Ketogenic Diet, and Ketone Bodies.” See also A. Lutas and G. Yellen, “The Ketogenic Diet: Metabolic Influences on Brain Excitability and Epilepsy,” Trends in Neurosciences 36, no. 1 (January 2013): 32–40. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2012.11.005.

16. Mark P. Mattson and Tim Magnus, “Aging and Neuronal Vulnerability,” Nature Reviews Neuroscience 7, no. 4 (2006): 278–294, doi:10.1038/nrn1886.

17. Marwan Maalouf et al., “Ketones Inhibit Mitochondrial Production of Reactive Oxygen Species Production Following Glutamate Excitotoxicity by Increasing NADH Oxidation,” Neuroscience 145, no. 1 (March 2, 2007): 256–264, doi:10.1016/j .neuroscience.2006.11.065.

18. Maalouf, Rho, and Mattson, “The Neuroprotective Properties of Calorie Restriction, the Ketogenic Diet, and Ketone Bodies.”

19. “Depression,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, accessed September 6, 2015, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/depression.htm.

20. “Current Depression Among Adults, United States, 2006 and 2008,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, accessed November 2, 2015, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20881934.

21. “Depression,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

22. A. Michalsen et al., “Prolonged Fasting in Patients With Chronic Pain Syndromes Leads to Late Mood-Enhancement Not Related to Weight Loss and Fasting-Induced Leptin Depletion,” Nutritional Neuroscience 9, no. 5–6 (October–December 2006): 195–200, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17263085.

23. Ibid.

24. Guillaume Fond et al., “Fasting in Mood Disorders: Neurobiology and Effectiveness. A Review of the Literature,” Psychiatry Research 209, no. 3 (October 30, 2013): 253–258, doi:10.1016 /j.psychres.2012.12.018.

25. N. I. Teng et al., “Efficacy of Fasting Calorie Restriction on Quality of Life Among Aging Men,” Physiology & Behavior 104, no. 5 (October 24, 2011): 1059–1064, doi:10.1016/j.physbeh .2011.07.007.

26. Yun Li et al., “TrkB Regulates Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Governs Sensitivity to Antidepressive Treatment,” Neuron 59, no. 3 (August 14, 2008): 399–412, doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2008.06.023.

27. Heath D. Schmidt and Ronald S. Duman, “Peripheral BDNF Produces Antidepressant-Like Effects in Cellular and Behavioral Models,” Neuropsychopharmacology 35, no. 12 (November 2010): 2378–2391, doi:10.1038/npp.2010.114.

28. Ibid.

29. Ángela Fontán-Lozano et al., “Molecular Bases of Caloric Restriction Regulation of Neuronal Synaptic Plasticity,” Molecular Neurobiology 38, no. 2 (October 2008): 167–177, doi:10.1007/s12035-008-8040-1.

30. Andrew J. Brown, “Low-Carb Diets, Fasting and Euphoria: Is There a Link between Ketosis and Gamma -Hydroxybutyrate (GHB)?” Medical Hypotheses 68, no. 2 (2007): 268–271,http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17011713.

31. Fond et al., “Fasting in Mood Disorders: Neurobiology and Effectiveness. A Review of the Literature.”

32. D. K. Ingram et al., “Dietary Restriction Benefits Learning and Motor Performance of Aged Mice,” Journals of Gerontology 42, no. 1 (January 1987): 78–81, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3794202.

33. Witte et al., “Caloric Restriction Improves Memory in Elderly Humans.”

34. Ibid.

35. “2015 Alzheimer’s Disease Facts and Figures,” Alzheimer’s Association, accessed November 10, 2015, http://www.alz.org/facts/overview.asp.

36. Ibid.

37. Murphy, Dias, and Thuret, “Effects of Diet on Brain Plasticity in Animal and Human Studies: Mind the Gap.”

38. “2015 Alzheimer’s Disease Facts and Figures,” Alzheimer’s Association

39. Pu Wu et al., “Calorie Restriction Ameliorates Neurodegenerative Phenotypes in Forebrain-Specific Presenilin-1 and Presenilin-2 Double Knockout Mice,” Neurobiology of Aging 29, no. 10 (October 2008): 1502–1511, http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0197458007001376.

40. Murphy, Dias, and Thuret, “Effects of Diet on Brain Plasticity in Animal and Human Studies: Mind the Gap.”

41. M. Kivipelto et al., “Obesity and Vascular Risk Factors at Midlife and the Risk of Dementia and Alzheimer Disease,” Archives of Neurology 62, no. 10 (October 2005): 1556–1560, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16216938.

42. Ibid.

43. Maalouf, Rho, and Mattson, “The Neuroprotective Properties of Calorie Restriction, the Ketogenic Diet, and Ketone Bodies”; Jose A. Luchsinger, Ming-Xing Tang, Steven Shea, and Richard Mayeux, “Caloric Intake and the Risk of Alzheimer Disease,” JAMA Neurology 59, no. 8 (2002):1258–1263, http://archneur.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=782575.

44. “NINDS Stroke Information Page,” National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, accessed September 6, 2015, http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/stroke/stroke.htm.

45. “Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—At-a-Glance,” The American Heart Association and the American Stroke Association.

46. Silvia Manzanero et al., “Calorie Restriction and Stroke,” Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 3 (2011): 8, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3179731/.

47. O. Lindvall et al., “Differential Regulation of mRNAs for Nerve Growth Factor, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, and Neurotrophin 3 in the Adult Rat Brain Following Cerebral Ischemia and Hypoglycemic Coma,” Proceedings for the National Academy of Sciences USA 89, no. 2 (January 15, 1992): 648–652, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC48296/.

CHAPTER 9

HEALTH BENEFITS OF CHRISTIAN FASTING

1. Early Church Fathers, Twitter post, March 6, 2014, 1:30 p.m., accessed September 8, 2015, https://twitter.com/early_church/status/441642012798763008.

2. Richard J. Bloomer et al., “Effect of a 21 Day Daniel Fast on Metabolic and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Men and Women,” Lipids in Health and Disease 9 (2010): 94, doi:10.1186/1476-511X-9-94.

3. Ibid.

4. Richard J. Bloomer et al., “A 21 Day Daniel Fast Improves Selected Biomarkers of Antioxidant Status and Oxidative Stress in Men and Women,” Nutrition & Metabolism 8 (2011): 17, doi:10.1186/1743-7075-8-17.

5. “Good vs. Bad Cholesterol,” American Heart Association, January 12, 2015, accessed September 6, 2015, http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/AboutCholesterol/Good-vs-Bad-Cholesterol_UCM_305561_Article.jsp.

6. Rick J. Alleman et al., “Both a Traditional and Modified Daniel Fast Improve the Cardio-Metabolic Profile in Men and Women,” Lipids in Health and Disease 12 (2013): 114, doi:10.1186/1476-511X-12-114.

7. John F. Trepanowski and Richard J. Bloomer, “The Impact of Religious Fasting on Human Health,” Nutrition Journal 9 (2010): 57, doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-57.

CHAPTER 10

FASTING FOR TOTAL WELL-BEING

1. D. A. Williamson et al., “Is Caloric Restriction Associated With Development of Eating-Disorder Symptoms? Results from the CALERIE trial,” Health Psychology 27, 1 Supplement (January 2008): S32–42, doi:10.1037/0278-6133.27.1.S32.

2. Ibid.

CHAPTER 11

DIFFERENT PLANS

1. “22 Ole Hallesby Quotes,” Christian Quotes, accessed September 6, 2015, http://www.christianquotes.info/quotes-by-author/ole-hallesby-quotes/.

2. “Andrew Bonar on Fasting,” Christian Quotes, accessed September 6, 2015, http://christian-quotes.ochristian.com/christian-quotes_ochristian.cgi?find=Christian-quotes-by-Andrew+Bonar-on-Fasting.

CHAPTER 12

FASTING FOR LIFE

1. Thomas Ryan, The Sacred Art of Fasting: Preparing to Practice (Woodstock, VT: Skylight Paths Publishing, 2006), 163–164.

2. “William Feather Quotes,” BrainyQuote, accessed September 6, 2015, http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/w/william_feather.html.

3. Eugene H. Peterson, The Pastor: A Memoir (San Francisco: Harper One, 2010), 240.

CHAPTER 13

FASTING AND SPIRITUAL RENEWAL

1. “Fasting Quotes: Early Church Fathers,” Fasting for God, August 2, 2011, accessed September 6, 2015, http://fastingforgod.org/?tag=st-augustine.

2. “Wesley L. Duewel Quotes,” ChristianQuotes.com, accessed September 6, 2015, http://christian-quotes.ochristian.com/Wesley-L.-Duewel-Quotes/.

3. Denise Levertov, “Overland to the Islands,” 1958, popularized by Eugene Peterson’s The Pastor: A Memoir.

CHAPTER 16

PRAYING THE SCRIPTURES

1. Bill Thrasher, A Journey to Victorious Praying (Chicago: Moody Publishers, 2003), 143.

2. Carl Rogers, On Becoming a Person: A Therapist’s View of Psychotherapy, quoted at GoodReads, “Carl Rogers Quotes,” accessed September 6, 2015, http://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/102062.Carl_R_Rogers.

CHAPTER 17

FASTING AND FORGIVENESS

1. Deacon Keith Fournier, “St. Peter Chrysologus: Prayer Knocks, Fasting Obtains, Mercy Receives,” accessed September 6, 2015, http://www.beliefnet.com/columnists/bread_on_the_trail/2011/03/st-peter-chrysologus-prayer-knocks-fasting-obtains-mercy-receives.html.

2. “Divorce Rates by State: 1990, 1995, and 1999–2011, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, accessed September 6, 2015, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/dvs/divorce_rates_90_95_99-11.pdf.

3. Jennifer Glass, “Red States, Blue States, and Divorce: Understanding the Impact of Conservative Protestantism on Regional Variation in Divorce Rates,” American Journal of Sociology, 119, no. 4 (January 2014):1002-1046, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25032268.

4. “William Blake Quotes,” BrainyQuote, accessed September 6, 2015, http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/w/williambla101447.html.

5. “Lewis B. Smedes Quotes,” BrainyQuote, accessed September 6, 2015, http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/l/lewisbsme135524.html.

CHAPTER 18

PRAYER WALKS

1. As quoted in “Health Epigrams,” Young Men, 41, no. 1 (October 1915), 4.

2. “Friedrich Nietzsche Quotes,” BrainyQuote, accessed September 7, 2015, http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/quotes/f/friedrichn162010.html.

3. “The Benefits of Walking,” American Heart Association, accessed September 7, 2015, http://www.startwalkingnow.org/whystart_benefits_walking.jsp.

4. Richard Weil, “Walking,” MedicineNet.com, April 17, 2015, accessed September 7, 2015, http://www.medicinenet.com/walking/article.htm#what_are_the_top_10_reasons_to_walk; Javed Butler, “Primary Prevention of Heart Failure,” ISRN Cardiology 2012 (2012), doi:10.5402/2012/982417.

5. National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse, “Diabetes Prevention Program,” National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, October 2008, accessed September 7, 2015, http://www.niddk.nih.gov/about-niddk/research-areas/diabetes/diabetes-prevention-program-dpp/Pages/default.aspx; W. C. Knowler et al., “Reduction in the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes With Lifestyle Intervention or Metformin,” New England Journal of Medicine 346, no. 6 (February 7, 2002): 393–403, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11832527.

6. Ibid.

7. Weil, “Walking”; Butler, “Primary Prevention of Heart Failure.”

8. Weil, “Walking.”