When Science Goes Wrong: Twelve Tales From the Dark Side of Discovery - Simon LeVay (2008)


Chapter 1


Raymon Durso, MD, July 5, 2000.

Rebecca Folkerth, MD, July 5, 2000.

Robert Iacono, MD, July 20, 2000.

Don L Truex, DDS, September 2, 2005.

Mary Katherine (Kay) Truex De Justo, September 8, 2005. James Slosson, 2005.

Scientific Publications:

RP Iacono, ZS Tang, JC Mazziotta, et al. (1992). ‘Bilateral fetal grafts for Parkinson’s disease: 22 months’ results.’ Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery, 58:84-87.

RD Folkerth and R Durso (1996). ‘Survival and proliferation of nonneuronal tissues, with obstruction of cerebral ventricles, in a parkinsonian patient treated with fetal allografts.’ Neurology, 46:1219-1225.

JH Kordower, TB Freeman, RAE Bakay, et al. (1997). ‘Treatment with fetal allografts.’ Neurology, 48:1737-1738.

News Accounts:

J Perrone (1992): ‘Researchers circumvent fetal tissue transplant funding ban.’ American Medical News, June 8.

TH Maugh, II (2007): ‘Robert Iacono, 55: Surgeon performed radical procedure on Parkinson’s patients.’ Los Angeles Times, June 23.


Division of Medical Quality, Medical Board of California: Decision and Order in the Matter of the Accusation against Robert Paul Iacono, MD September 12, 2005.

Chapter 2


Michael Fish, August 7, 2006

Bill Giles, August 14, 2006

Anita Hart, August 16, 2006

Thomas Jung, PhD, August 7, 2006 Ewen McCallum, MSc, August 17, 2006


Mark Davison and Ian Currie (1988). Surrey in the Hurricane. Froglets Publications.

Scientific Publications:

SD Burt and DA Mansfield (1988). ‘The great storm of 15-16    October 1987.’ Weather (Royal Meteorological Society) 43:90-114.

HD Lawes (1988). ‘The storm of 15-16 October 1987: A personal experience.’ Weather (Royal Meteorological Society) 43:142.

Meteorological Office (1988). ‘Report on the storm of 15/16 October 1987.’ Meteorological Magazine 117:97-140.

P Swinnerton-Dyer and RP Pearce (1988). ‘Summary and conclusions from the Secretary of State’s enquiry into the storm of 16 October 1987.’ Meteorological Magazine 117:141-144.

RM Morris and AJ Gadd (1998). ‘Forecasting the storm of 15-16 October 1987.’ Weather (Royal Meteorological Society) 43:70-90.

T Jung, E Klinker, and S Uppala (2004). ‘Reanalysis and reforecast of three major European storms using the ECMWF forecasting system. Part I: Analyses and deterministic forecasts.’ Meteorological Applications 11:243-261.

T Jung, E Klinker; and S Uppala (2005). ‘Reanalysis and reforecast of three major European storms using the ECMWF forecasting system. Part II: Ensemble forecasts.’ Meteorological Applications 12:111-122.


Met Office: The great storm of 1987 (includes animation of the storm crossing the UK). Available at: www.met-office.gov.uk/


BBC Weather: Michael Fish and the 1987 storm. Available at: www.bbc.co.uk/weather/bbcweather/forecasters/michael_fish_1987storm.shtml.

BBC Weather: Michael Fish MBE – The end of an era. (Includes video clip from Fish’s forecast of October 15, 1987). Available at:  www.bbc.co.uk/weather/bbcweather/forecasters/


University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign: Online Meteorology Guide. Available at: ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/


Worcester Heating Systems: Weathermen predict a warm front for Worcester. Available at: http://www.worcester-bosch.co.uk/


Chapter 3


Bernard Chouet, May 23, 2006.

Charles Wood, May 12, 2006.


Victoria Bruce (2001). No Apparent Danger: The True Story of Volcanic Disaster at Galeras and Nevado del Ruiz. HarperCollins.

Stanley Williams (2001). Surviving Galeras. Houghton Mifflin.

Scientific Publications:

J Stix, ML Calvache and SN Williams (eds.) (1997). ‘Galeras Volcano, Colombia: Interdisciplinary study of a Decade Volcano.’ Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 77:1-338.

H Sigurdsson (2001). ‘Volcanology: Not a “piece of cake”.’ Science 292:643-644.

News account:

R Monasterskey (2001). ‘Under the volcano: Deaths rattle one of the riskiest disciplines in science.’ Chronicle of Higher Education, March 30. Available at: www.chronicle.com/free/v47/i29/29a01801


International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (1994). Recommended safety measures for volcanologists. Available at: http://www.iavcei.org/documents/


Chapter 4


Colin Blakemore, PhD, June 19, 2006.

Rick Doblin, PhD, June 14/15, 2006.

Charles Grob, MD, June 16, 2006.

George Ricaurte, MD, PhD, July 26, 2006.

Scientific Publications:

UD McCann, Z Szabo, et al. (1998). ‘Positron emission tomographic evidence of toxic effect of MDMA (“Ecstasy”) on brain serotonin neurons in human beings.’ Lancet 352:1433-7.

CS Grob (2000). ‘Deconstructing Ecstasy: The politics of MDMA research.’ Addiction Research 8:549-588.

GA Ricaurte, J Yuan, et al. (2002). ‘Severe dopaminergic neurotoxicity in primates after a common recreational dose regimen of MDMA (“ecstasy”).’ Science 297:2260-3.

GA Ricaurte, J Yuan, et al. (2002). Response. Science 300:1504-1505.

GA Ricaurte, J Yuan, et al. (2003). Retraction. Science 301:1479.

M Mithoefer, L Jerome, and R Doblin (2003). Letter: MDMA (“Ecstasy”) and neurotoxicity. Science 300:1504-1505.

UD McCann, Z Szabo, et al. (2005). ‘Quantitative PET studies of the serotonin transporter in MDMA users and controls using [11C]McN5652 and [11C]DASB.’ Neuropsychopharmacology 30:1741-50.

GA Ricaurte, AO Mechan, et al. (2005). ‘Amphetamine treatment similar to that used in the treatment of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder damages dopaminergic nerve endings in the striatum of adult nonhuman primates.’ Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 315:91-8.

R Buchert, R Thomasius, et al. (2006). ‘Reversibility of ecstasy-induced reduction in serotonin transporter availability in polydrug ecstasy users.’ European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 33:188-99.

News Accounts:

DG McNeil, Jr (2003). ‘Research on Ecstasy Is Clouded by Errors.’ New York Times, December 2.

R Walgate (2002). ‘Independent inquiry demanded into Ecstasy affair.’ The Scientist, September 18.

R. Highfield (2002). ‘Ecstasy Use “May Lead to Parkinson’s-type Illness.”’ The Daily Telegraph, September 27.


Charles Grob: Testimony before the US Sentencing Commission on MDMA. Available at: www.maps.org/news/grobtestimony.html.

Congressional Record, June 18, 2002: Reducing Americans’ Vulnerability to Ecstasy Act of 2002. Available at: frwebgate.access


Drug Enforcement Agency (2002). Statement of Asa Hutchinson before the House Judiciary Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism and Homeland Security. Available at: www.usdoj.gov/


National Institute on Drug Abuse: Director’s Report to the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse – February 2003. Available at: www.drugabuse.gov/DirReports/DirRep203/Director


Emergency Department Trends from the Drug Abuse Warning Network, 1994-2001. Available at: www.oas.samhsa.gov/DAWN/


CNN Student News (2000). Famous fried eggs: Students debate effectiveness, accuracy of well-known anti-drug commercial. Available at: www.cnnstudentnews.cnn.com/fyi/interactive/news


Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (2004). NIDA and NCRR funding for Ricaurte and McCann 1989-2003. Available at: www.maps.org/mdma/ricaurtefunding.pdf.

Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (undated). NIDA Grant Progress Report, George A Ricaurte, Principal Investigator, July 17, 2003, (obtained by an FOIA request). Available at: adgjm.net/ura/ua.cgi?ul=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.maps


Chapter 5


Jack Green, PhD, March 1, 2006.


Charles F Outland (1963, revised 2002). Man-Made Disaster: The Story of St Francis Dam. Historical Society of Southern California and Vroman’s Bookstore.

Doyce B Nunis., ed. (2002). The St Francis Dam Disaster Revisited. Historical Society of Southern California and Vroman’s Bookstore.

Scientific Publications:

JD Rogers (2002). ‘A man, a dam, and a disaster: Mulholland and the St Francis Dam.’ In Nunis (see page 278), pp 1-109.


AJ Wiley, GD Louderback, FL Ransome, et al. (1928). Report of the Commission Appointed by Governor CC Young to Investigate the Causes Leading to the Failure of the St Francis Dam near Saugus, California. State of California.

JD Rogers. Failure of the St Francis Dam. Available at: http://


Jack Green. St Francis Dam. Available at: http://seis.natsci.csulb


Goutal, N. The Malpasset Dam failure: An overview and test case definition. Available at: www.hrwallingford.co.uk/projects/


Chapter 6


Arthur Caplan, PhD, November 24, 2006.

Paul Gelsinger, November 27, 2006 (and subsequent email correspondence).

Robert Erickson, MD, December 6, 2006.

Inder Verma, PhD, December 4, 2006.

Scientific Publications:

X Ye, MB Robinson, ML Batshaw, et al. (1996). Prolonged metabolic correction in adult ornithine transcarbamylase-deficient mice with adenoviral vectors. Journal of Biological Chemistry 271:3639-46.

National Institutes of Health Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (2002). Assessment of adenoviral vector safety and toxicity. Human Gene Therapy 13:3-13.

DA Sisti and AL Caplan (2003). Back to basics: Gene therapy research ethics and oversight in the post-Gelsinger era. In Ethik und Gentherapie: Zum praktischen Diskurs um die molekulare Medizin (C Rehmann-Sutter and H Müller eds.), Francke Verlag.

G Suntharalingam, MR Perry, S Ward, et al. (2006). Cytokine storm in a phase-1 trial of the anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody TGN1412. New England Journal of Medicine 355:1018-1028.

News Accounts:

SG Stolberg (1999). ‘The Biotech Death of Jesse Gelsinger.’ New York Times (November 28).

SG Stolberg (1999). ‘FDA Officials Fault Penn Team in Gene Therapy Death.” New York Times (December 9).

D Nelson and R Weiss (1999). ‘Hasty Decisions in the Race to a Cure? Gene Therapy Study Proceeded Despite Safety, Ethics Concerns.” Washington Post (November 21).

E Marshall (2000). ‘Gene Therapy on Trial.’ Science 288:951-957.

D Sanderson (2006). ‘I Was Treated No Better Than An Animal, Says Drug victim.’ The Times (March 31).

D Leppard (2006). ‘Elephant Man Drug Victims Told To Expect Early Death.’ The Sunday Times (July 30).

E Rosenthal (2006). ‘Ill-fated UK Drug Trial Bares Testing Loop Holes.’ International Herald Tribune (July 30).


FDA: Letter to James Wilson dated March 3, 2000: http://www.fda.gov/foi/warning_letters/archive/m3435n.pdf.

FDA: Letter to James Wilson dated February 8, 2002: www.fda.gov/foi/nooh/Wilson.htm.

FDA: Letter to Mark Batshaw dated November 30, 2000: www.fda.gov/foi/nidpoe/n14l.pdf.

Institute for Human Gene Therapy (2000): Institute for Human Gene Therapy Responds to FDA (press release, February 14). www.upenn.edu/almanac/between/FDAresponse.html.

United States Attorney’s Office, Eastern District of Pennsylvania (2006). US settles case of gene therapy study that ended with teen’s death (press release, February 9). Available at: http://www.upenn.


P Gelsinger (2001). Jesse’s intent. www.circare.org/jintent.pdf.

Independent panel reviewing the University of Pennsylvania’s Institute for Human Gene Therapy (2000). Report. Available at: www.upenn.edu/almanac/v46/n34/IHGT-review.html.

JM Wilson (1999). Presidential address, American Society of Gene Therapy. web.archive.org/web/20001210180800/www.med.


Chapter 7


Stephen Hanauer, 2005 (date unknown).


William McKeown (2003). Idaho Falls: The Untold Story of America’s First Nuclear Accident. ECW Press.

Susan M Stacy (2000). Proving the Principle: A History of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, 1949-1999. US Government Printing Office.


Arlington National Cemetery Web site: Richard Leroy McKinley. www.arlingtoncemetery.net/rlmckinl.htm.

US Atomic Energy Commission, Idaho Operations Office. The SL-1 Accident. Distributed by Radiationworks.com (documentary film).

Chapter 8


Ken Alibek, April 13, 2006.

Jeanne Guillemin, April 2006 (email correspondence).

Peter Gumbel, April/May 2006 (email correspondence).

Matthew Meselson, April 17, 2006.


Ken Alibek (1999). Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World – Told from the Inside by the Man Who Ran It. Random House.

Jeanne Guillemin (1999). Anthrax: The Investigation of a Deadly Outbreak. University of California Press.

Tom Mangold and Jeff Goldberg (1999). Plague Wars: The Terrifying Reality of Biological Warfare. St. Martin’s Press.

Judith Miller, Stephen Engelberg and William Broad (2001). Germs: Biological Weapons and America’s Secret War. Simon & Schuster.

Scientific Publications:

M Meselson, J Guillemin, J Martin Hugh-Jones, et al. (1994). The Sverdlovsk anthrax outbreak of 1979. Science, 266:1202-1208.

JB Tucker, The ‘Yellow Rain’ controversy. Lessons for arms control compliance. The Nonproliferation Review, Spring 2001, pp 25-42.

J Guillemin (2002). The 1979 anthrax epidemic in the USSR: Applied science and political controversy. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 146:18-36. Available at: www.aps-pub.com/proceedings/1461/102.pdf.

DA Wilkening (2006). Sverdlovsk revisited: Modeling human inhalation anthrax. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103:7589-7594.


Robert A Wampler and Thomas S Blanton (eds.). The National Security Archive – Volume V: Anthrax at Sverdlovsk, 1979. Available at: www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB61/.

Chapter 9


William Thompson, JD, PhD, July 7, 2006.

Scientific Publications:

WC Thompson, F Taroni; and CGG Aitken (2003). How the probability of a false positive affects the value of DNA evidence. Journal of Forensic Science. 48:1-8.

News Accounts:

MA Fergus, (2004). ‘Josiah Sutton: One Year Later.’ Houston Chronicle, March 6.

R Khanna, (2006). ‘In a Lot of Ways, I Still Am Suffering.’ Houston Chronicle, June 23.

M Possley (2006). ‘Inmate Wrongly Executed.’ Chicago Tribune, May 3.

Associated Press (2006). ‘Experts Question Arson Convictions.’ May 7. Available at: spd.iowa.gov/filemgmt_data/files/arson.pdf.

R Khanna and S McVicker (2004). ‘Fired DNA Analyst to Return to Work at Crime Lab.’ Houston Chronicle, January 27.

Rogers, B., and O’Hare, P. (2008). Rosenthal cites prescription drugs in decision to quit DA post. Houston Chronicle, February 16.


Houston Chronicle: ‘Hot topic: HPD Crime Lab-Index of stories.’ WC Thompson, (2003). Review of DNA evidence in State v. Josiah Sutton. Available at: http://www.scientific.org/archive/Thompson


Home page, Office of the Independent Investigator for the Houston Police Department Crime Laboratory and Property Room [Michael Bromwich’s reports]. Available at: www.hpdlab


National Research Council. The evaluation of forensic DNA evidence: An update. Available at: http://www.nap.edu/catalog.


Chapter 10


John Casani, PhD, July 29, 2006.

Steve Jolly, PhD, September 12,2006.

Sam Thurman, PhD, August 31, 2006.

News Accounts:

J Kaye (2000): ‘NASA in Question.’ PBS NewsHour, April 14. Available at: www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/science/jan-june00/nasa_


M Munro (2004): ‘Ryan: Death of Four-Year-Old Is a Tragic Reminder of the Dangers of Clinical Research.’ CanWest News Service, February 26. Available at: www.michenerawards.ca/english/



NASA-TV: Mars Climate Orbiter Orbit Insertion Event, September 23, 1999. Courtesy of JPL AudioVisual Services Office.

Mars Climate Orbiter Mishap Investigation Board: Phase I Report. Available at: ftp.hq.nasa.gov/pub/pao/reports/1999/MCO_


Mars Climate Orbiter Mishap Investigation Board: Report on Project Management in NASA. Available at: ftp.hq.nasa.gov/pub/


NASA-JPL: Basics of space flight, chapter 13: space navigation. Available at: www2.jpl.nasa.gov/basics/bsf13-1.html.

Food and Drug Administration: Warning letter to Dr. Jacqueline Halton, April 14, 2003. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/foi/


Chapter 11


Nicoline Ambrose, PhD, October 17, 2006.

Oliver Bloodstein, PhD, October 9, 2006 (email).

Curtis Krull, JD, October 24, 2006.

Richard, Schwartz, PhD, October 16, 2006.


Wendell Johnson (1930). Because I Stutter. D Appleton and Co. Available at: www.uiowa.edu/~cyberlaw/wj/bis/wjbis.html.

Wendell Johnson (1961). Stuttering and What You Can Do About It. University of Minnesota Press. Available at: www.uiowa.edu/~


Scientific Publications:

W Johnson (1938). The role of evaluation in stuttering behavior. Journal of Speech Disorders 3:85-89.

M Tudor (1939). An experimental study of the effect of evaluative labeling on speech fluency. MA thesis, Department of Psychology, University of Iowa.

NG Ambrose and E Yairi (2002). The Tudor study: Data and ethics. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology 11:190-203.

E Yairi (2005). The Tudor study and Wendell Johnson. In Ethics: A Case Study from Fluency. Plural Publishing.

RG Schwartz (2005). Would today’s IRB approve the Tudor study? In Ethics: A Case Study from Fluency. Plural Publishing.

N Johnson (2005). Retroactive ethical judgments and human subjects research: The 1930 Tudor study. In Ethics: A case study from fluency. Plural Publishing. Available at: www.nicholasjohnson.org/


News Accounts:

J Dyer (2001). ‘Ethics and Orphans: The “Monster Study”.’ San Jose Mercury News, June 10.

J Dyer (2001). ‘Theory Improved Treatment and Understanding of Stuttering.’ San Jose Mercury News, June 11.

C Krantz (2001). ‘Reporter Quits in Stutterers Case.’ Des Moines Register, August 1.

G Reynolds (2003). ‘The Stuttering Doctor’s “Monster Study”.’ New York Times, March 16.

Associated Press (2007). ‘Orphans Studied in 1939 Stuttering Experiment Settle Lawsuit for $925G.’ FOX News, August 17. Available at: http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,293623,00


Chapter 12


Peter Armbruster, PhD, January 8, 2007 (email).

Kenneth Gregorich, PhD, December 11, 2006.

Walter Loveland, PhD, December 14, 2006.

Victor Ninov, PhD, December 14, 2006.


Darleane C Hoffman, Albert Ghiorso, and Glenn T Seaborg (2000). The Transuranium People: The Inside Story. Imperial College Press.

Scientific Publications:

V Ninov, KE Gregorich, W Loveland, A Ghiorso, DC Hoffman, et al. (1999). Observation of superheavy nuclei produced in the reaction of 86Kr with 208Pb. Physical Review Letters 83:1104-1107.

S Hofmann, FP Hessberger, D Ackermann, et al. (2002). New results on elements 111 and 112. European Physical Journal A 14:147-157.

Editorial note [retraction] (2002): Observation of superheavy nuclei produced in the reaction of 86Kr with 208Pb. Physical Review Letters 89:9901 (15 July).

YT Oganessian, VK Utyonkov, YV Lobanov, et al. (2006): Synthesis of the isotopes of the elements 118 and 116 in the 249Cf and 245Cm+48Ca reactions. Physics Review C 74:e044602.

News Accounts:

Anonymous (1999): ‘Discovery of New Elements Makes Front Page News.’ Berkeley Lab Research Review (Summer). Available at: www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Research-Review/Magazine/1999/


G Johnson (2002): ‘At Lawrence Berkeley, Physicists Say a Colleague Took Them for a Ride.’ New York Times, October 15.

K Davidson (2002): ‘Accusations of Fraud: Fired Lawrence Lab Physicist’s Earlier Data Also Questioned.’ San Francisco Chronicle, July 21.


M Gilchriese, A Sessier, G Trilling, and R Vogt (2002). Report of the committee on the formal investigation of alleged scientific misconduct by LBNL staff scientist Dr Victor Ninov. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory