Sun in a Bottle: The Strange History of Fusion and the Science of Wishful Thinking - Charles Seife (2008)



3 “The force from which the sun” Harold S. Truman, “White House Press Release on Hiroshima, August 6, 1945,” in Cantelon, Hewlett, and Williams, eds., The American Atom, 65.

8n “pumpkin field” Argonne National Laboratory Web site, “The ‘Last Universal Scientist’ Takes Charge.”

9 “I’ve done a terrible thing.” Hijiya, “The Gita of J. Robert Oppenheimer,” 150.

10 “He’s a genius” As quoted in Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb, 448.

11 “He’s a danger” Blumberg and Owens, Energy and Conflict, 1.

11 “The communists overturned every aspect” Teller, with Shoolery, Memoirs , 13, 15.

11n “In my acquaintance” Time, “Knowledge Is Power.”

13n fellow physicists measured enthusiasm in “Tellers” Goodchild, Edward Teller, 127.

14 “I very soon found some unjustified assumptions in Teller’s calculation” Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb, 419.

14n “On Edward Teller’s blackboard at Los Alamos” Serber, The Los Alamos Primer, 4.

14n “I had become a bit annoyed with Fermi” Groves, Now It Can Be Told, 296-97.

15 “Edward first thought it was a cinch.” Serber, The Los Alamos Primer, xxxi.

16 Oppenheimer bet Rhodes, The Making of the Atomic Bomb, 656, 668. Teller, with Shoolery, Memoirs, 211.

16 “The time will come” Los Alamos Science, “The Oppenheimer Years,” 25.

16 “There was no backing for the thermonuclear work” Teller and Brown, The Legacy of Hiroshima, 41.

17 “Edward offered to bet me” John Manley quoted in Rhodes, Dark Sun, 404.

17 “It is likely that a super-bomb can be constructed” Ibid., 255.

18 “a choice between the quick and the dead,” Baruch, “The Baruch Plan.”

18 “We have evidence” Truman, “Statement by President Truman, September 23, 1949.”

19 “Keep your shirt on!” United States Atomic Energy Commission, In the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer, 714.

19 “We are all agreed that it would be wrong” General Advisory Committee to the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, Report on the “Super,” 30 October 1949, in Cantelon, Hewlett, and Williams, eds., The American Atom, 120.

19 “A super bomb might become a weapon of genocide,” Ibid., 121.

20 “The fact that no limits exist to the destructiveness of this weapon” Ibid., 122.

21 “The day has been filled, too, with talk about supers,” David E. Lilienthal, The Journals of David E. Lilienthal, Vol. 2, 577 (entry of 10 October 1949).

21 “Now I began to see a distorted human being,” McMillan, The Ruin of J. Robert Oppenheimer, 44-45.

21 “[Scientists] are working and ‘have made considerable progress’” Friendly, “New A-Bomb Has 6 Times Power of 1st,” 1.

22 “It is part of my responsibility as Commander in Chief” Time, “The Decision L Is Yes,” 6 February 1950.

23 “Every day Stan would come into the office,” Rhodes, Dark Sun, 423.

23 “pale with anger.” Herken, Brotherhood of the Bomb, 223.

23 “took real pleasure” Goodchild, Edward Teller, 163.

24 “Teller was not easily reconciled to our results,” Ulam, Adventures of a Mathematician, 216.

24 “You can’t get cylindrical containers of deuterium to burn” Goodchild, Edward Teller, 166.

24 “[Teller] was blamed at Los Alamos” Bethe, “Comments on the History of the H-Bomb,” 47.

25 “The holiday is over,” Reprinted in Shepley and Blair, The Hydrogen Bomb, 112.

25 “He proposed a number of complicated schemes” Bethe, “Comments on the History of the H-Bomb,” 48.

25n After the Soviets and Chinese Cumings, Origins of the Korean War, 741.

26 “his report was focused on the Super and was so negative” Teller, with Shoolery, Memoirs, 303.

26 “in a very different tone” Teller, with Shoolery, Memoirs, 303.

26 “Edward is full of enthusiasm about these possibilities,” Rhodes, Dark Sun, 467.

26n “Ulam felt that he invented the new approach to the hydrogen bomb.” Ibid., 471.

27 The remaining 25 kilotons Ibid., 474.

27 “Eniwetok would not be large enough” Ibid., 424.

28 “I expected that the General Advisory Committee,” United States Atomic Energy Commission, In the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer, 720.

28 “had created difficulties” Teller, with Shoolery, Memoirs, 327.

28n “technically sweet” United States Atomic Energy Commission, In the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer, 81.

29 “I am leaving the appeasers to join the fascists,” Rhodes, Dark Sun, 496.

30 fourteen buildings the size of the Pentagon U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Nuclear Agency, Operation Ivy, p. 188.

30 When that dot of light Teller and Brown, The Legacy of Hiroshima, 56.

31 “It is my belief that if at the end of the war” Ibid., 714.

31 “go fishing for the rest of his life” Ibid., 721.

31 “In my new land,” Teller, with Shoolery, Memoirs, 397.

31 “We believe that, had Dr. Oppenheimer given his enthusiastic support” United States Atomic Energy Commission, In the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer , 1017.

32 “disturbing.” Ibid., 1019.

32 “interchangeable with the conventional weapons” Chang, “To the Nuclear Brink,” 106.

32 “next month or two.” Ibid., 107.

32n “Isn’t it a fair statement today, Dr. Oppenheimer,” United States Atomic Energy Commission, In the Matter of J. Robert Oppenheimer, 149.


37 “one of the gravest” Darwin, The Origin of Species, 505.

39n “If belief in the reality of atoms is so crucial,” Blackmore, “Ernst Mach Leaves ‘The Church of Physics,’” 524-25.

55 As early as 1949, scientists realized Reines and Suydam, Preliminary Survey of Physical Effects Produced by a Super Bomb, 910.


58 “An underground explosion was indeed carried out” U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States 1964-1968, vol. 11, item 66.

59 “the answer to a dream as old as man himself,” A is for Atom, directed by Carl Urbano.

59 “into the hands of those who will know how to strip its military casing” Dwight D. Eisenhower, “The ‘Atoms for Peace’ Address to the United Nations General Assembly,” 8 December 1953, in Cantelon, Hewlett, and Williams, eds., The American Atom, 102.

60 “A Higher Intelligence decided” Lewis Strauss, “My Faith in the Atomic Future,” in Cantelon, Hewlett, and Williams, eds., The American Atom, 107.

60 “If your mountain is not in the right place,” O’Neill, The Firecracker Boys, 88.

60n “I had a hand in formulating and popularizing that hope” David E. Lilienthal, Change, Hope, and the Bomb, 109.

61 “So you want to beat” Teller and Brown, The Legacy of Hiroshima, 82.

62 “they shall beat their swords into plowshares” The King James Version of the Bible, Isaiah 2:4.

62 The ideas started coming Teller and Brown, The Legacy of Hiroshima, 80-91; O’Neill, The Firecracker Boys, 26; Seaborg, with Loeb, Stemming the Tide, 310; McPhee, The Curve of Binding Energy, 112-13.

62 “We will change the earth’s surface to suit us,” Teller and Brown, The Legacy of Hiroshima, 84.

62 “One will probably not resist for long” O’Neill, The Firecracker Boys, 23-24.

63 the harbor made little economic sense Ibid., 39.

64 “pinhead-sized white and gritty snow” U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Nuclear Agency, Castle Series, 1954, 210.

64n A Russian soldier died Sakharov, Memoirs, 192.

65 “raw, weeping lesions” Cronkite et al., Study of Response of Human Beings Accidentally Exposed to Significant Fallout Radiation, 3-4.

65 “well and happy” The Atomic Cafe, directed by Jayne Loader and Kevin Rafferty.

65 “Radioactive Fish Sought In Japan” Parrott, “Nuclear Downpour Hit Ship During Test at Bikini—U.S. Inquiry Asked,” 9.

65 “Each nuclear bomb test” Pauling, “Science and Peace.”

66 “It is possible to say unequivocally” Johnston, “No Danger Seen in Nuclear Tests.”

66 “observable fallout on Los Angeles.” Ogle, An Account of the Return to Nuclear Weapons Testing After the Moratorium 1958-1961, 101.

66 “Radiation from test fallout” Teller and Brown, The Legacy of Hiroshima, 180.

66 “Our custom of dressing men in trousers” Ibid., 181.

66 Teller even suggested that the dead captain: Ibid., 173.

66n “The opposition Pauling encountered” Jahn, “Presentation Speech.”

66n “So human samples are of prime importance,” “In the Matter of: Biophysics Conference.” Transcript, p. 8, lines 12-14.

67 “fallout fear-mongers”: Teller and Brown, The Legacy of Hiroshima, 181.

67 “insignificant and doubtful medical considerations” Ibid., 183.

67 “The Administration was bracing itself today” Kenworthy, “U.S. Thinks Soviet Will Pledge Halt In Nuclear Tests,” 1.

67 “cessation of tests of all forms” Associated Press, “Text of Resolution.”

67 “Russia has beaten us on propaganda” Kenworthy, “U.S. Warns Free Nations Not to Be Misled by Soviet,” 16.

67n “Deploring the mutations that may be caused by fallout” Teller and Brown, The Legacy of Hiroshima, 181.

68 “limited war” Ibid., 235ff.

69 “Beat your plowshares into swords,” The King James Version of the Bible, Joel 3:10.

70 “grave consequences” Toth, “Teller Opposes Test Ban Treaty.”

70 “you will have given away” Toth, “Teller Shows Consistency in Opposing Test Ban.”

70 “superfluous and even dangerous” Seaborg, with Loeb, Stemming the Tide, 314.

70n “The Communists might develop Plowshare before we do,” Teller and Brown, The Legacy of Hiroshima, 87.

72 “I’ve never seen [Teller] take a position” Blumberg and Owens, Energy and Conflict, 407.

72 “not acceptable to regional refineries.” Nordyke, The Soviet Program for Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Explosions, 25.

72 the Soviets had to declare Ibid., 39.


74 “Among other bodies” Wilson, Religio Chemici, 264.

75 “The project is still in the early stages,” Warren, “Perón Announces New Way to Make Atom Yield Power,” 1.

76 “Foreign scientists will be interested to learn” Mariscotti, The Secret of Huemul Island, 8.

76 “a totally new way of obtaining atomic energy” Ibid., 9.

76 “several million degrees.” Ibid., 8.

76 “What the Americans get” Ibid., 9.

76 “Yes, sir, for the very first time” Ibid., 180.

77 “Less than that.” New York Times, “Lilienthal Scouts Claim.”

77 “It is strange that the names of eminent physicists” Coseia Ribeiro quoted in Associated Press, “Discoverer of Argentina’s Atomic Energy Method Gives Few Details.”

77 “I know what that other material is” Time, “Perón’s Atom.”

77 “Baloney bomb” Time, “Energy of the Pampas.”

77 “I am not interested” Warren, “Perón Is Scornful of Atomic Skeptics,” 1.

77 “They have not yet told the first truth,” Ibid.

77n “There seemed to be some puzzlement,” Ibid., 11.

78 “so-so” Time, “Energy of the Pampas.”

79 “striking similarity” New York Times, “French Atom Expert Backs Perón Claim.”

79 “Richter admits that his process is not new,” Kaempffert, “Argentina Lacks Development Resources Even If, in Theory, Its Atomic Tests Are Possible.”

79 “said that Dr. Ronald Richter, the former Austrian scientist,” Time, “On Further Examination . . .”

80 “(a) Perón has fallen victim to a crank” Thirring, “Is Perón’s A-Bomb a Swindle?” 2.

80 “The reactor operation crew and I are deeply sorry” Richter, “Argentina Has No Atom Bomb,” i.

80 “It must really have been the deepest degree of secrecy” Ibid., iii.

80 “in full-scale operation” Ibid., ii.

80 “would be able to make convincing new demonstrations” Associated Press, “Argentine Plans Atomic Trade.”

81 He was shocked when Richter Mariscotti, The Secret of Huemul Island, 280ff.

81 The visit was a fiasco. Ibid., 287ff.

88 “I venture to predict” Miyahara, “A Record of the First Five Meetings of ‘The Symposium on Fusion Technology Held between 1960 and 1968,’” 384.

91 “They try to snap inward” Teller, Energy From Heaven and Earth, 209.

96n pale ale: Carruthers, “The Beginning of Fusion at Harwell,” 1998.

97 “The indications are that fusion has been achieved” United Press, “Britons Report Gain on Fusion Reaction.”

98n “backlog of experimental results” New York Times, “British Deny U.S. Gags Atomic Gain.”

99 “Admiral Strauss’ tactics” Love, “British-U.S. Data on Hydrogen Due.”

99 “90% certain” Love, “Briton 90% Sure Fusion Occurred.”

99 “Gains in Harnessing Power” Finney, “Gains in Harnessing Power of H-Bomb Reported Jointly by U.S. and Britain,” 1.

99 “UNLIMITED POWER from SEA WATER” Carruthers, “The Beginning of Fusion at Harwell,” 1999.

99 “achievement in harnessing thermonuclear energy” New York Times, “Soviet Radio Hails British on Fusion.”

99n “British scientists pointed out” United Press, “Moscow Takes a Bow.”

100 “Britain Indicates Reactor Advance” Love, “Britain Indicates Reactor Advance.”

100 “H-Bomb Untamed, Britain Admits.” Love, “H-Bomb Untamed, Britain Admits.”

101 “It is doing exactly the job we expected” Associated Press, “Fusion Tests Upheld.”


102 “What glory beats” Buch, Richter: Ópera Documental de Cámara.

103 “looks probable as a thermonuclear source.” Finney, “U.S. Experts Hint H-Bomb Control.

103 “We are now prepared to stake our reputations” Time, “On the Way: Genuine Fusion.”

106 “partly as a research facility,” Bromberg, Fusion, 64.

107 “entirely as a research facility,” Ibid.

108 “I was so stunned” Sakharov, Memoirs, 92.

108n “One had only to substitute ‘USSR’ for ‘USA,’” Ibid., 100.

111 One disruption Seife, “At the Going Down of the Nuclear Sun,” 95.

113n “I expect that they use a very long thermometer.” Braams and Stott, Nuclear Fusion, 135.

116 One Atomic Energy Commission worker: Bromberg, Fusion, 167.

118 “a significant step toward the long-range goal” Schmeck, “Nuclear Fusion Reported In Lab With Aid of Laser.”

118 “a small but significant initial step” Ibid.

118 “efficient fusion power” Bromberg, Fusion, 186.


127 “We are also human, and we need miracles,” Garwin, “Consensus on Cold Fusion Still Elusive,” 617.

128 “We used to call it” Thomas Valone, Second International Conference on Future Energy, 24 September 2006.

128 “Two scientists have successfully created” Huizenga, Cold Fusion, 237.

129 “ranks right up there with fire,” Taubes, Bad Science, xx.

131 They mused about it Bishop and Wells, “Taming H-Bombs?”

131 “Stan and I thought this experiment was so stupid” Fleischmann, Pons, and others, press conference of 23 March 1989.

132 “Sometime during the night” Bishop, “Heat Source in Fusion Find May Be Mystery Reaction,” 1.

133 “interesting discussion” Alvarez et al., “Catalysis of Nuclear Reactions by µ Mesons,” 1128.

134 “in effect, confines the two nuclei in a small box.” Ibid.

135 “We had a short but exhilarating experience” Alvarez, “Recent Developments in Particle Physics.”

136 “each muon may catalyze hundreds” Jones, “Muon-Catalyzed Fusion Revisited,” 132.

136 “It is now conceivable” Rafelski and Jones, “Cold Nuclear Fusion,” 84.

137 “a bunch of baloney,” Taubes, Bad Science, 25.

138 the competitors had agreed Footlick, Truth and Consequences, 35.

138 Pons and Fleischmann jumped the gun: Taubes, Bad Science, 87ff.

138 “Stan and I often talk” Huizinga, Cold Fusion, 238.

141 “provides strong evidence” Jones et al., “Observation of Cold Nuclear Fusion in Condensed Matter,” 739.

144 “It’s wrong.” Taubes, Bad Science, 141.

145 “There is big money in hot fusion,” Footlick, Truth and Consequences, 49.

145 “The black hats, such as they were,” Ibid., 44.

145 “Within the next few weeks,” Garwin, “Consensus of Cold Fusion Still Elusive,” 617.

146 “Now it appears that chemists” Pool, “Skepticism Grows Over Cold Fusion,” 284.

146 “We do not get the total blank experiment” Ibid. 285.

147 “How is this astounding oversight” Maddox, “What to Say about Cold Fusion,” 701.

147 “urgent work.” Nature, “Cold Fusion in Print,” 604.

147 “in a way that maximized publicity” Bazell, “Hype-Energy Physics,” 7.

147 “The pace of scientific advance” Wall Street Journal, “Fusing the Impossible,” 1.

149 “sure as sure can be” Lindley, “More Than Scepticism,” 4.

149 “By the time the hearings got around to the skeptics,” Park, “A Cold Fusion Institute Was Called for in Hearings.”

150 “polite but generally sceptical reception,” Lindley, “More Than Scepticism,” 4.

150 “We’re suffering from the incompetence and delusions” Waldrop, “Cold Water from Caltech,” 523.

150 “We asked Pons if he stirred,” Ibid.

150 “devastating” Bishop, “Physicists Outline Possible Errors That Led to Claims of Cold Fusion,” 1.

151 “continue to twitch for a while.” Park, “The Corpse of Cold Fusion Will Probably Continue to Twitch.”

151 John Sununu abruptly cancelled Taubes, Bad Science, 267

151 Pons and Fleischmann got more reclusive Ibid., 293, 375ff, 421.

151 Pons’s lawyer threatened legal action Ibid., 355.

151 “I discovered after awhile” Footlick, Truth and Consequences, 42.

152 “modest support” U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Research Advisory Board, Cold Fusion Research.

154 he tried to prove Jones, “Behold My Hands: Evidence for Christ’s Visit in Ancient America”; Jones, “Why Indeed Did the WTC Buildings Completely Collapse?”

154 “These folks need a fair hearing,” Siegel, “America Condemns Inventive Science, Fathers of Cold Fusion Tell ABC,” B1.

154 “a colossal conspiracy of denial.” Platt, “What If Cold Fusion Is Real?”

154 “Cold fusion today is a prime example of pathological science,” Begley, “Cold Fusion Isn’t Dead, It’s Just Withering from Scientific Neglect,” B1.

155 “Valone called for” Voss, “A Free Energy Enthusiast Seeks Like-Minded Colleagues,” 1254.

155 “The speakers list for CoFE” Park, “Free Energy: State Department Opens Its Doors to New Agers.”

156 “In cooperation with the U.S. Department of Commerce” Park, “Future Energy: New Age Energy Conference Moves to Commerce.”

156 “The federal government’s budget pie” “In the Matter of Arbitration Between Patent Office Professional Association and U.S. Department of Commerce, Patent and Trademark Office.”


160 “the breaking of an enemy code” Bylinsky, “Shiva: The Next Step to Fusion Power,” 87.

160 “energy release at the giant $25 million Shiva” Sullivan, “Reports Assay Failures and Hopes for Fusion Power.”

162 80 percent of the capsules failed to ignite, Seife, “Will NIF Live Up to Its Name,” 1128.

164 “the operation of a magnetic fusion demonstration plant” Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980, §2 (b) 4.

165n “I thought I was going to a wake” Herman, Fusion, 209.

167 Rush Holt Presentation to college group, 5 October 1992.


170 “Hegel observes somewhere” Marx, The 18th Brumaire of Louis Napoleon, 287.

172 “Here’s a Science paper” Robert Coontz, e-mail to author, 5 February 2002.

176 “Right after you did your story” Rusi Taleyarkhan, e-mail to author, 6 February 2002.

180 “I thought, doggone!” Seife, “‘Bubble Fusion’ Paper Generates Tempest in a Beaker,” 1808.

181 “There was certainly pressure from Oak Ridge” Ibid., 1809.

182 “I understand there has been some discussion” Richard Garwin, e-mail message, 28 February 2002.

182 “I am told that the paper in question,” Will Happer, e-mail message, 1 March 2002.

183 “I like Science; I’m a member of AAAS,” Will Happer, telephone conversation with author, 2002.

183 “It would be unfortunate” Richard Garwin, telephone conversation with author, 2002.

183 “Concern on the part of research managers” Don Kennedy, e-mail message, (forwarded by Happer), 26 February 2002.

184 “I’m confused” Draft of Seife, “ ‘Bubble Fusion’ Paper Generates Tempest in a Beaker,” 4 March 2002.

184 “The paper’s kind of a patchwork” Ibid.

185 “calling around asking about activities” E-mail extract (unidentified) forwarded by Will Happer to author, 1 March 2002.

186 “Be careful what you write” Will Happer, e-mail to author, 1 March 2002.

186 “Taleyarkhan and his team,” Draft of Seife, “ ‘Bubble Fusion’ Generates Tempest in a Beaker,” 4 March 2002.

187 “Bubble Fusion: A Collective Groan” Park, “Bubble Fusion: A Collective Groan Can Be Heard.”

187 “Fusion in a Flash?” American Association for the Advancement of Science, “Fusion in a Flash?”

189 “Preliminary Evidence Suggests” Oak Ridge National Laboratory, “Preliminary Evidence Suggests Possible Nuclear Emissions during Experiments.”

190 “I’m sorry if my cold-fusion allergy” Don Kennedy, e-mail to author, 4 March 2002.

190 “[W]e ask all Science Press Package registrants” American Association for the Advancement of Science, “Special Notice to All Science Press Package Recipients.”

191 “Fusion ‘Breakthrough’ Heralds Cleaner Energy,” Connor, “Fusion ‘Breakthrough’ Heralds Cleaner Energy,” 9.

191 “Here we go again; Table-top fusion” Economist, “Here We Go Again; Table-Top Fusion,” 95.

192 “I reviewed the paper twice,” Vedantam, “Fusion Experiment Sparks an Academic Brawl,” A10.

192 “unready for publication” Putterman, Crum, and Suslick, “Comments on ‘Evidence for Nuclear Emissions During Acoustic Cavitation’; by R. P. Taleyarkhan et al., 1.

193 “Somewhere out there is a positive report” Adam and Knight, “Publish, and Be Damned . . . ,” 774.

193 “We maintain our end” Ibid.

194 “They’re saying, ‘We understand’” Seife, “Chemistry Casts Doubt on Bubble Reactions.”

194 “Evidence Bubbles Over” Purdue University, “Evidence Bubbles Over to Support Tabletop Nuclear Fusion Device.”

195 “Purdue Findings Support” Purdue University, “Purdue Findings Support Earlier Nuclear Fusion Experiments.”

195 “independently confirmed.” Taleyarkan et al., “Nuclear Emissions During Self-Nucleated Acoustic Cavitation,” 034301-1.

196 “Nuclear fusion is a major finding” “An Experiment to Save the World,” narrated by Dilly Barlow.

197 “I would help out anybody” Ibid.

197 “He said: ‘Look, there’s a peak,’” Reich, “Is Bubble Fusion Simply Hot Air?”

198 Taleyarkhan is said to have pressed Ibid.

198 “nothing but a contrived and hurried attempt” Dunn, “RE: Inquiry Committee Proceedings Under Executive Memorandum No. C-22.”

198 “Presenting that as independent is fraud” Maugh, “College Reviews Physicist’s Tabletop Fusion Claims,” A9.

198 “negligent or jumped the gun” Ibid.

198 “data from Xu’s paper” Reich, “Purdue Attacked over Fusion Inquiry,” 664.

199 “a severe lack of judgment” Dunn, “RE: Inquiry Committee Proceedings Under Executive Memorandum No. C-22.”

199 “Despite the University’s statement” U.S. Congress, House Committee on Science and Technology, Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversight, letter to Martin C. Jischke, 27 May 2007, 1.

199 “several matters warrant further investigation” Purdue University, “Panel Determines Research Allegations Merit Additional Investigation.”

199 “I am exhausted,” Rusi Taleyarkhan, telephone conversation with author, 29 August 2007.

200 Taleyarkhan had committed scientific misconduct Purdue University. “Report of the Investigation Committee In the Matter of Rusi P. Taleyarkhan.” Final Report of the C-22 Investigation Committee, 18 April 2008.

200 Taleyarkhan had deceived the scientific community Ibid.

200 deemed a deliberate attempt Ibid.

200 “was apparently done by one person” Ibid.


204 “We find that this cannot be done.” President’s Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), The U.S. Program of Fusion Energy Research and Development, 4.

206 “after ten years” Fusion Power Associates, “U.S. Fails to Sign ITER Extension Agreement; JET Demonstrates Fusion Remote Maintenance.”

207 “breakeven plasma conditions” Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Persistent Quest—Research Activities, 1997.

207 “Breakeven was demonstrated” Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, “Nuclear Fusion.”

208 “Once we crack the problem of fusion,” Angier, “High Hopes for a Super Nova.”

212 “Not 1%. Those who say 5%” Seife, “Will NIF Live Up to Its Name?” 1128.

213 “but its contribution is almost exclusively to the long-term tasks” JASON, Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Review, 2.

214 “NIF will contribute to training and retaining expertise” JASON, Science Based Stockpile Stewardship, 54.

217n “abundant resources” Bush, Speech Announcing New Vision for Space Exploration Program.

218 “hand held out to future generations” Chirac, Speech by Mr Jacques Chirac, President of the French Republic.

219 “The ambition is huge!” Ibid.


220 “When one turns to the magnificent edifice” James, The Will to Believe, 7.

222 “It was the thing that one fears” Seife, “CERN’s Gamble Shows Perils, Rewards of Playing the Odds,” 2261.

222 “We did all sorts of tests on the data” Ibid.

223 “Ten or twelve days before I was due” Ibid.

223 “It was a large audience” Ibid.

223 “Here I was, with the biggest blunder of my life” Ibid.

227 “fired repeatedly, the machine could well be the fusion machine” Sandia National Laboratories, “Rapid-Fire Pulse Brings Sandia Z Method Closer to Goal of High-Yield Fusion Reactor.”


229 “the mad scientist” Damron, “Oakland Twp. Teen Creates Fusion.”

229 “Yesterday I input power” Olson, “Archived—First Plasma.”

229 “Michigan Teen Creates Nuclear Fusion” United Press International, “Michigan Teen Creates Nuclear Fusion.”

234 “Oh, God, not again.” Seife, “Tabletop Accelerator Breaks ‘Cold Fusion’ Jinx But Won’t Yield Energy, Physicists Say,” 613.