Why We Run: A Natural History - Bernd Heinrich (2002)


Chapter 1

Urquhart, F. A. 1987. Monarch Butterfly: International Traveler. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.

Chapter 2

Martin, D. E., and R. W. H. Gynn, 1979. The Marathon Footrace. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas.

Chapter 3

Costill, D. L. 1979. A Scientific Approach to Distance Running. Track & Field News. (No town given.)

Chapter 4

Bartholomew, G. A., and B. Heinrich. 1978. Endothermy in African dung beetles during flight, ball making, and ball rolling. J. Exp. Biol. 73:65–83.

Heinrich, B., and G. A. Bartholomew. 1979. Roles of endothermy and size in inter-and intraspecific competition for elephant dung in an African dung beetle, Scarabaeus laevistriatus. Physiol. Zool. 52: 484–96.

Morgan, K. R. 1985. Body temperature regulation and terrestrial activity in the ecothermic beetle Cicindela tranquebarica. Physiol. Zool. 58:29–37.

Chapter 5

Hadley, M. E. 1996. Endocrinology. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

Hylan, D. A. 1990. Physiology of Sport. New York: Paragon.

Nijhout, H. F. 1994. Insect Hormones. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Speck, F. G. 1940. Penobscot Man: The Life History of a Forest Tribe in Maine. London: Oxford University Press.

Tauber, M. J., C. A. Tauber, and S. Masaki. 1986. Seasonal Adaptation of Insects. New York: Oxford University Press.

Chapter 6

Cook, J. R., and B. Heinrich. 1965. Glucose vs. acetate metabolism in Euglena. J. Protozool. 12:581–84.

———. 1968. Unbalanced respiratory growth of Euglena. J. Gen. Microbiol. 53:237–51.

Costill, D. L. 1970. Metabolic responses during distance running. J. Applied Physiol. 28:251–53.

Heinrich, B., and J. R. Cook. 1967. Studies on the respiratory physiology of Euglena gracilis cultured on acetate or glucose. J. Protozool. 14:548–53.

Noakes, T. 1985. The Lore of Running. Cape Town: Oxford University Press.

Schmidt-Nielson, K. 1990. Animal Physiology: Adaptation and Environment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wilmore, J. H. 1982. Training for Sport and Activity: The Physiological Basis of the Conditioning Process. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Chapter 7

Bramble, D. M., and D. R. Carrier. 1983. Running and breathing in mammals. Science 219:251–56.

Fixx, J. F. 1977. The Complete Book of Running. New York: Random House.

Heinrich, B. 1970. Nervous control of the heart during thoracic temperature regulation in a sphinx moth. Science 169:606–7.

———. 1970. Thoracic temperature stabilization in a free-flying moth. Science 168:580–83.

———. 1971. Temperature regulation of the sphinx moth, Manduca sexta. J. Exp. Biol. 54:141–66.

———. 1976. Heat exchange in relation to blood flow between thorax and abdomen in bumblebee. J. Exp. Biol. 64:561–85.

———. 1979. Keeping a cool head in honeybee thermoregulation. Science 205:1269–71.

Chapter 8

Able, K. P., ed. 1999. Gatherings of Angels. Ithaca: Comstock Books.

Baird, J. 1999. Returning to the tropics: The epic autumn flight of the blackpoll warbler. In Gatherings of Angels. K. P. Able, ed. Ithaca: Comstock Books.

Berthold, P. 1996. Control of Bird Migration. London: Chapman and Hall.

Ens, B. J., T. Piersma, W. J. Wolff, and L. Zwarts, eds. 1990. Homeward bound: Problems waders face when migrating from the Bane d’Arguin, Mauritania, to their northern breeding grounds in spring. Ardea 78:1–363.

Gonzalez, N. C., and R. M. Fedde. 1988. Oxygen Transport from Atmosphere to Tissues. New York: Plenum.

Harrington, B. A. 1999. The hemispheric globetrotting of the white-rumped sandpiper. In Gatherings of Angels. K. P. Able, ed. Ithaca: Comstock Books.

Piersoma, T., and N. Davidson. 1992. The Migration of Knots. Wader Study Group Bulletin 64. Petersborough, U.K.: Monkstone House.

Piersma, T., A. Koolhaas, and A. Dekinga. 1993. Interactions between stomach structure and diet choice in shorebirds. Auk 110:552–64.

Schmidt-Nielsen, K. 1992. How Animals Work. London: Cambridge University Press.

Tucker, V. A. 1968. Respiratory exchange and evaporative water loss in the flying budgerigar. J. Exp. Biol. 48:67–87.

Chapter 9

Burney, D. A. 1993. Recent animal extinctions: Recipes for disaster. Am. Sci. 81:530–41.

Byers, J. A. 1984. Play in ungulates. In Play in Animals and Humans, ed. P. K. Smith. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

———. 1997. American Pronghorn: Social Adaptations and the Ghosts of Predators Past. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

Eyestone, E. 2000. “Man vs. Horse.” Runner’s World (November).

Kurtén, B., and E. Anderson. 1980. Pleistocene Mammals of North America. New York: Columbia University Press.

Lindstedt, S. L., J. F. Hokanson, D. J. Wells, S. D. Swain, H. Hoppeler, and V. Navarro. 1991. Running energetics in the pronghorn antelope. Nature 353:748–49.

Mech, L. D. 1970. The Wolf: The Ecology and Behavior of an Endangered Species. New York: Doubleday.

Nobokov, P. 1981. Indian Running: Native American History and Tradition. Santa Fe, N.M.: Aneburt City Press.

Price, E. O. 1984. Behavioral aspects of animal domestication. Quarterly Rev. Biol. 59:1–32.

Stuart, A. J. 1991. Mammalian extinctions in the late Pleistocene of northern Eurasia and North America. Biol. Rev. 66:453–62.

Turbak, G. 1995. Pronghorn: Portrait of the American Antelope. Flagstaff, Ariz.: Northland Publishing Co.

Webb, S. D. 1977. A history of savanna vertebrates in the New World. Part I, North America. Annu. Rev. Ecol. & Syst. 8:355–80.

Chapter 10

Dagg, A. J. 1974. The locomotion of the camel (Camelus dromedarius). J. Zool. 174:67–68.

Denis, F. 1970. Observations sur le compartement du dromadaire. Thesis. Faculté des Sciences de l’Université de Nancy.

Gauthier-Pilters, H., and A. I. Dagg. 1981. The Camel: Its Evolution, Ecology, Behavior, and Relationship to Man. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Louw, G. 1993. Physiological Animal Ecology. Essex, U.K.: Longman Scientific and Technical.

McKnight, T. L. 1969. The Camel in Australia. Carlton: Melbourne University Press.

Perk, R. F. 1963. The camel’s erythrocyte. Nature 200: 272–73.

———. 1966. Osmotic hemolysis of the camel’s erythrocytes. J. Exp. Zool. 163:241–46.

Schmidt-Nielsen, K. 1959. The physiology of the camel. Sci. Am. 201:140–51.

———. 1964. Desert Animals: Physiological Problems of Heat and Water. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Schmidt-Nielsen, K., E. C. Crawford, A. E. Newsholme, K. S. Rawson, and H. T. Hammel. 1967. Metabolic rate of camels: Effect of body temperature and dehydration. Amer. J. Physiol. 212:341–46.

Schmidt-Nielsen, K., B. Schmidt-Nielsen, T. R. Houpt, and S. A. Jarnum. 1956. The question of water storage in the stomach of the camel. Mammalia 20:11–15.

———. 1956. Water balance of the camel. Amer. J. Physiol. 185:185–94.

Chapter 11

Billings, D. 1984. Aerobic efficiency in ultrarunners. Ultrarunning, November 1984, 24–25.

Davies, C. T. M. 1981. Physiology of ultra-long distance running. Medicine and Sport 13:53–63.

Taigen, T. L., and K. D. Wells. 1985. Energetics of vocalization by an anuran amphibian (Hyla versicolor). J. Comp. Physiol. 155:163–70.

Taigen, T. L., K. D. Wells, and R. L. Marsh. 1985. The enzymatic basis of high metabolic rates in calling frogs. Physiol. Zool. 58:719–26.

Wells, K. D., and T. L. Taigen. 1986. The effect of social interactions on calling energetics in the gray treefrog (Hyla versicolor). J. Behav., Ecology, and Sociobiology 19:9–18.

Chapter 12

Alexander, R. M. 1984. Elastic energy stores in running vertebrates. Amer. Zool. 24:85–94.

———. 1988. Elastic Mechanisms in Animal Movement. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

Darwin, C. R. 1859. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or The Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life. London: John Murray.

Gordon, D. G. 1996. The Compleat Cockroach: A Comprehensive Guide to the Most Despised (and Least Understood) Creatures on Earth. Berkeley, Calif.: Ten Speed Press.

Ker, R. F., M. B. Bennett, S. R. Bibby, R. C. Kester, and R. McN. Alexander. 1987. The spring in the arch of the human foot. Nature 325:147–49.

McMahon, T. A. 1987. The spring in the human foot. Nature 325:108–9.

McMahon, T. A., and P. R. Greene. 1979. The influence of track compliance on running. J. Biomech. 12:893–904.

Vogel, S. 1998. Cat’s Paws and Catapults. New York: W. W. Norton.

Chapter 13

Andrade, M. C. B. 1996. Sexual selection for male sacrifice in the Australian redback spider. Science 271:70–72.

Bennett, W. C., and R. M. Zingg. 1935. The Tarahumara: An Indian Tribe of Northern Mexico. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Borta, W. M. 1985. Physical exercise as an evolutionary force. J. Human Evolution. 14:145–55.

Bramble, D. M., and D. R. Carrier. 1983. Running and breathing in mammals. Science 219: 251–56.

Burney, D. A. 1993. Recent animal extinction: Recipes for disaster. American Scientist 81:530–41.

Caputa, M. 1981. Selective brain cooling: An important component of thermal physiology. Contributions to Thermal Physiology 32:183–92.

Carrier, D. R. 1984. The energetic paradox of human running and hominid evolution. Current Anthropology 24 (4):483–95.

Dawson, T., J. D. Robertshaw, and C. R. Taylor. 1974. Sweating in the kangaroo: A cooling mechanism during exercise, but not in the heat. Amer. J. Physiol. 227:494–98.

Falk, D. 1990. Brain evolution in homo: The “radiator” theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13:333–86.

Gaesser, C. A., and G. A. Brooks. 1980. Glycogen depletion following continuous and intermittent exercise to exhaustion. Journal of Applied Physiology 49:727–28.

Hawkes, K. 1991. Showing off: Tests of an hypothesis about men’s foraging goals. Ethology and Sociobiology 12:29–54.

Heinrich, B. 1970. Thoracic temperature stabilization by blood circulation in a free-flying moth. Science 168:580–82.

———. 1972. Thoracic butterflies in the field near the equator. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 43A:459–67.

———. 1993. The Hot-Blooded Insects. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

———. 1996. The Thermal Warriors. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Johanson, D., and M. Edey. Lucy: The Beginnings of Humankind. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Kaplan, H., and K. Hill. 1985. Hunting ability and reproduction success among male Aché foragers: Preliminary results. Current Anthropology 26:131–33.

Kessel, E. L. 1955. The mating activities of balloon flies. Syst. Zool. 4:97–104.

Lee, R. B., and I. DeVore, eds. 1968. Man the Hunter. Chicago: Aldine.

Lee, R. B. 1979. The !Kung San: Men, Women, and Work in a Foraging Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Leonard, W. R., and M. L. Robertson. 2000. Ecological correlates of home range variation in primates: Implications for hominid evolution. In On the Move: How Animals Travel in Groups, S. Boinski and P. A. Garber, eds. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

Louw, G. 1993. Physiological Animal Ecology. Essex, U.K.: Longman Scientific and Technical.

Lowie, R. H. 1924. Notes on Shoshonean ethnography. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History 20, part 3.

May, M. 1976. Thermoregulation and adaptation to temperature in dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera). Evol. Monogr. 46:1–32.

McCarthy, F. D. 1957. Australian Aborigines: Their Life and Culture. Melbourne: Colorgravure Publications.

Newman, R. W. 1970. Why man is such a sweaty and thirsty naked animal: A speculative review. Human Biology 42:12–27.

Pennington, C. W. 1963. The Tarahumara of Mexico. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press.

Poulten, E. B. 1913. Empidae and their prey in relation to courtship. Entomol. Mo. Mag. 49:177–80.

Rudman, P. S., and H. M. McHenry. 1980. Bioenergetics and the origin of hominid bipedalism. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 52:103–6.

Schaller, G. B., and G. R. Lowther. 1969. The relevance of carnivore behavior to the study of early hominids. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 25:307–41.

Schapera, I. 1930. The Khoisan People of South Africa: Bushman and Hottentots. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Shoemaker, V. H., K. A. Nagy, and W. R. Costa. 1976. Energy utilization and temperature regulation by jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) in the Mojave Desert. Physiol. Zool. 49:364–75.

Sollas, W. J. 1924. Ancient Hunters and Their Modern Representatives. New York: MacMillan.

Stanford, C. B. 1995. To catch a colobus. Natural History 1:48–54.

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Steudel, K. 1996. Limb morphology, bipedal gait, and the energetics of hominid locomotion. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 99:345–55.

Strum, S. C. 1981. Processes and products of change: Baboon predatory behavior at Gilgil, Kenya. In Omnivorous Primates: Gathering and Hunting in Human Evolution, ed. R. S. O. Harding and G. Teleki. New York: Columbia University Press.

Taylor, C. R., N. C. Heglund, and G. M. O. Maloiy. 1982. Energetics and mechanisms of terrestrial locomotion. J. Exp. Biol. 97:1–21.

Taylor, C. R., and V. J. Rowntree. 1973. Running on two or four legs: Which consumes more energy? Science 179:186–87.

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Toolson, E. C. 1987. Water profligacy as an adaptation to hot deserts: Water loss rates and evaporation cooling the Sonoran Desert cicada, Diceroprocta apache (Homoptera: Cicadidae). Physiol. Zool. 60:379–85.

Wannenburgh, A. 1979. The Bushmen. Cape Town: C. Struik.

Washburn, S. L., and C. Lancaster. 1968. The evolution of hunting. In Man the Hunter, ed. R. B. Lee and I. DeVore. Chicago: Aldine.

Wheeler, P. R. 1984. The evolution of bipedalability and loss of functional body hair in hominids. Journal of Human Evolution 13:91–98.

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Wolpoff, M. H. 1980. Paleoanthropology. New York: Knopf.

Wrangham, R. W., J. H. Jones, G. Laden, D. Pilbeam, and N. Conklin-Brittain. 1999. The raw and the stolen: Cooling and the ecology of human origins. Current Anthropology 40:567–94.

Chapter 14

Adler, N. T. 1981. Neuroendocrinology of Reproduction: Physiology and Behavior. New York: Plenum Press.

Bale, J., and J. Sang. 1996. Kenyan Running. London: Frank Cass.

Beck, S. D. 1980. Insect Photoperiodism. New York: Academic Press.

Berg-Schosser, D. 1984. Tradition and Change in Kenya: Comparative Analysis of Seven Major Ethnic Groups. Paderborn: Ferinand Schöningh.

Cobb, W. M. 1936. Race and runners. Journal of Health and Physical Education 1:3–7, 53–55.

Daniels, J. 1975. Science on the altitude factor. In The African Running Revolution, D. Prokop, ed. Mountain View, Calif.: World Publications.

Derderian, T. 1994. Boston Marathon: The History of the World’s Premier Running Event. Champaign, Ill.: Human Kinetics.

Derr, M. 1996. The making of a marathon mutt. Natural History 3:35–40.

Donovan, C. M., and G. A. Brooks. 1983. Endurance training affects lactate clearance, not lactate production. Amer. J. Physiol. 244:E82–E92.

Hoberman, J. 1952. Mortal Engines: The Science of Performance and the Dehumanization of Sport. New York: Free Press.

Saltin, B., et. al. 1995. Aerobic exercise capacity at sea level and at altitude in Kenyan boys, junior and senior runners compared with Scandinavian runners. Scand. Journ. on Science in Sports 5(4):209–21.

Wiggin, D. 1999. “Great speed but little stamina”: The historical debate over black superiority. Journal of Sports History 16(2):158–85.

Wehner, R. A., A. C. Marsh, and S. Wehner. 1992. Desert ants on a thermal tightrope. Nature 357:586–87.

Chapter 15

Revkin, A. C. 1989. Sleeping beauties: The bear’s strategies of getting through the winter. Discover (April): 62–65.

Chapter 16

Allport, S. 1999. The Primal Feast. New York: Harmony Books.

Battley, P. F., T. Piersma, M. W. Dietz, S. Tang, A. Dekinga, and K. Hulsman. 1999. Empirical evidence for differential organ reductions during trans-oceanic bird flight. Proc. Royal Soc. London B 267:191–95.

Biebach, H. 1998. Phenotypic organ flexibility in garden warbler Sylvia borin during long-distance migration. J. Avian Biol. 29: 529–35.

Karasov, W. H., and B. Pinshow. 1998. Changes in lean mass and in organs of nutrient assimilation in long-distance passerine migrant at a spring-time stopover site. Physiol. Zool. 71:435–48.

Larsen, C. S. 1997. Bioarcheology: Interpreting Behavior from the Human Skeleton. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chapter 17

Heinrich, B. 1979. Bumblebee Economics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Piersma, T., G. A. Gudmundsson, and K. Lilliendahl. 1999. Rapid changes in size of different functional organ and muscle groups during refueling in a long-distance migrating shorebird. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 72:405–16.

Chapter 18

Battley, P. F., T. Piersma, M. W. Dietz, S. Tang, A. Dekinga, and K. Hulsman. 1999. Empirical evidence for differential organ reductions during trans-oceanic bird flight. Proc. Royal Soc. London B 267:191–95.

Gaesser, C. A., and G. A. Brooks. 1980. Glycogen depletion following continuous and intermittent exercise to exhaustion. Journal of Applied Physiology 49:727–28.

Hochachka, P. W., and G. N. Somero. 1984. Biochemical Adaptation. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Hollaszy, J. O., and F. W. Booth. 1976. Biochemical adaptations to endurance in muscle. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 38:273–91.

Jacobs, B. L., H. van Praag, and F. H. Gaze. 2000. Depression and the birth and death of brain cells. American Scientist 88:340–54.

Krause, R. 2001. One Hundred Years of Maine Running. Self-published.

McArdle, W. D., F. I. Katch, and V. L. Katch. 1991. Exercise Physiology, Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance. 3rd ed. Philadelphia and London: Lea and Febiger.

Noakes, T. 1985. The Lore of Running. Cape Town: Oxford University Press. Piersma, T., L. Bruinzeel, R. Drent, M. Kersten, J. V. der Meer, and P. Wiersma. 1996. Variability in basal metabolic rate of a long-distance migrant shorebird (red knot, Calidris canutus) reflects shifts in organ sizes. Physiol. Zool. 69:191–217.

Sleamaker, R. 1989. Serious Training for Serious Athletes. Champaign, Ill.: Leisure Press.

Chapter 19

Steinberg, D., and J. C. Khoo. 1977. Hormone-sensitive lipase of adipose tissue. Fed. Proc. 36:1986–90.