The 4 Percent Universe: Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and the Race to Discover the Rest of Reality - Richard Panek (2011)

Works Cited

Citations of works of central importance to this book list all authors. Citations of works of more tangential interest by more than two authors list only the first author, followed by "et al."

Abazajian, Kevork N., et al. 2009. Astrophysical Journal Supplement 182:543–58.

Alcock, C., et al. 1993. "Possible Gravitational Microlensing of a Star in the Large Magellanic Cloud." Nature 365: 621–23.

Alpher, R. A., and R. C. Herman. 1948. "Evolution of the Universe." Nature 162: 774–75.

Anton, Ted. 2001. Bold Science: Seven Scientists Who Are Changing Our World. New York: W. H. Freeman.

Aubourg, E., et al. 1993. "Evidence for Gravitational Microlensing by Dark Objects in the Galactic Halo." Nature 365: 623–25.

Australian Astronomers Oral History Project. Interview of Brian Schmidt by Ragbir Bhathal, June 15, 2006. National Library of Australia.

Baade, W. 1938. "The Absolute Photographic Magnitude of Supernovae." Astrophysical Journal 88: 285–304.

Bartusiak, Marcia. 1993. Through a Universe Darkly: A Cosmic Tale of Ancient Ethers, Dark Matter, and the Fate of the Universe. New York: HarperCollins.

Bernstein, Jeremy. 1986. Three Degrees above Zero. New York: New American Library.

Bernstein, Jeremy, and Gerald Feinberg, eds. 1986. Cosmological Constants: Papers in Modern Cosmology. New York: Columbia University Press.

Bondi, H., and T. Gold. 1948. "The Steady-State Theory of the Expanding Universe." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 108:252–70.

Bosma, A. 1978. "The Distribution and Kinematics of Neutral Hydrogen in Spiral Galaxies of Various Morphological Types." PhD diss., Groningen University, Groningen, Neth.

Boynton, Paul. 2009. "Testing the Fireball Hypothesis." In Finding the Big Bang, ed. P. James E. Peebles, Lyman A. Page, Jr., and R. Bruce Partridge. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Burbidge, E. Margaret, G. R. Burbidge, William A. Fowler, and F. Hoyle. 1957. "Synthesis of the Elements in Stars." Reviews of Modern Physics 29:547–650.

Burke, Bernard F. 2009. "Radio Astronomy from the First Contacts to the CMBR." In Finding the Big Bang, ed. P. James E. Peebles, Lyman A. Page, Jr., and R. Bruce Partridge. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Carroll, Sean M., William H. Press, and Edwin L. Turner. 1992. "The Cosmological Constant." Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 30:499–542.

Colgate, Stirling A., Elliott P. Moore, and Richard Carlson. 1975. "A Fully Automated Digitally Controlled 30-inch Telescope." Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 87: 565–75.

Crowe, Michael J. 1990. Theories of the World from Ptolemy to Copernicus. New York: Dover.

Davis, M. 1982. "Galaxy Clustering and the Missing Mass." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 307: 111–19.

Davis, M., J. Huchra, D. W. Latham, and J. Tonry. 1982. "A Survey of Galaxy Redshifts, II: The Large Scale Space Distribution." Astrophysical Journal 253: 423–45.

Davis, Marc, and P. J. E. Peebles. 1983. "A Survey of Galaxy Redshifts, V: The Two-Point Position and Velocity Correlations." Astrophysical Journal 267: 465–82.

Davis, Marc, Piet Hut, and Richard A. Muller. 1984. "Terrestrial Catastrophism: Nemesis or Galaxy?" Nature 308: 715–17. de Vaucouleurs, Gérard. 1953. "Evidence for a Local Supergalaxy." Astronomical Journal 58:30–32.

Dicke, R. H., and P. J. E. Peebles. 1965. "Gravitation and Space Science." Space Science Reviews 4: 419–60.

Dicke, R. H., P. J. E. Peebles, P. G. Roll, and D. T. Wilkinson. 1965. "Cosmic Black-Body Radiation." Astrophysical Journal 142: 414–19.

Doroshkevich, A. G., and I. D. Novikov. 1964. "Mean Density of Radiation in the Metagalaxy and Certain Problems in Relativistic Cosmology." Soviet Physics Doklady 9: 111.

Einstein, Albert. 1917. "Cosmological Considerations on the General Theory of Relativity." Reprinted in Cosmological Constants: Papers in Modern Cosmology, ed. Jeremy Bernstein and Gerald Feinberg. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986.

——. 1934. "On the Method of Theoretical Physics." Reprinted in Ideas and Opinions, ed. Carl Seelig. New York: Bonanza Books, 1954.

Eisenstein, Daniel, et al. 2005. "Detection of the Baryon Acoustic Peak in the Large-Scale Correlation Function of SDSS Luminous Red Galaxies." Astrophysical Journal 633: 560–74.

Faber, S. M., and J. S. Gallagher. 1979. "Masses and Mass-to-Light Ratios of Galaxies." Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 17: 135–87.

Filippenko, Alexei V. 2001. "Einstein's Biggest Blunder? High-Redshift Supernovae and the Accelerating Universe." Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 113: 1441–48.

Finkbeiner, Ann. 1992. "Cosmologists Search the Universe for a Dubious Panacea." Science 256: 319–20.

Gamow, G. 1946. "Rotating Universe?" Nature 158: 549.

——. 1948. "The Evolution of the Universe." Nature 162: 680–82.

Garnavich, Peter M., Robert P. Kirshner, Peter Challis, John Tonry, Ron L. Gilliland, R. Chris Smith, Alejandro Clocchiatti, Alan Diercks, Alexei V. Filippenko, Mario Hamuy, Craig J. Hogan, B. Leibundgut, M. M. Phillips, David Reiss, Adam G. Riess, Brian P. Schmidt, J. Spyromilio, Christopher Stubbs, Nicholas B. Suntzeff, and Lisa Wells. 1998. "Constraints on Cosmological Models from Hubble Space Telescope Observations of High-z Supernovae." Astrophysical Journal 493: L53-L57.

Gates, Evalyn. 2009. Einstein's Telescope: The Hunt for Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe. New York: W. W. Norton.

Geller, Margaret J., and John P. Huchra. 1989. "Mapping the Universe." Science 246: 897–903.

Gibbons, G. W., S. W. Hawking, and S. T. C. Siklos, eds. 1985. The Very Early Universe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gilliland, Ronald L., Peter E. Nugent, and M. M. Phillips. 1999. "High-Redshift Supernovae in the Hubble Deep Field." Astrophysical Journal 521:30–49.

Gingerich, Owen. 1994. "The Summer of 1953: A Watershed for Astrophysics." Physics Today 47: 34–40.

Glanz, James. 1995. "To Learn the Universe's Fate, Observers Clock Its Slowdown." Science 269: 756–57.

——. 1996. "Debating the Big Questions." Science 273: 1168–70.

——. 1997. "New Light on Fate of the Universe." Science 278: 799–800.

——. 1998a. "Exploding Stars Point to a Universal Repulsive Force." Science 279: 651–52.

——. 1998b. "Astronomers See a Cosmic Antigravity Force at Work."

Science 279: 1298–99.

Glazebrook, Karl. 2006. "The WiggleZ Survey." PowerPoint presentation.

Goldhaber, Gerson. 1994. "Discovery of the Most Distant Supernovae and the Quest for Omega." Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, LBNL Paper LBL-36361.

Goobar, Ariel, and Saul Perlmutter. 1995. "Feasibility of Measuring the Cosmological Constant Λ and Mass Density Ω Using Type Ia Supernovae." Astrophysical Journal 450: 14–18.

Gunn, James E., and Beatrice M. Tinsley. 1975. "An Accelerating Universe." Nature 257: 454–57.

Guth, Alan H. 1981. "The Inflationary Universe: A Possible Solution to the Horizon and Flatness Problems." Physical Review D 23: 347–56.

——. 1998. The Inflationary Universe: The Quest for a New Theory of Cosmic Origins. New York: Basic Books.

Hamuy, Mario, M. M. Phillips, José Maza, Nicholas B. Suntzeff, R. A. Schommer, and R. Aviles. 1995. "A Hubble Diagram of Distant Type Ia Supernovae." Astronomical Journal 109: 1–13.

Happer, W., P. J. E. Peebles, and David Wilkinson. 1999. "Robert Henry Dicke, 1916–1997." Biographical Memoirs 77. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Hemingway, Ernest. 1966. "Indian Camp." In The Short Stories of Ernest Hemingway. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons.

Hewitt, Adelaide, Geoffrey Burbidge, and Li Zhi Fang, eds. 1987. Observational Cosmology. Proceedings of the 124th Symposium of the International Astronomical Union, Beijing, China, August 25–30, 1986. Dordrecht, Neth.: D. Reidel.

Hoyle, F. 1948. "A New Model for the Expanding Universe." Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 108: 372–82.

Hubble, Edwin. 1936. The Realm of the Nebulae. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Irion, Robert. 2002. "The Bright Face behind the Dark Sides of Galaxies." Science 295: 960–61.

Kare, Jordin'T., Carlton R. Pennypacker, Richard A. Muller, Terry S. Mast, Frank S. Crawford, and M. Shane Burns. 1981. "The Berkeley Automated Supernova Search." Presented at the North American Treaty Organization/Advanced Study Institute on Supernovae, Cambridge, England, June 28-July 10, 1981.

Kim, A., et al. 1995. "K Corrections for Type Ia Supernovae and a Test for Spatial Variation of the Hubble Constant." Presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute Thermonuclear Supernovae Conference, Aiguablava, Spain, June 20–30, 1995.

Kirshner, Robert P. 2002. The Extravagant Universe: Exploding Stars, Dark Energy, and the Accelerating Cosmos. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Kolb, Edward W., and Michael S. Turner. 1993. The Early Universe. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Kolb, Edward W., Michael S. Turner, David Lindley, Keith Olive, and David Seckel. 1986. Inner Space/Outer Space: The Interface between Cosmology and Particle Physics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Kragh, Helge. 1996. Cosmology and Controversy: The Historical Development of Two Theories of the Universe. Princeton, NJ: Princet on University Press.

Krauss, Lawrence M., and Michael S. Turner. 1995. "The Cosmological Constant Is Back." General Relativity and Gravitation 27: 1137–44.

Leibundgut, B., J. Spyromlio, J. Walsh, B. P. Schmidt, M. M. Phillips, N. B. Suntzeff, M. Hamuy, R. A. Schommer, R. Aviles, R. P. Kirshner, A. Riess, P. Challis, P. Garnavich, C. Stubbs, C. Hogan, A. Dressler, and R. Ciardullo. 1995. "Discovery of a Supernova (SN 1995K) at a Redshift of 0.478." ESO Messenger 81: 19–20.

Lightman, Alan, and Roberta Brawer. 1990. Origins: The Lives and Worlds of Modern Cosmologists. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Livio, Mario, ed. 2003. The Dark Universe: Matter, Energy, and Gravity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Massey, Richard, et al. 2007. "Dark Matter Maps Reveal Cosmic Scaffolding." Nature 445: 286–90.

Mather, John C., and John Boslough. 2008. The Very First Light: The True Inside Story of the Scientific Journey Back to the Dawn of the Universe. New York: Basic Books.

National Research Council of the National Academies. 2003. Connecting Quarks with the Cosmos: Eleven Science Questions for the New Century. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Newberg, Heidi Jo Marvin. 1992. "Measuring q0 Using Supernovae at z ≈ 0.3." PhD diss., University of California, Berkeley, and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.

Newton, Isaac. 1999. The Principia: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, trans. I. Bernard Cohen and Anne Whitman. Berkeley: University of California Press.

O'Connor, Flannery. 1979. "Writing Short Stories." In Mysteries and Manners. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.

Ohm, E. A. 1961. "Receiving System." Bell System Technical Journal 40:1045.

Ostriker, J. P., and P. J. E. Peebles. 1973. "A Numerical Study of the Stability of Flattened Galaxies: Or, Can Cold Galaxies Survive?" Astrophysical Journal 186: 467–80.

Ostriker, J. P., P. J. E. Peebles, and A. Yahil. 1974. "The Size and Mass of Galaxies, and the Mass of the Universe." Astrophysical Journal 193: L1-L4.

Ostriker, J. P., and Paul J. Steinhardt. 1995. "The Observational Case for a Low-Density Universe with a Non-Zero Cosmological Constant." Nature 377: 600–2. Overbye, Dennis. 1992. Lonely Hearts of the Cosmos: The Scientific Quest for the Secret of the Universe. New York: Harper Perennial.

——. 1996. "Weighing the Universe." Science 272: 1426–28.

Paczynski, Bohdan. 1986a. "Gravitational Microlensing at Large Optical Depth." Astrophysical Journal 301: 503–16.

——. 1986b. "Gravitational Microlensing by the Galactic Halo." Astrophysical Journal 304: 1–5.

Pais, Abraham. 1997. 'Subtle Is the Lord...': The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Peacock, John A., et al. 2001. "A Measurement of the Cosmological Mass Density from Clustering in the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey." Nature 410: 169–73.

Peebles, P. J. E. 1965. "The Black-Body Radiation Content of the Universe and the Formation of Galaxies." Astrophysical Journal 142: 1317–26.

——. 1969. "Cosmology." Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada 63: 4–31.

——. 1970. "Structure of the Coma Cluster of Galaxies." Astronomical Journal 75:13–20.

——. 1974. Physical Cosmology. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

——. 1984. "Tests of Cosmological Models Constrained by Inflation." Astrophysical Journal 284: 439–44.

——. 1999. "Penzias and Wilson's Discovery of the Cosmic Microwave Background." Astrophysical Journal 525C: 1067–68.

——. 2003. "Open Problems in Cosmology." http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0311435v1.

——. 2009. "How I Learned Physical Cosmology." In Finding the Big Bang, ed. P. James E. Peebles, Lyman A. Page, Jr., and R. Bruce Partridge. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Peebles, P. J. E., and J. T. Yu. 1970. "Primeval Adiabatic Perturbation in an Expanding Universe." Astrophysical Journal 162: 815–36.

Peebles, P. James E., Lyman A. Page, Jr., and R. Bruce Partridge, eds. 2009. Finding the Big Bang. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Penzias, Arno. 1992. "The Origin of Elements." In Nobel Lectures in Physics, 1971–1980, ed. Stig Lundqvist. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co.

——. 2009. "Encountering Cosmology." In Finding the Big Bang, ed. P. James E. Peebles, Lyman A. Page, Jr., and R. Bruce Partridge. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Penzias, A. A., and R. W. Wilson. 1965. "A Measurement of Excess Antenna Temperature at 4080 Mc/s." Astrophysical Journal 142: 419–21.

Perlmutter, Saul. 1986. "An Astrometric Search for a Stellar Companion to the Sun." PhD diss., Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley.

Perlmutter, S., G. Aldering, M. Della Valle, S. Deustua, R. S. Ellis, S. Fabbro, A. Fruchter, G. Goldhaber, D. E. Groom, I. M. Hook, A. G. Kim, M. Y. Kim, R. A. Knop, C. Lidman, R. G. McMahon, P. Nugent, R. Pain, N. Panagia, C. R. Pennypacker, P. Ruiz-Lapuente, B. Schaefer, and N. Walton. 1998. "Discovery of a Supernova Explosion at Half the Age of the Universe." Nature 391: 51–54.

Perlmutter, S., G. Aldering, G. Goldhaber, R. A. Knop, P. Nugent, P. G. Castro, S. Deustua, S. Fabbro, A. Goobar, D. E. Groom, I. M. Hook, A. G. Kim, M. Y. Kim, J. C. Lee, N. J. Nunes, R. Pain, C. R. Pennypacker, R. Quimby, C. Lidman, R. S. Ellis, M. Irwin, R. G. McMahon, P. Ruiz-Lapuente, N. Walton, B. Schaefer, B. J. Boyle, A. V. Filippenko, T. Matheson, A. S. Fruchter, N. Panagia, H. J. M. Newberg, and W. J. Couch. 1999. "Measurements of Ω and Λ from 42 High-Redshift Supernovae." Astrophysical Journal 517: 565–86.

Perlmutter, S., S. Deustua, S. Gabi, G. Goldhaber, D. Groom, I. Hook, A. Kim, M. Kim, J. Lee, R. Pain, C. Penypacker, I. Small, A. Goobar, R. Ellis, R. McMahon, B. Boyle, P. Bunclark, D. Carter, K. Glazebrook, M. Irwin, H. Newberg, A. V. Filippenko, T. Matheson, M. Dopita, J. Mould, and W. Couch. 1995. "Scheduled Discoveries of 7 + High-Redshift Supernovae: First Cosmology Results and Bounds on q0." Presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute Thermonuclear Supernovae Conference, Aiguablava, Spain, June 20–30, 1995b.

Perlmutter, S., S. Gabi, G. Goldhaber, A. Goobar, D. E. Groom, I. M. Hook, A. G. Kim, M. Y. Kim, J. C. Lee, R. Pain, C. R. Pennypacker, I. A. Small, R. S. Ellis, R. G. McMahon, B. J. Boyle, P. S. Bunclark, D. Carter, M. J. Irwin, K. Glazebrook, H. J. M. Newberg, A. V. Filippenko, T. Matheson, M. Dopita, and W. J. Couch. 1997. "Measurements of the Cosmological Parameters Ω and Λ from the First Seven Supernovae at z [[[gteq.gif]]] 0.35." Astrophysical Journal 483: 565–81.

Perlmutter, S., C. R. Pennypacker, G. Goldhaber, A. Goobar, R. A. Muller, H. J. M. Newberg, J. Desai, A. G. Kim, M. Y. Kim, I. A. Small, B. J. Boyle, C. S. Crawford, R. G. McMahon, P. S. Bunclark, D. Carter, M. J. Irwin, R. J. Terlevich, R. S. Ellis, K. Glazebrook, W. J. Couch, J. R. Mould, T. A. Small, and R. G. Abraham. 1995a. "A Supernova at z = 0.458 and Implications for Measuring the Cosmological Deceleration." Astrophysical Journal Letters440: L41-L44.

Petrossian, V., E. Salpeter, and P. Szekeres. 1967. "Quasi-Stellar Objects in Universes with Non-Zero Cosmological Constant." Astrophysical Journal 147: 1222–26.

Phillips, M. M. 1993. "The Absolute Magnitudes of Type Ia Supernovae." Astrophysical Journal 413: L105-L108.

Raup, David M., and J. John Sepkoski, Jr. 1984. "Periodicity of Extinctions in the Geologic Past." Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 81: 801–5.

Riess, Adam G., William H. Press, and Robert P. Kirshner. 1995a. "Using Type Ia Supernova Light Curve Shapes to Measure the Hubble Constant." Astrophysical Journal Letters 438: L17-L20.

——. 1995b. "Determining the Motion of the Local Group Using SN

Ia Light Curve Shapes." Astrophysical Journal Letters 445: L91-L94.

——. "A Precise Distance Indicator: Type Ia Supernova Multicolor Light-Curve Shapes." Astrophysical Journal 473: 88–109.

Riess, Adam G., Alexei V. Filippenko, Peter Challis, Alejandro Clocchiatti, Alan Diercks, Peter M. Garnavich, Ron L. Gilliland, Craig J. Hogan, Saurabh Jha, Robert P. Kirshner, B. Leibundgut, M. M. Phillips, David Reiss, Brian P. Schmidt, Robert A. Schommer, R. Chris Smith, J. Spyromilio, Christopher Stubbs, Nicholas B. Suntzeff, and John Tonry. 1998. "Observational Evidence from Supernovae for an Accelerating Universe and a Cosmological Constant." Astronomical Journal 16: 1009–38.

Riess, Adam G., Peter E. Nugent, Ronald L. Gilliland, Brian P. Schmidt, John Tonry, Mark Dickinson, Rodger I. Thompson, Tamás Budavári, Stefano Casertano, Aaron S. Evans, Alexei V. Filippenko, Mario Livio, David B. Sanders, Alice E. Shapley, Hyron Spinrad, Charles C.

Steidel, Daniel Stern, Jason Surace, and Sylvain Veilleux. 2001. "The Farthest Known Supernova: Support for an Accelerating Universe and a Glimpse of the Epoch of Deceleration." Astrophysical Journal 560: 49–71.

Riess, Adam G., Louis-Gregory Strolger, John Tonry, Stefano Casertano, Henry C. Ferguson, Bahram Mobasher, Peter Challis, Alexei V. Filippenko, Saurabh Jha, Weidong Li, Ryan Chornock, Robert P. Kirshner, Bruno Leibundgut, Mark Dickinson, Mario Livio, Mauro Giavalisco, Charles C. Steidel, Txitxo Benítez, and Zlatan Tsvetanov. 2004. "Type Ia Supernova Discoveries at z > 1 from the Hubble Space Telescope: Evidence for Past Deceleration and Constraints on Dark Energy Evolution." Astrophysical Journal 607: 665–87.

Riess, Adam G., Louis-Gregory Strolger, Stefano Casertano, Henry C. Ferguson, Bahram Mobasher, Ben Gold, Peter J. Challis, Alexei V. Filippenko, Saurabh Jha, Weidong Li, John Tonry, Ryan Foley, Robert P. Kirshner, Mark Dickinson, Emily MacDonald, Daniel Eisenstein, Mario Livio, Josh Younger, Chun Xu, Tomas Dahlén, and Daniel Stern. 2007. "New Hubble Space Telescope Discoveries of Type Ia Supernovae at z >= 1: Narrowing Constraints on the Early Behavior of Dark Energy." Astrophysical Journal 659: 98–121.

Riordan, Michael, and David N. Schramm. 1991. The Shadows of Creation: Dark Matter and the Structure of the Universe. New York: W. H. Freeman.

Rubin, Vera Cooper. 1951. "Differential Rotation of the Inner Metagalaxy." Astronomical Journal 1190: 47–48.

——. 1954. "Fluctuations in the Space Distribution of the Galaxies."

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 40: 541–49.

——. 1983. "The Rotation of Spiral Galaxies." Science 220: 1339–44.

——. 1997. Bright Galaxies, Dark Matters. Woodbury, NY: AIP Press.

——. 2003. "A Brief History of Dark Matter." In The Dark Universe:

Matter, Energy, and Gravity, ed. Mario Livio. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

——. 2006. "Seeing Dark Matter in the Andromeda Galaxy." Physics Today 59: 8–9.

Rubin, Vera C., Jaylee Burley, Ahmad Kiasatpoor, Benny Klock, Gerald Pease, Erich Rutscheidt, and Clayton Smith. 1962. "Kinematic Studies of Early-Type Stars, I: Photometric Survey, Space Motions, and Comparison with Radio Observations." Astronomical Journal 67: 491–531.

Rubin, Vera C., W. Kent Ford, Jr., and Judith S. Rubin. 1973. "A Curious Distribution of Radial Velocities of Sc I Galaxies with 14.0 [[[lteq.gif]]] m [[[lteq.gif]]] 15.0." Astrophysical Journal 183: L111-L115.

Rubin, Vera C., W. Kent Ford, Jr., Norbert Thonnard, Morton S. Roberts, and John A. Graham. 1976a. "Motion of the Galaxy and the Local Group Determined from the Velocity Anisotropy of Distant Sc I Galaxies, I: The Data." Astronomical Journal 81: 687–718.

Rubin, Vera C., Norbert Thonnard, W. Kent Ford, Jr., and Morton S. Roberts. 1976b. "Motion of the Galaxy and the Local Group Determined from the Velocity Anisotropy of Distant Sc I Galaxies, II: The Analysis for the Motion." Astronomical Journal 81: 719–37.

Rubin, Vera C., W. Kent Ford, Jr., and Norbert Thonnard. 1978. "Extended Rotation Curves of High-Luminosity Spiral Galaxies, IV: Systematic Dynamical Properties, SA→SC." Astrophysical Journal 225: L107-L111.

Sandage, Allan. 1970. "Cosmology: The Search for Two Numbers." Physics Today 23: 34–41.

——. 1987. "Observational Cosmology 1920–1985: An Introduction to the Conference." In Observational Cosmology (Proceedings of the 124th Symposium of the International Astronomical Union, Beijing, China, Aug. 25–30, 1986), ed. Adelaide Hewitt, Geoffrey Burbidge, and Li Zhi Fang. Dordrecht, Neth.: D. Reidel.

Smith, Sinclair. 1936. "The Mass of the Virgo Cluster." Astrophysical Journal 83:23–30.

Smoot, George, and Keay Davidson. 1994. Wrinkles in Time: Witness to the Birth of the Universe. New York: Harper Perennial.

Stachel, John, ed. 1998. Einstein's Miraculous Year: Five Papers That Changed the Face of Physics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Staniszewski, Z., et al. 2009. "Galaxy Clusters Discovered with a Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect Survey." Astrophysical Journal 701: 32–41.

Thompson, Silvanus P. 1910. The Life of William Thomson, Baron Kelvin of Largs. London: Macmillan and Co.

Tolman, Richard C. 1987. Relativity, Thermodynamics, and Cosmology. New York: Dover.

Tryon, Edward P. 1973. "Is the Universe a Quantum Fluctuation?" Nature 246:396–97.

Turner, Kenneth C. 2009. "Spreading the Word—or How the News Went from Princeton to Holmdel." In Finding the Big Bang, ed. P. James E. Peebles, Lyman A. Page, Jr., and R. Bruce Partridge. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Turner, Michael S. 1998a. "Cosmology Solved? Maybe." http://arxiv. org/abs/astro-ph/9811366.

——. 1998b. "Cosmology Solved?" http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/ 9811447.

——. 1999. "Cosmology Solved? Quite Possibly!" Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 111: 264–73.

——. 2009. "David Norman Schramm, 1945–1997: A Biographical Memoir." Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.

Turner, M. S., G. Steigman, and L. M. Krauss. 1984. "Flatness of the Universe: Reconciling Theoretical Prejudices with Observational Data." Physical Review Letters 52: 2090–93.

Uomoto, A., and R. P. Kirshner. 1985. "Peculiar Type I Supernovas." Astronomy and Astrophysics 149: L7-L9.

van Bibber, Karl, and Leslie J. Rosenberg. 2006. "Ultrasensitive Searches for the Axion." Physics Today 59 (Aug.): 30–35.

Weinberg, Steven. 1993. The First Three Minutes: A Modern View of the Origin of the Universe. New York: Basic Books.

White, Simon D. M. 2007. "Fundamentalist Physics: Why Dark Energy Is Bad for Astronomy." Reports on Progress in Physics 70: 883–97.

Wilczek, Frank. 1985. "Conference Summary and Concluding Remarks." In The Very Early Universe, ed. G. W. Gibbons, S. W. Hawking, and S. T. C. Siklos. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

——. 1991. "The Birth of Axions." Current Contents 22: 8–9.

Wilkinson, David T. 2009. "Measuring the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation." In Finding the Big Bang, ed. P. James E. Peebles, Lyman A. Page, Jr., and R. Bruce Partridge. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Wilson, Robert W. 1992. "The Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation." In Nobel Lectures in Physics, 1971–1980, ed. Stig Lundqvist. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co.

——. 2009. "Two Astronomical Discoveries." In Finding the Big Bang, ed. P. James E. Peebles, Lyman A. Page, Jr., and R. Bruce Partridge. New York: Cambridge University Press. Zwicky, Fritz. 1933. "Die Rotverschiebung von extragalaktischen Nebeln." Helvetica Physica Acta 6: 110–27.

——. 1937. "On the Masses of Nebulae and of Clusters of Nebulae."

Astrophysical Journal 86: 217–46.