The 4 Percent Universe: Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and the Race to Discover the Rest of Reality - Richard Panek (2011)


In the notes that follow, interviews are cited by the last name of the subject of the interview in boldface—for example, "Jones." The author is grateful to the following for their generosity with their time and knowledge, and apologizes for any omissions.

Eric Adelberger

Richard Ellis

Daniel Akerib

Alex Filippenko

Greg Aldering

Ann K. Finkbeiner*

Elena Aprile

Brenna Flaugher

Steve Asztalos

W. Kent Ford

Jonathan Bagger

Josh Frieman

Bradford Benson

Peter Garnavich

Blas Cabrera

Neil Gehrels

Robert Cahn

Elizabeth George

John Carlstrom

James Glanz

Sean Carroll

Gerson Goldhaber

Douglas Clowe

Ariel Goobar

Juan Collar

Don Groom

Jodi Cooley

Alan Guth

Tom Crawford

Mario Hamuy

Robert P. Crease

Gary Hill

Abigail Crites

Steve Holland

William L. Holzapfel

Nikhil Padmanabhan

Isobel Hook

Robert J. Paulos

Michael T. Hotz

P. James E. Peebles

Wayne Hu

Carl Pennypacker

Per Olof Hulth

Saul Perlmutter

Alex Kim

Mark Phillips

Darin Shawn Kinion

Paul Preuss

Robert P. Kirshner

Oriol Pujolas

Stuart Klein

Adam Riess

Edward W. Kolb

Natalie Roe

Mark Krasberg

Leslie Rosenberg

Andrey Kravtsov

Rob Roser

Robin Lafever

Vera Rubin

Bruno Leibundgut

Bernard Sadoulet

Michael Levi

Allan Sandage

Eric Linder

Kathryn Schaffer

Mario Livio

David Schlegel

Robert Lupton

Brian Schmidt

Rupak Mahapatra

Lee Smolin

Stephen P. Maran

George Smoot

Stacy McGaugh

Steph Snedden

Jeff McMahon

Helmuth Spieler

Russet McMillan

Nicholas Suntzeff

Mordehai Milgrom

Karl van Bibber

Richard Muller

Keith Vanderlinde

Robert Naeye

Rick van Kooten

Heidi Newberg

Christof Wetterich

Peter Nugent

Hongsheng Zhao

Jeremiah Ostriker


The following oral histories are cited by the last name of the interview subject and either "AIP" (American Institute of Physics) or "NLA" (National Library of Australia)—for example, "Jones AIP."

Interview of Richard Ellis by Ursula Pavlish, Niels Bohr Library & Archives, American Institute of Physics, College Park, MD, July 27, 2007, AIP.

Interview of Sandra M. Faber by Patrick McCray, July 31, 2002, AIP,
Interview of Alex Kim by Ursula Pavlish, July 31, 2007, AIP.
Interview of Robert Kirshner by Ursula Pavlish, August 3, 2007, AIP.
Interview of Eric Linder by Ursula Pavlish, August 1, 2007, AIP.
Interview of P. James E. Peebles by Christopher Smeenk on April 4 and 5, 2002,
Interview of Vera Cooper Rubin by David DeVorkin, May 9, 1996, AIP,
Interview of Brian Schmidt by Ragbir Bhathal, June 15, 2006, Australian Astronomers oral history project, NLA.


[>] "'I know,' said Nick": Hemingway, p. 92.


[>] The time had come: Cooley, Mahapatra.

[>] "We're just a bit": Lawrence Krauss, "New Views of the Universe: Extra Dimensions, Dark Energy, and Cosmic Adventures," Harris Theater, Chicago, Dec. 12, 2005.


[>] Dicke helped run: Happer et al., p. 3.
he sometimes got: Peebles.
"Well, boys": Wilkinson, p. 204.
deflation or disappointment: Peebles.

[>] If the caller: Peebles 2009, p. 191.
After the five: Penzias 2009, p. 151.
in 1960: Wilson 1992, p. 463.
Telstar: Penzias 2009, p. 146.
from the fringes: Penzias 2009, p. 147.
Penzias had built: Wilson 2009, p. 164.
New York City: Wilson 1992, p. 475.
The phases: Bernstein, p. 215.

[>] They put tape: Wilson 1992, p. 475.
the throat of the horn: Wilson 1992, p. 475.
They caught: Weinberg, p. 47.
five scientists repaired: Penzias 2009, p. 151.
He and the two: Penzias 2009, p. 151.

6 "a beginning": O'Connor, p. 93.

[>] "bleeding-heart liberal": Peebles AIP.
On one occasion: Peebles AIP.
When Plato: Crowe, pp. 21–25.

[>] Ptolemy: Crowe, pp. 42–49.

[>] "The unrestricted": Bondi and Gold, p. 252.
"causes unknown": Hoyle, p. 372.

[>] the top student: Peebles AIP.
then one day: Peebles 2009, p. 185.
Friday evenings: Peebles AIP.
in the attic: Lightman and Brawer, p. 218.
"Dicke birds": Happer et al., p. 7.

[>] "tiny observable": Pais, p. 273.

[>] seemingly homeless: Finkbeiner.

[>] particularly muggy: Lightman and Brawer, p. 218.
"Why don't you look": Peebles.
"Why don't you go": Lightman and Brawer, p. 219.
As a graduate student: Lightman and Brawer, p. 217.
previous years' exams: Peebles.
So he studied: Peebles 2009, p. 185.
they presented cosmology: Peebles.
General relativity itself: Lightman and Brawer, p. 216.
What appalled him: Peebles 2009, p. 185.
published a paper: Einstein 1917.

[>] "They just made": Peebles 2009, p. 186.
"primarily in order": Tolman, p. 332.
Calculate the acceleration: Peebles 2009, p. 185.
"Boy, this is silly": Lightman and Brawer, p. 217.
"Having its roots": Kragh, p. 348.

[>] A radio antenna: Weinberg, pp. 45–48.
"No problem": Peebles.
Peebles delivered: Peebles 2009, p. 191.
former Dicke bird: Peebles 2009, p. 191.
at the Carnegie: K. Turner, p. 184.
mentioned the colloquium: Burke, p. 180.
to an American: Penzias 2009, p. 150.
After a brief: Burke, p. 181.

[>] On the flight: Burke, p. 180.
"We have something": Burke, p. 181.
a reciprocal meeting: Penzias 2009, p. 151.
each write a paper: Dicke et al.; Penzias and Wilson.

22 "might outlive": Wilson 1992, p. 476.
"Signals Imply": Walter Sullivan, "Signals Imply a 'Big Bang' Universe," New York Times, May 21, 1965.
been in contact: Penzias 2009, p. 152.
"bubbling with excitement": Peebles.
A subsequent search: Penzias 1992, pp. 454–56.
In 1948: Gamow 1948, p. 680.
"the temperature": Alpher and Herman, p. 775.
to the cold load: Bernstein, p. 217.
a 1961 article: Ohm, p. 1045.
but that reading: Wilson 2009, p. 169.

[>] published a paper: Doroshkevich and Novikov, p. 111.
pointing out that: Penzias 1992, pp. 454–55.
a high metabolism: Peebles.
expert downhill skier: Overbye 1992, p. 139.
"a random walk": Ann K. Finkbeiner, "Once Upon the Start of Time," The Sciences, Sept./Oct. 1992.
the scholarly process: Overbye 1992, p. 131.
hadn't done his homework: Peebles 2009, p. 192.
repeatedly bounced back: Peebles 2009, p. 191.
June 1965: Peebles 2009, pp. 191–92.
Gamow sent: Penzias 2009, p. 154.

[>] "Which is an amazing": Lightman and Brawer, p. 218.


[>] her father had helped: Lightman and Brawer, pp. 286–87.
linoleum tube: Rubin AIP.
Her second-floor: Rubin 1997, p. 203.
the stars appeared: Rubin AIP.
She memorized: Lightman and Brawer, p. 286.
in high school: Rubin AIP.
At a certain point: Lightman and Brawer, p. 286.

[>] had shown her: Rubin AIP.
"Rotating Universe?": Gamow 1946.
Then she heard: Rubin AIP.
data on the 108: Rubin 1951, p. 47.
Then she separated: Rubin AIP.
When an admissions: Irion, p. 960.

[>] When a Cornell professor: Rubin AIP.
her paper: Rubin 1951.
it was a master's thesis: Rubin AIP.
"Young Mother": "Young Mother Figures Center of Creation by
Star Motions," Washington Post, Dec. 31, 1950.
such a novice: Rubin AIP.
"at first sight fantastic": Gamow 1946.

29 She didn't even think: Rubin AIP.
She was standing: Rubin.
Her husband shared: Lightman and Brawer, p. 289.

[>] No wives: Rubin 1997, p. 187.
taken the job: Rubin AIP.
Rubin had visited: Rubin. Every time she visited: Rubin.

[>] embarrassed her: Rubin 1997, p. 189.
his own lecture: Gingerich.
two kinds of geniuses: Lightman and Brawer, p. 294.
"Is there a": Rubin AIP.
"On a large": Rubin 1997, p. 198.

[>] she had received: Rubin 1997, p. 199.
"From an analysis": de Vaucouleurs, p. 30.
a thick German: Rubin AIP.

[>] her thesis: Rubin 1954.
went on a tour: Rubin 1997, p. 87.
"Galaxies may be": Rubin AIP.
motions of 888: Rubin 1997, p. 116.
[Footnote] When the editor: Rubin.
[Footnote] the resulting paper: Rubin et al. 1962.
galactic anticenter: Rubin 1997, p. 157.
[Footnote] "This," the astronomer: Rubin 1997, p. 156.

[>] visit her friend: Rubin.
"He couldn't have": Rubin.
She said she could: Rubin.
had the choice: Rubin.
she noticed that: Rubin.

[>] Instead, it converted: Bartusiak, p. 208.
the instrument reduced: Rubin 2006, p. 8.
On the whole: Lightman and Brawer, p. 295.

[>] She needed to find: Lightman and Brawer, pp. 295–96.
"Within a galaxy": Rubin 1997, p. 1.
rather than pushing: Rubin 1997, p. 89.

37 he needed: Rubin 1997, pp. 131–32.

[>] a graduate student: Faber AIP.


[>] [Footnote] The name: Peebles 1969, p. 18.
CDC 3600: Peebles 1970, p. 15.
many magnitudes: Overbye 1992, p. 142.
security detail: Finkbeiner.
300 points: Peebles 1970, p. 13.

[>] felt that the field: Peebles 1999, p. 1067.

[>] "Gravitation and Space Science": Dicke and Peebles.
early March 1965: Dicke and Peebles, p. 419.
a note in proof: Dicke and Peebles, p. 460.
Dicke handled: Peebles.
in the introduction: Dicke and Peebles, p. 419.
In the first paragraph: Dicke and Peebles, p. 442.
"The moral of this section": Dicke and Peebles, p. 454.
this paper ran: Peebles 1965.

[>] During one presentation: Boynton, p. 303.
"The radiation": Peebles 1969, p. 20.
"distributions of mass": Peebles 1965, p. 1317.
In the fall semester: Peebles.

[>] "The great goal": Peebles 1974, p. vii.
"You measure": Peebles AIP.
a "candidate": Peebles, 1974, p. x.
"the very broad": Peebles 1974, p. xi.

[>] Jeremiah Ostriker: Ostriker.

[>] For the first simulation: Peebles.
In 1933: Zwicky 1933.
"a great mass": Smith, p. 23.
"The discrepancy seems": Rubin 2003, p. 2.

[>] Peebles himself had regarded: Peebles.

"the halo masses": Ostriker and Peebles, p. 467.

[>] "There are reasons": Ostriker et al., p. L1.
Just brilliant: Rubin.
Peebles hardly noticed: Peebles.
such intense hostility: Lightman and Brawer, p. 275.

[>] "well discussed": Rubin et al. 1973, p. L111.
"The results": Rubin et al. 1973, p. L111.
two papers: Rubin et al. 1976a, 1976b.
She didn't like: Rubin.
She would say: Lightman and Brawer, p. 305.
above the entrance: Rubin.
Besides, she and Ford: Ford.

52 In 1978 Ford: Rubin et al. 1978.
In 1975 Roberts: Rubin 2003, p. 5.
A 1978 survey: Bosma.
that radio observations: Peebles.
that optical data: Lightman and Brawer, p. 303.

[>] "Is there more": Faber and Gallagher, p. 135.
"After reviewing": Faber and Gallagher, p. 182.
"many astronomers": Rubin 2003, p. 3.
left most astronomers: Rubin 2003, p. 3.
"Nobody ever": Overbye 1992, p. 307.
"recognizing that": Rubin 1983, p. 1344.


[>] first director of the center: Sadoulet.

[>] "that all the particles":–8.txt.

[>] "And so that": Newton, p. 940.
"the small velocities": Einstein 1917, p. 26.
"at present unknown": Einstein 1917, p. 24.

[>] "probably a number": Baade, p. 287.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory:

[>] "We are an": Muller.
One day Alvarez: Muller.
had planted: Colgate et al., pp. 565–66.

[>] University of Wisconsin: Colgate et al., p. 572.
FORTRAN: Colgate et al., p. 572.
Alvarez looked up: Muller.

[>] Year after year: Muller.
Science courses: Perlmutter.

[>] pair of paleontologists: Raup and Sepkoski.
The following year: Davis et al. 1984.
his thesis: Perlmutter 1986.
the two projects: Perlmutter.

[>] In 1981: Kare et al.
Muller himself: Muller.
Pennypacker commissioned: Newberg.

70 "they are rare": Perlmutter et al. 1995b, p. 2.
already testing: Perlmutter.
From 1986 to 1988: Kirshner, pp. 168–70.

[>] For the members: Perlmutter.
The contractor: Newberg, p. 23.
without a filter: Newberg.

[>] take the computer: Newberg, p. 18.
Before long: Perlmutter.

[>] Every few months: Perlmutter.
"Look, two": Muller.
Newcomers: Goobar.
One graduate student: Kim AIP.
A postdoc: Goobar.
And then Pennypacker: Pennypacker.

[>] Muller thought: Muller.
Perlmutter stayed: Perlmutter.

[>] began to think: Pennypacker.

[>] Ellis snapped: Perlmutter.
On August 29, 1992: Ellis.


[>] Nicholas Suntzeff: Suntzeff.
Schmidt mentioned: Schmidt.

[>] in Suntzeff's experience: Suntzeff.
"How long": Schmidt.
Schmidt disappeared: Garnavich.

[>] privately review: Ellis.
publicly write: Kirshner, pp. 170–71.
serve as referee: Kirshner, p. 185.
to know photometry: Kirshner, p. 185.

[>] In the 1980s: Kirshner, pp. 180–81.
In 1989, Muller: Kirshner, pp. 178–80.

[>] "You must understand": Sandage 1987, p. 3.

"Essentially": Walter Sullivan, "A Yardstick for the Universe?" New York Times, Oct. 9, 1984.
at least two classes: Kirshner, pp. 37–38, 160–62.

[>] three supernovae: Kirshner.

[>] including Kirshner: Uomoto and Kirshner.
"There is still": Newberg, p. 13.

84 a "realist": Kirshner, p. 167.
In his role: Kirshner, p. 183.
"They hadn't": Kirshner, p. 190.
In high school: Suntzeff.

[>] "There are only": Suntzeff.
influential article: Sandage 1970.

[>] as a "preliminary": Hubble 1936, p. 20.
"plates of Moses": Overbye 1992, p. 27.

[>] Suntzeff and Sandage: Suntzeff.
He had lost: Sandage.

[>] Suntzeff was already: Suntzeff, Phillips.

[>] Mario Hamuy: Hamuy.
Bruno Leibundgut: Leibundgut.

[>] The correlation: Phillips.

[>] He wrote some: Schmidt.

[>] The first night: Leibundgut.

[>]-pixel-by-16-pixel: Schmidt.

[>] Late that night: Leibundgut.


[>] The Berkeley team: Perlmutter.

[>] "demonstration runs": Perlmutter et al. 1995b, p. 4.
"pilot search": Newberg, p. 105.
seemed oblivious: Kirshner, p. 183.
"No!": Joel Primack, "UCLA Eighth International Symposium on
Sources and Detection of Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the
Universe," Marina del Rey, Feb. 20–22, 2008.
had demonstrated: Phillips.

[>] The team often: Perlmutter.
They called it: Perlmutter et al. 1995, p. 4.

[>] "'I just heard'": Kirshner.
"working together": Kirshner.
"dimness": Riess et al. 1996, p. 90.

[>] "I've spent": Leibundgut.
"Crap!": Suntzeff.

[>] "on the smell": Schmidt.
"anarchy": Suntzeff.

[>] 1994 proposal: Riess.
a reminder: Leibundgut.
The paper: Leibundgut et al.
"We can only": Suntzeff.

105 No big guns: Suntzeff.
Mario Hamuy: Hamuy.

[>] Hamuy's: Hamuy et al., p. 1.
Riess's: Riess et al. 1995, p. L17.
"How could I": Hamuy.

[>] Everyone in astronomy: Overbye 1992, p. 188.
Even Sandage: Suntzeff.

"The answer": Overbye 1992, p. 278.
He had received: Suntzeff.

[>] Hamuy himself: Hamuy.
"We have to": Phillips.
"as if blood": Suntzeff.
that paper: Riess et al. 1995b.
"I'm a staff astronomer": Suntzeff.

[>] "Yeah": Suntzeff.
His argument: Kirshner.
And not only: Schmidt.

[>] apply for time: Leibundgut.
To make the situation: Suntzeff.

[>] In January 1996: Perlmutter.

[>] The high resolution: Kirshner, p. 203.
A month later: Perlmutter.
proposal came up: Kirshner.

He had served: Perlmutter.
began to object: Kirshner.
into his office: Kirshner, Phillips, Suntzeff.

[>] Maybe they all: Suntzeff.
Bob Cahn: Cahn.

[>] help justify: Garnavich.
announced the results: Perlmutter et al. 1997.
Gerson Goldhaber: Goldhaber.
Adam Riess: Riess.


[>] On Monday evenings: Rex Graham, "Deep-Dish Cosmologists," Astronomy, June 2001.
DuPage County: Kolb, Turner.
The classroom: Graham, "Deep-Dish Cosmologists."
"backup" hamburgers: Turner.
The topics: Graham, "Deep-Dish Cosmologists."

121 classes sometimes: Turner.
"less than elegant": Kolb.
Cheechand Chong: Turner.
Oreos-and-beer: Anton, p. 103.
"I don't believe": Perlmutter.
"butchers its young": David H. Freeman,
"Particle Hunters," Discover, Dec. 1991.
Don't be afraid: Turner.

[>] soon dropped out: Steve Nadis, "The Lost Years of Michael Turner," Astronomy, Apr. 2004.
Turneraudited: Turner.

[>] "Why don't you": Nadis, "Lost Years of Michael Turner."
"That early-universe": Turner.
this lesson: Turner.
His colleagues: David Overbye, "Remembering David Schramm, Gentle Giant of Cosmology," New York Times, Feb. 10, 1998.

[>] but the combination: Turner.
In October 1981: Guth 1998, p. 223.
"< 1 sec.": Guth 1998, p. 223.
He figured: Turner.

[>] "assumes certain": Guth 1998, p. 223.
Late in the evening: Guth 1998, pp. 167–87.

[>] The suggestion followed: Guth 1998, pp. 12–14.
"Is the Universe": Tryon, pp. 396–97.

[>] "the universe is": Guth 1998, p. 15.
Guth realized: Guth 1998, pp. 167–87.

[>] At three minutes: Smoot and Davidson, p. 161.

[>] "Yeah," Guth thought: Guth.
Guth's paper: Guth 1981, pp. 347–56.
Seventeenof the: Wilczek 1985, p. 475.

[>] Guth's original idea: Guth 1998, pp. 202–10.
In1973 Hawking: Overbye 1992, pp. 111–15.

[>] "traveling circus": Guth 1998, p. 211.
In early 1982: Guth 1998, pp. 211, 215–18.
"informal discussion": Guth 1998, p. 223.
day trips: Guth 1998, p. 232.
croquet and tea: Turner.
"a workshop where": Turner.
Duringhis talk: Guth 1998, p. 231.
"Child's play": Turner.

132 the summer of 1981: K. Turner, p. 12.

[>] tour de force: Burbidge et al.

[>] logo that showed: Kolb et al., back cover.
T-shirts: Kolb et al., p. 2.
organized a jog: Overbye 1992, p. 214.
"Buffalo Class": Kolb et al., p. 626.
"Cosmology in the": Kolb et al., p. 622.
"Whatever future": Kolb et al., p. 625.
"Perhaps future": Kolb and Turner, p. 498.
"Despite being": Kolb and Turner, p. xix.

[>] against a bar: Graham, "Deep-Dish Cosmologists."
In 1976: Smoot and Davidson, pp. 117–43.

[>] "the superclustering phenomenon": Davis, p. 111.
survey of galaxies: Geller and Huchra.

[>] "frothy": Davis et al. 1982, p. 423.
John Mather: Mather and Boslough, p. 225.
Or not: Glanz 1995.

[>] He wanted to know: Turner.

[>] Swearingen SW-3: Eric Pace, "David Schramm, 52, Expert on the Big Bang," New York Times, Dec. 22, 1997.
Turner said: Turner.


[>] Perlmutter had flown: Anton, p. 115.
seatback phone: Perlmutter.
ina paper: Perlmutter et al. 1998.

[>] "For the first time": Kathy Sawyer, "Universe Will Keep Expanding Forever, Research Teams Say," Washington Post, Jan. 9, 1998.
ata table: Perlmutter.
foran hour: Anton, p. 116.
Michael Turner: Turner.
the panels:

[>] "Dave would have": Dennis Overbye, "Remembering David
Schramm, Gentle Giant of Cosmology," New York Times, Feb. 10, 1998.

[>] "hypothetical and": Bondi and Gold, p. 263.

[>] published a paper: Petrossian et al.
"the most plausible": Gunn and Tinsley.
agree that a model: Turner.
Among them was: Wilczek 1985, p. 479.

145 Wilczek ended: Wilczek 1985, p. 480.
work on a paper: M. Turneret al. 1984.
Turnerliked to say: Turner.
"heart of hearts": Finkbeiner, p. 320.
prided himself: Ann K. Finkbeiner, "Once Upon the Start of Time," The Sciences, Sept./Oct. 1992, p. 10.

[>] "What's best": Finkbeiner, "Once Upon the Start of Time," p. 8. had emerged: Peebles.
a1983 paper: Davis and Peebles.
"High mass": Peebles.
Theirconclusion: Davis and Peebles.
"we lose the": Peebles 1984, p. 444.
"It's ugly": Finkbeiner, p. 319; Turner.
"It's an addition": Finkbeiner, p. 319.
"Considering the observations": Finkbeiner, p. 320.
The paper met: Peebles.

[>] "WHY A COSMOLOGICAL": Carroll et al., p. 501.
"The Observational Case": Ostriker and Steinhardt.
Turneragain: Krauss and Turner.
witha joke: Glanz 1996, p. 1168.
On one side: Kirshner 2002, p. 193.

[>] "(for Λ = 0)": Kim et al., p. 4.
"(for Λ = 0)": Perlmutter et al. 1995a, p. L42.
"If we assume": Goldhaber et al., p. 7.
subject of a paper: Goobar and Perlmutter.
their assumption: Goobar.
that's what Perlmutter: Perlmutter.
"This could be": Overbye 1996, p. 1428.
"jugular science": Overbye, "Remembering David Schramm."
"I don't think": Glanz.
"I am anxiously": James Glanz, "Accelerating the Cosmos," Astronomy, Oct. 1999.
submitted their data: Perlmutter et al. 1997.

[>] a can-do: Perlmutter.
OnJune 30: Nugent.

[>] submitted its paper: Perlmutter et al. 1998.

[>] "suggests that matter": Garnavich et al., p. L53.
GersonGoldhaber: Goldhaber.
"Perhaps the most": "SCP Meeting Notes, 1997 October 08."

153 "antagonistic": Goldhaber.
Incase: Perlmutter.
The two of them: Riess.

[>] "Adam is sloppy": Schmidt.
developeda routine: Riess.
signed their e-mails: Michael Anft, "Chasing the Great Beyond," Johns Hopkins Magazine, February 2008.
you're Stephen Hawking: Riess.
the phone would ring: Schmidt.
was a graduate student: Riess.

[>] Alex Filippenko: Filippenko.
Hedisliked: Filippenko.

[>] "Man": Filippenko.

[>] By January 4: Riess.
When Pete Garnavich: Garnavich.
That evening: Riess.

[>] "Perlmutter bowled": Sawyer, "Universe Will Keep Expanding Forever." had written about: Glanz 1995.
"perhaps boosted": Glanz 1997.
"a quantum-mechanical": Glanz 1998a.

[>] Filippenko would be: Filippenko.

[>] "evidence": Anton, p. 117.


[>] He was walking: Turner.
in 1976: Dennis Overbye, "Remembering David Schramm, Gentle Giant of Cosmology," New York Times, Feb. 10, 1998.

[>] broke the story: Glanz 1998b.
"a preponderance": Glanz.

[>] 1,600-word feature:John Noble Wilford, "Wary Astronomers Ponder an Accelerating Universe," New York Times, Mar. 3, 1998.
lab press release: "Supernova Cosmology Project Named in Science Magazine's Breakthrough of the Year," Dec. 17, 1998,
"Basically": John Noble Wilford, "In the Light of Dying Stars, Astronomers See Intimations of Cosmic Immortality," New York Times, Apr. 21, 1998.
"Observational Evidence": Riess et al. 1998.
A straw poll: The Editors, "Revolution in Cosmology," Scientific American, January 1999.

167 "Their highest": Turner.
"It made": Turner.

[>] "Admit it": Schmidt.
"Cosmology Solved? Maybe": M. Turner 1998a.
straightforward "Cosmology Solved?": M. Turner 1998b.

[>] "distasteful": John Noble Wilford, "New Findings Help Balance the Cosmological Books," New York Times, Feb. 9, 1999.
When he thought: Wilford, "New Findings Help Balance."
"half enthusiast": Wilford, "New Findings Help Balance."

[>] "ridiculous": Turner.
"purposefully provocative": M. Turner1999.

[>] Adam Riess: Riess.
Not only did: Carroll et al., pp. 503–4.
"No worker": Carroll et al., p. 504.

[>] "you wouldn't be able": Turner.
wouldhave cooled: Carroll et al., p. 503.

[>] "I have not": Thompson, p. 1065.
"superfluous": Stachel, p. 124.
"You observational": Filippenko.

[>] "Nobody has ever": Riess.

[>] made their point: Gilliland et al.
He couldn't stop: Riess.

[>] "astronomy of the invisible": Dennis Overbye, "From Light to Darkness: Astronomy's New Universe," New York Times, Apr. 10, 2001.

[>] Among the observers: "The Dark Universe: Matter, Energy, and Gravity," Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Apr. 2–5, 2001.
as she pointed out: Rubin 2003, p. 1.


[>] Karl van Bibber: van Bibber.
catchingan axion: van Bibber and Rosenberg, p. 31.

[>] "cold planets": Rubin 1997, p. 128.
Paczynski suggested: Paczynski 1986a, 1986b.

[>] "Of course": Gates, p. 71.
"the probability": Gates, p. 72.

188 discovered that deuterium: Riordan and Schramm, p. 81.
"baryometer": Turner 1999.
By similar reasoning: Riordan and Schramm, pp. 81–83.

[>] and perhaps higher: Riordan and Schramm, pp. 85–86.

[>] a "Great Wall": Geller and Huchra.
Two-degree-Field: Peacock et al.
Sloan Digital: Abazajian et al.
Galaxies formed first: Finkbeiner 1996.
Cosmic Evolution Survey: Massey et al.

[>] closely parsed: Clowe.

[>] "you could put": Turner.

[>] a group of twelve: Mahapatra.
"Of course": Cabrera.

[>] "We would have totally": Cooley.
"Dark matter discovered?":
"Has Dark Matter":–12/evidence-dark-matter-emerges-worlds-most-sensative-detector.
"Rumor has it":
"¿Se ha descubierto":¿se-ha-descubierto-la-materia-oscura-en-el-cdms.html.
"Pátránípo supersymetrické":
"the Thursday speakers":

[>] Discover magazine:
"The results":
"I'm in love": Rosenberg.

[>] "I called this particle": Wilczek 1991.
"vanishingly small": van Bibber.
In 1989: van Bibber.

[>] Juan Collar: Collar.

[>] "sort of a rude": van Bibber.


[>] William L. Holzapfel: Holzapfel.

[>] For Holzapfel: Holzapfel.

[>] acceleration paper: Perlmutter et al. 1999.

[>] "But I don't": Bennett.

[>] The first question: National Research Council, p. 2.

[>] "In a Universe": Michael S. Turner, "Dark Energy and the New Cosmology," in January 2002: National Research Council, p. 184.
"the most vexing": National Research Council, p. 144.

[>] Dark Universe meeting: Riess et al. 2001.
In 2004: Riess et al. 2004.
and 2006: Riess et al. 2007.
Peebles had noted: Peebles and Yu.
mapped the locations: Eisenstein et al.

[>] "I hit 'go'": George.

[>] required shipping: William Mullen, "Dark Energy in the Spotlight," Chicago Tribune, Dec. 31, 2007.
And because much: Crawford, McMahon.

[>] Twice a day: Vanderlinde.
started making noises: Crawford, McMahon.

[>] signed off on a paper: Staniszewski et al.


[>] weeklong meeting: "Origins of Dark Energy," Origins Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, May 14–17, 2007; Perimeter Institute, Waterloo, Ontario, May 18–20, 2007.

[>] "I'm the last": Schmidt.

[>] "Experience remains": Einstein 1934, p. 274.

[>] "I hold it": Einstein 1934, p. 274.
"Saul thinks": Suntzeff.
"Saul is going": Filippenko.

[>] "big enough": Riess.
"mentioned NASA": Mather and Boslough, p. 236.
"appear to be": Filippenko.

[>] Filippenko's personal: Filippenko 2001.
Kirshnerpublished: Kirshner.
"Well, it tells me": Cahn.
"The High-z accounts": Groom.

[>] "Dear Saul": Kirshner.
Over the years: Schmidt NLA.
"We announced":

227 "Thoughts on":
"Dear Bob": Perlmutter.
Kirshneraddressed: Kirshner.

[>] the feeling among some: Filippenko.
"My team": Goldhaber.
ranan article: Sharon Begley, "In 'Dark Energy,' Cosmic Humility," Newsweek, Oct. 1, 1998.
Part One began:
"Fundamentalist Physics": White.

[>] another cosmology meeting: American Astronomical Society meeting, Minneapolis, May 29-June 2, 2005.

[>] "We have not": American Astronomical Society meeting, Washington, DC, Jan. 6–10, 2002.
"deep theory": Riess.
Perlmutter liked to begin: Perlmutter.
a friend: Glazebrook.
yet one more conference: "New Views of the Universe" symposium, Chicago, Dec. 8–13, 2005.
"heyday for talking": Carroll. 232
"not worth it!": "A Decade of Dark Energy," Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, May 5–8, 2008.
"standing out": Schmidt.
"then it's a number": Livio.
one of the dark-energy conferences: "A Decade of Dark Energy," Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, May 5–8, 2008.

[>] even its defenders: McGaugh.

[>] less than a millimeter: Adelberger.

[>] "Have you heard": Peebles 2003, p. 4.

[>] didn't explain the mechanism:John Peacock, "A Decade of Dark Energy."


[>] The trumpet fanfare: Video, Peter and Patricia Gruber Foundation, New York.

240 "Let's just pause": "A Decade of Dark Energy," Space Telescope Science Institute.

[>] George Smoot's: Smoot.

[>] "The really hard problems": Turner.
"If you put": Andreas Albrecht, "Origins of Dark Energy," McMaster University.

[>] "In a very real": Rubin 1997, p. 129.
The world changesRubin.