Moonshot: The Inside Story of Mankind's Greatest Adventure - Dan Parry (2009)

NOTES

Chapter 1: The Bright Stuff

1 Named Cape Kennedy in 1963, in 1973 the area reverted to its original name of Cape Canaveral.

2 Dr James Hansen, First Man, The Life of Neil Armstrong (Simon & Schuster, 2005).

3 Ibid.

4 Ibid.

5 Ibid.

6 Ibid.

7 Ibid.

8 Ibid.

9 Ibid.

10 Ibid.

11 Ibid.

12 Ibid.

13 Ibid.

14 Ibid.

15 Ibid.

16 Ibid.

17 Ibid.

18 Interview with Dr Robert Gilruth in Glen Swanson (ed.), Before This Decade Is Out (University Press of Florida, 2002).

19 Ibid.

20 Hansen, op. cit.

21 Stephanie Nolen, Promised the Moon: The Untold Story of the First Women in the Space Race (Penguin Canada, Toronto, 2002).

22 Andrew Smith, Moondust (Bloomsbury, 2005).

23 Hansen, op. cit.

24 Deke Slayton, Deke! (Forge, 1994).

25 Hansen, op. cit.

26 Ibid.

27 Ibid.

28 Phone-call between author and Dee O'Hara, 18/2/08.

29 Hansen, op. cit.

Chapter 2: Carrying the Fire

1 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, with Gene Farmer and Dora Jane Hamblin, First on the Moon (Little Brown and Company, 1970).

2 Of the various sources of statistics detailing the Apollo 11 spacecraft and booster, one of the most detailed is the contemporary press kit, published by NASA 6 July 1969. This is currently available online and also in print (published by Apogee Books, 1999, as Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 1, edited by Robert Godwin. For references to propellants, Saturn V stages and construction of the stack, etc.)

3 Ibid.

4 Guenter Wendt, The Unbroken Chain (Apogee Books, 2001).

5 Michael Collins, Carrying the Fire (Cooper Square Press, 2001, originally published in 1974).

6 Ibid.

7 Ibid.

8 Ibid.

9 Ibid.

10 Dr James Hansen, First Man.

11 Collins, op. cit.

12 Ibid.

13 Ibid.

14 Hansen, op. cit.

15 Collins, op. cit.

16 Ibid., and Hansen, op. cit.

17 Hansen, op. cit.

18 Ibid.

19 For gifts from Armstrong and Collins given to Wendt, see Guenter Wendt, op. cit.

20 Hansen, op. cit.

21 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.

22 Collins, op. cit.

Chapter 3: Moving Targets

1 Michael Collins, Carrying the Fire.

2 Ibid.

3 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, with Gene Farmer and Dora Jane Hamblin, First on the Moon.

4 Robert Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 1 (Apogee Books, 1999).

5 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.

6 Buzz Aldrin and Wayne Warga, Return to Earth (Random House, 1973).

7 Collins, op. cit.

8 Dr James Hansen, First Man.

9 Ibid.

10 David Harland, The First Men on the Moon (Praxis Publishing, 2007).

11 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

12 Harland, op. cit.

13 Collins, op. cit.

14 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

15 For details relating to Buzz Aldrin's background, see Aldrin and Warga, op. cit., and Hansen, op. cit.

16 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

17 Ibid.

18 Ibid.

19 Hansen, op. cit.

20 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

21 Hansen, op. cit.

22 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

23 Ibid.

24 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.

Chapter 4: Finding a Way Home

1 Michael Collins, Carrying the Fire.

2 David Harland, The First Men on the Moon.

3 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, with Gene Farmer and Dora Jane Hamblin, First on the Moon.

4 Collins, op. cit.

5 Interview with George Low in Glen Swanson (ed.), Before This Decade Is Out.

6 Dr James Hansen, First Man.

7 Interview with Wernher von Braun in Swanson (ed.), op. cit.

8 More than 3,000 V-2s were subsequently fired at Britain and other countries.

9 Interview with George Low in Swanson (ed.), op. cit.

10 Ibid.

11 Robert Seamans, Project Apollo, The Tough Decisions (NASA, 2005).

12 Interview with George Low in Swanson (ed.), op. cit.

13 Seamans, op. cit.

14 Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs Page 4, John F. Kennedy Library.

15 Interview with George Low in Swanson (ed.), op. cit.

16 Seamans, op. cit.

17 http://history.nasa.gov/monograph4/against.htm, see note 55.

18 http://history.nasa.gov/monograph4/against.htm, see note 48.

19 http://history.nasa.gov/monograph4/against.htm, see note 72.

20 Seamans, op. cit.

21 Hansen, op. cit., and http://history.nasa.gov/monograph4/against.htm.

22 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.

23 Hansen, op. cit.

24 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.

25 David Shayler, Disasters and Accidents in Manned Spaceflight (Praxis, 2000).

26 Hansen, op. cit.

27 Ibid.

28 Buzz Aldrin and Wayne Warga, Return to Earth.

29 Collins, op. cit.

30 Ibid.

31 Ibid.

32 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

33 Ibid.

34 Ibid.

35 Ibid.

36 Ibid.

Chapter 5: Nowhere to Hide

1 David Harland, The First Men on the Moon.

2 Ibid.

3 For descriptions of Mission Control, see Gene Kranz, Failure Is Not an Option (Berkley, 2000); and interview with Gene Kranz in Glen Swanson (ed.), Before This Decade Is Out.

4 Chris Kraft, Flight, My Life in Mission Control (Plume, 2002).

5 Kranz, op. cit.

6 Kraft, op. cit.

7 Kranz, op. cit.

8 Buzz Aldrin and Wayne Warga, Return to Earth.

9 Ibid.

10 Dr James Hansen, First Man.

11 Ibid.; and Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, with Gene Farmer and Dora Jane Hamblin, First on the Moon.

12 Hansen, op, cit.; and Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.

13 Hansen, op. cit.

14 Ibid.

15 Ibid.

16 Ibid.; and Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.

17 Hansen, op. cit.

18 Ibid.

19 http://history.msfc.nasa.gov/saturn_apollo/first_saturn_rocket.html

20 For North American and Grumman contracts, see http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4205/ch2-5.html#source29 and http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4205/ch4-5.html

21 http://www.thespacereview.com/article/735/1

22 Interview with Robert Gilruth in Glen Swanson (ed.), op. cit.

23 Stan Redding and Walter Mansell, Houston Chronicle, 22 November 1963: http://www.chron.com/content/chronicle/special/jfk/houston/stories/dinner.html

24 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9057747/Outer-Space-Treaty#145193.hook

25 Hansen, op. cit.

26 http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/johnson/archives.hom/speeches.hom/670127.asp

27 David Shayler, Disasters and Accidents in Manned Spaceflight; and Alan Shepard and Deke Slayton,Moonshot (Turner, 1994).

28 Shayler, op. cit.; and Shepard and Slayton, op. cit.

29 Hansen, op. cit.

30 Shayler, op. cit.; and Shepard and Slayton, op. cit.

31 Hansen, op. cit.

32 Ibid.

33 Ibid.

Chapter 6: Grounded in Safety

1 Gene Kranz, Failure Is Not an Option.

2 Michael Collins, Carrying the Fire.

3 Deke Slayton, Deke!; and Collins, op. cit.

4 Slayton, op. cit.

5 Dr James Hansen, First Man.

6 Kranz, op. cit.

7 Slayton, op. cit.

8 Collins, op. cit.

9 Hansen, op. cit.

10 Ibid.; and Andrew Chaikin, A Man on the Moon (Penguin,1994).

11 Chaikin, op. cit.

12 Hansen, op. cit.

13 Kranz, op. cit.

14 Hansen, op. cit.

15 Buzz Aldrin and Wayne Warga, Return to Earth; and Slayton, op. cit.

16 Kranz, op. cit.

17 Chris Kraft, Flight.

18 Collins, op. cit.

19 Kraft, op. cit.

20 Collins, op. cit.

21 Ibid.

22 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.; also see Hansen, op. cit.

23 Hansen, op. cit.

24 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, with Gene Farmer and Dora Jane Hamblin, First on the Moon.

25 NASA's Lunar Surface Journal, at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.1201-fm.html; and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_Guidance_Computer

26 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.; and Collins, op. cit.

27 http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/attm/a11.jo.fc.1.html

28 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

29 Collins, op. cit.

30 Ibid.

31 Ibid.

Chapter 7: Risks and Risky Remedies

1 Deke Slayton, Deke!.

2 David Shayler, Disasters and Accidents in Manned Spaceflight.

3 Slayton, op. cit.

4 Ibid.

5 Dr James Hansen, First Man.

6 Michael Collins, Carrying the Fire.

7 Ibid.

8 Ibid.

9 Frank Borman, roll 386, 06:30:10.

10 Collins, op. cit.

11 Ibid.

12 Ibid.

13 Frank Borman, roll 386, 06:30:10.

14 Susan Borman, roll 388, 08:02:47:21.

15 Collins, op. cit.

16 Bill Anders, roll 1376, 16:14:22:28.

17 Andrew Chaikin, A Man on the Moon.

18 Ibid.; and Bill Anders, roll 1376 16:39:02:27.

19 Hansen, op. cit.

20 Buzz Aldrin and Wayne Warga, Return to Earth; and Hansen, op. cit.

21 Hansen, op. cit.; and personal conversation between the author and Neil Armstrong, Barcelona, 12/4/08.

22 Hansen, op. cit.

23 Ibid.

24 Ibid.

25 Ibid.

26 Ibid.

27 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, with Gene Farmer and Dora Jane Hamblin, First on the Moon.

28 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

29 Slayton, op. cit.; and Hansen, op. cit.

30 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.

31 Slayton, op. cit.

32 Ibid.

33 Chris Kraft, Flight.

34 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

35 Ibid.

36 Hansen, op. cit.

37 Collins, op. cit.

38 Ibid.

39 Hansen, op. cit.

40 Collins, op. cit.

41 Hansen, op. cit.

42 Ibid.

43 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

44 Buzz Aldrin interview, roll 382, 22:29:40:29.

45 Hansen, op. cit.

46 Slayton, op. cit.; Kraft, op. cit.; Hansen, op. cit.; and Andrew Smith, Moondust

47 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

48 Kraft, op. cit.; and Hansen, op. cit.

49 Buzz Aldrin, roll 383, 23:01:05:14.

50 Buzz Aldrin, roll 382, 22:13:01:17.

51 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

52 Ibid.

53 Slayton, op. cit.

54 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

55 Ibid.

56 Hansen, op. cit.; and Collins, op. cit.

Chapter 8: A Tissue-paper Spacecraft

1 The space shuttle does not make a powered landing, but instead relies on its aircraft-style design to glide through the lower parts of the atmosphere.

2 Dr James Hansen, First Man.

3 Ibid.

4 For references to the unidentified object, see Hansen, op. cit.; and Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

5 Buzz Aldrin and Wayne Warga, Return to Earth.

6 Deke Slayton, Deke!.

7 Chris Kraft, Flight.

8 Ibid.

9 Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 1.

10 http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4205/ch6-2.html

11 Kraft, op. cit.

12 Hansen, op. cit.

13 Ibid.

14 For references to technical details regarding the LM, see Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 1.

15 David West Reynolds, Apollo, The Epic Journey to the Moon (Tehabi, 2002).

16 Michael Collins, Carrying the Fire.

17 Gene Kranz, Failure Is Not an Option.

18 http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4205/ch12-5.html

19 Kraft, op. cit.

20 Re. Apollo 10, see Slayton, op. cit.; and Andrew Chaikin, A Man on the Moon.

21 Reynolds, op. cit.

22 Buzz Aldrin, roll 382, 22:31:12:09.

23 Hansen, op. cit.

24 Kraft, op. cit.

25 Deke being outvoted: conversation between the author and Chris Kraft, Houston, October 2007.

26 Hansen, op. cit.

27 Slayton, op. cit.

28 Hansen, op. cit.

29 Ibid.

30 Ibid.; and http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4205/ch4-5.html

31 Hansen, op. cit.

32 Ibid.

33 NASA's Lunar Surface Journal, at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/frame.html

34 Hansen, op. cit.

35 Ibid.

36 Ibid.

37 Ibid.

38 Ibid.

39 Ibid.

40 Ibid.

41 Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

42 Ibid.

43 Ibid.

44 Bill Anders, roll 1376, 16:12:38:11.

45 David Harland, The First Men on the Moon.

Chapter 9: Into the Darkness

1 Michael Collins, Carrying the Fire.

2 Ibid.

3 Ibid.

4 Dr James Hansen, First Man.

5 Ibid.

6 Ibid.

7 Andrew Chaikin, A Man on the Moon.

8 Hansen, op. cit.

9 Chaikin, op. cit.

10 Gene Cernan, roll 322, 00:06:42:20.

11 Chris Kraft, Flight.

12 Deke Slayton, Deke!; Chaikin, op. cit.; Kraft, op. cit.; and David West Reynolds, Apollo, The Epic Journey to the Moon.

13 Hansen, op. cit.

14 Gene Cernan, roll 322, 00:06:42:20

15 Reynolds, op. cit.

16 David Harland, The First Men on the Moon.

17 Hansen, op. cit.

18 Ibid.; and email to the author from Alan Bean, 11/7/08.

19 http://history.nasa.gov/alsj/LLTV-952.html

20 Collins, op. cit.

21 Harland, op. cit.

22 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, with Gene Farmer and Dora Jane Hamblin, First on the Moon.

23 Ibid.

24 W. Safire, NY Times, 12 July 1999, via NYTimes.com.

25 Hansen, op. cit.

26 Collins, op. cit.

27 Gene Kranz, roll 367, 07:36:00:09.

28 Collins, op. cit.

29 Ibid.

30 Ibid.

31 Ibid.

32 Ibid.

33 Ibid.; and Harland, op. cit.

34 Gene Kranz, Failure Is Not an Option.

35 Ibid.

36 Hansen, op. cit.

37 Ibid.

38 Kranz, op. cit.

39 Gene Kranz, roll 367, 07:30:34:16.

40 Ibid.

41 Kraft, op. cit.

42 Ibid.

43 Kranz, op. cit.

Chapter 10: Pushed to the Limit

1 Dr James Hansen, First Man.

2 Gene Kranz, Failure Is Not an Option.

3 Interview with Gene Kranz in Glen Swanson (ed.), Before This Decade Is Out.

4 Hansen, op. cit.

5 Kranz, op. cit.

6 Ibid.

7 Ibid.

8 Hansen, op. cit.

9 Ibid.

10 Interview with Gene Kranz in Swanson (ed.), op. cit.

11 Kranz, op. cit.

12 Ibid.

13 Frank Borman, roll 386, 06:34:57.

14 Hansen, op. cit.

15 Kranz, op. cit.

16 Ibid.; and Hansen, op. cit.

17 Chris Kraft, Flight.

18 Ibid.

19 Ibid.

20 Hansen, op. cit.

21 Ibid.; Kraft, op. cit.; and David Harland, The First Men on the Moon.

22 Hansen, op. cit.

23 Kraft, op. cit.

24 Hansen, op. cit.

25 Michael Collins, Carrying the Fire.

26 Ibid.

27 Buzz Aldrin and Wayne Warga, Return to Earth.

28 Hansen, op. cit.

29 Ibid.

30 Ibid.

31 Collins, op. cit.

32 Hansen, op. cit.

33 Collins, op. cit.

34 Hansen, op. cit.

35 Kranz, op. cit.

36 Ibid.

37 Hansen, op. cit.

38 Kraft, op. cit.

39 Ibid.

40 Harland, op. cit.

41 Collins, op. cit.

42 Hansen, op. cit.

43 Collins, op. cit.

44 Harland, op. cit.

45 Ibid.

46 Ibid.

47 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, with Gene Farmer and Dora Jane Hamblin, First on the Moon; and Harland, op. cit.

48 Collins, op. cit.

49 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

50 Collins, op. cit.

51 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.; and Hansen, op. cit.

52 Kraft, op. cit.; and Hansen, op. cit.

Chapter 11: A Place in History

1 David Harland, The First Men on the Moon; Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, with Gene Farmer and Dora Jane Hamblin, First on the Moon; and Dr James Hansen, First Man.

2 Michael Collins, Carrying the Fire.

3 David Shayler, Disasters and Accidents in Manned Spaceflight; and http://www.jamesoberg.com/usd10.html

4 Shayler, op. cit.; and Deke Slayton, Deke!.

5 Slayton, op. cit.; and http://www.thespacereview.com/article/188/3

6 http://www.thespacereview.com/article/735/1; and interview with Robert Gilruth in Glen Swanson (ed.), Before This Decade Is Out.

7 Hansen, op. cit.; and Slayton, op. cit.

8 Collins, op. cit.

9 Hansen, op. cit.; and Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 1.

10 Collins, op. cit.

11 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/moon/peopleevents/p_wives.html

12 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/7085003.stm

13 Hansen, op. cit.

14 Buzz Aldrin and Wayne Warga, Return to Earth.

15 Hansen, op. cit.

16 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

17 Ibid.

18 Ibid.

19 Collins, op. cit.

20 Hansen, op. cit.

21 Ibid.

22 Ibid.

23 Ibid.

24 http://www.hq.nasa.gov/pao/History/SP-4204/ch20-4.html

25 Collins, op. cit.

26 Hansen, op. cit.

27 Harland, op. cit.

28 Hansen, op. cit.

29 For details of EVA training, see Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 1.

30 Hansen, op. cit.

31 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.; and Hansen, op. cit.

32 Hansen, op. cit.

33 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.

34 Hansen, op. cit.

35 Collins, op. cit.

36 Ibid.; and Hansen, op. cit.

37 PPK details from Hansen, op. cit.

38 Collins, op. cit.; and Hansen, op. cit.

39 Hansen, op. cit.; Collins, op. cit.; and Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.

40 Hansen, op. cit.

41 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.

42 Collins, op. cit.

43 Hansen, op. cit.

44 Collins, op. cit.

45 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.; and Hansen, op. cit.

46 Hansen, op. cit.; and Gene Kranz, Failure Is Not an Option.

47 Collins, op. cit.

48 NASA's Lunar Surface Journal, at http://history.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.landing.html

49 Hansen, op. cit.

50 Collins, op. cit.; and Hansen, op. cit.

51 Harland, op. cit.

52 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.

Chapter 12: The Eagle has Wings

1 Robert Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

2 Gene Kranz, roll 368, 08:18:22:13.

3 Buzz Aldrin and Wayne Warga, Return to Earth.

4 Michael Collins, Carrying the Fire.

5 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, with Gene Farmer and Dora Jane Hamblin, First on the Moon.

6 Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

7 Collins, op. cit.

8 David Harland, The First Men on the Moon; David West Reynolds, Apollo, The Epic Journey to the Moon; and Gene Kranz, Failure Is Not an Option.

9 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/moon/peopleevents/p_wives.html

10 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.

11 Ibid.

12 Ibid.

13 Ibid.

14 Ibid.

15 Ibid.

16 Ibid.

17 Ibid.

18 Ibid.

19 Ibid.

20 Kranz, op. cit.

21 Descriptions of white team from: interview with Gene Kranz in Glen Swanson (ed.), Before This Decade Is Out; and Kranz, op. cit.

22 Gene Kranz, roll 368-01, 08:18:22:13.

23 Kranz, op. cit.; interview with Gene Kranz in Swanson (ed.), op. cit.; and Gene Kranz, roll 368, 08:18:22:13.

24 Harland, op. cit.

25 Collins, op. cit.

26 Gene Kranz, roll 368, 08:18:22:13; and interview with Gene Kranz in Swanson (ed.), op. cit.

27 Dr James Hansen, First Man.

28 Ibid.; and Harland, op. cit.

29 For Armstrong's and Aldrin's accounts of the descent, see Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

30 Interview with Gene Kranz in Swanson (ed.), op. cit.; and Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.

31 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

32 Ibid.

33 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.

34 Ibid.

35 Ibid.

36 Ibid.

37 Deke Slayton, Deke!.

38 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.

39 Interview with Gene Kranz in Swanson (ed.), op. cit.

40 NASA's Lunar Surface Journal, at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.html

41 Ibid.

42 Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

43 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

44 Ibid.

45 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.

46 Interview with Gene Kranz in Swanson (ed.), op. cit.

47 Harland, op. cit.

Chapter 13: Sneaking Up on the Past

1 Robert Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 1.

2 Ibid.

3 Dr James Hansen, First Man; and David Harland, The First Men on the Moon.

4 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, with Gene Farmer and Dora Jane Hamblin, First on the Moon; and Harland, op. cit.

5 Hansen, op. cit.

6 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.

7 Buzz Aldrin and Wayne Warga, Return to Earth.

8 Apollo 11 Preliminary Science Report, at NASA's Lunar Surface Journal http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.html

9 Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

10 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.

11 NASA's Lunar Surface Journal, at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.html

12 Michael Collins, Carrying the Fire.

13 Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2; Collins, op. cit.; and NASA's Lunar Surface Journal, at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.html

14 Collins, op. cit.

15 Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2; and Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

16 Buzz Aldrin, roll 383, 23:04:43:07.

17 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.; and Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 1.

18 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

19 Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

20 NASA's Lunar Surface Journal, at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.html; and see also http://history.nasa.gov/alsj/omega.html

21 Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

22 NASA's Lunar Surface Journal, at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.html

23 Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

24 For further details on the pressure-suit, see Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 1.

25 NASA's Lunar Surface Journal, at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.html

26 Ibid.

27 Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

28 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

29 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.

30 NASA's Lunar Surface Journal, at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.html

31 Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

Chapter 14: A Walk on the Moon

1 NASA's Lunar Surface Journal, at http://history.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11tether.html

2 Chris Kraft, Flight.

3 Ibid.

4 Ibid.; and Report by John Sarkissian, Parkes Observatory, October 2000, available at http://www.parkes.atnf.csiro.au/news_events/apollo11/

5 Michael Collins, Carrying the Fire.

6 Report by John Sarkissian, Parkes Observatory, October 2000, available at http://www.parkes.atnf.csiro.au/news_events/apollo11/

7 David Harland, The First Men on the Moon.

8 Report by John Sarkissian, Parkes Observatory, October 2000, available at http://www.parkes.atnf.csiro.au/news_events/apollo11/

9 NASA's Lunar Surface Journal, at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.html

10 For further details of the EVA, including verbatim accounts from Armstrong and Aldrin, see Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2; and NASA's Lunar Surface Journal, at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.html

11 Buzz Aldrin and Wayne Warga, Return to Earth.

12 Andrew Chaikin, A Man on the Moon; and NASA's Lunar Surface Journal, at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.html

13 Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

14 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, with Gene Farmer and Dora Jane Hamblin, First on the Moon.

15 Ibid.

16 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

17 Ibid.

18 Apollo 11 Preliminary Science Report, via NASA's Lunar Surface Journal, at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.html

19 Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

20 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

21 NASA's Lunar Surface Journal, at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.html

22 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

23 Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

24 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.; and Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

25 Harland, op. cit.; and Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

26 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

27 Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

28 Ibid.

29 NASA's Lunar Surface Journal, at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.html

30 Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

31 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.

32 Apollo 11 Preliminary Science Report, via NASA's Lunar Surface Journal, at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.html; and Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

33 Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

34 Ibid.

35 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

36 Apollo 11 Preliminary Science Report, via NASA's Lunar Surface Journal, at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.html

37 Gene Cernan, roll 322, 00:32:09:02.

38 Harland, op. cit.; and Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

39 Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

40 Buzz Aldrin and Malcolm McConnell, Men from Earth (Bantam, 1989), as quoted by NASA's Lunar Surface Journal, at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.html

41 Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

42 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.

43 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

Chapter 15: Mission Accomplished

1 Robert Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

2 Michael Collins, Carrying the Fire.

3 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, with Gene Farmer and Dora Jane Hamblin, First on the Moon.

4 Collins, op. cit.

5 Ibid.

6 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.

7 Collins, op. cit.; and David Harland, The First Men on the Moon.

8 Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

9 For the LM's launch from the Moon, see NASA's Lunar Surface Journal, at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.html; Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2; Buzz Aldrin and Wayne Warga, Return to Earth; and Harland, op. cit.

10 Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

11 Ibid.

12 For further information on rendezvous, see NASA's Lunar Surface Journal, at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.html; Harland, op. cit.; Collins, op. cit.; Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2; and Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

13 Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

14 Harland, op. cit.

15 Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

16 For further information on the docking procedure, see Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.; Harland, op. cit.; and Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

17 Harland, op. cit.

18 Collins, op. cit.

19 Mission transcript at 131:07:07.

20 Mission transcript at 130:11:05.

21 Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

22 Ibid.

23 Collins, op. cit.

24 Interview with Max Faget in Glen Swanson (ed.), Before This Decade Is Out.

25 For further details on re-entry, see Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

26 Collins, op. cit.

27 Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

28 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.

29 Collins, op. cit.; and Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

30 Collins, op. cit.

31 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.; and David West Reynolds, Apollo, The Epic Journey to the Moon.

32 NASA's Lunar Surface Journal, at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/tnD7141ApPyrotchnc.pdf

33 Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

34 For further details on the recovery, see Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.; Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 1; Harland, op. cit.; and http://www.uss-hornet.org/history/apollo/

35 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.

36 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

37 Armstrong, Aldrin, Collins, op. cit.

38 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

39 Ibid.

40 Collins, op. cit.

41 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

42 For further information on the Lunar Receiving Laboratory, see Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 1; Collins, op. cit.; Harland, op. cit.; and http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4205/ch8-5.html

43 Godwin (ed.), Apollo 11, The NASA Mission Reports, Volume 2.

44 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

45 Collins, op. cit.

46 Aldrin and Warga, op. cit.

47 Ibid.

48 Collins, op. cit.

Epilogue

1 Once on the surface Conrad discovered that pictures of semi-naked girls had been squeezed into the pages of his checklist by the backup crew. See NASA's Lunar Surface Journal, at http://history.nasa.gov/alsj/a12/a12_lmpcuff.pdf

2 Michael Collins, Carrying the Fire.

3 David Harland, The First Men on the Moon; and http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/apollo/apollo_11/samples/

4 http://www.lpi.usra.edu/lunar/missions/apollo/apollo_11/samples/

5 David West Reynolds, Apollo, The Epic Journey to the Moon; and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moon

6 Harland, op. cit.

7 Collins, op. cit.

8 Ibid.

9 Buzz Aldrin and Wayne Warga, Return to Earth.

10 Ibid.

11 Ibid.

12 Ibid.; http://technology.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/tech_and_web/specials/space/article2582966.ece; and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buzz_Aldrin

13 Buzz Aldrin, roll 382, 22:13:01:17.

14 Harland, op. cit.

15 Neil Armstrong in conversation with Eric Jones, at NASA's Lunar Surface Journal http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.html

16 BBC News, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/2272321.stm; and http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/2410431.stm