Coming of Age in the Milky Way - Timothy Ferris (2003)

NOTES

PREFACE AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

1. Carlyle, On History, in Pais, 1986, p. 129.

CHAPTER ONE: THE DOME OF HEAVEN

1. Copernicus, On the Revolutions, Wallis translation, p. 510.

2. Hesiod, Works and Days, Wender translation, p. 78.

3. In Williamson, 1984, p. 297.

4. Ibid., p. 210.

5. In Morison, 1963, p. 362.

6. In Wycherley, 1978, p. 222.

7. Aristotle, On Youth, 2, 14, in Barnes, 1984.

8. In Duhem, 1969, p. 19.

9. Ibid., p. 17.

10. Plato, Phaedrus 230a, Hackford translation, in Hamilton and Cairns edition, 1969.

CHAPTER TWO: RAISING (AND LOWERINGTHE ROOF

1. Archimedes, “The Sand Reckoner,” in The Works of Archimedes, Heath translation, 1952, p. 520.

2. Ibid.

3. Ibid.

4. Plutarch, Lives, Vol. II, p. 282.

5. In Pappus, Collectio, Book VIII, Prop. 10, Sect. XI.

6. Plutarch, Lives, Vol. II, p. 283.

7. Ibid., p. 286.

8. Euclid, Heath translation, p. 3.

9. The Gospel According to Saint John, Chapter 18.

10. In Adams, 1938, pp. 52–53.

11. In Alic, 1986.

12. In Nasr, 1964, p. 182.

13. Boethius, Watts translation, pp. 46–47.

14. Ibid., p. 57.

15. Ibid., p. 73.

CHAPTER THREE: THE DISCOVERY OF THE EARTH

1. Virgil, Aeneid, Bk. 3, 512–27, T.F. translation.

2. In Morison, 1963.

3. In Garnet, 1970, p. 49.

4. Su, Watson translation, 1965.

5. In Bell, 1974, p. 46.

6. In Parry, 1963, p. 247.

7. In Beazley, p. 213.

8. In Needham, 1954–1984, Vol. 2, p. 525.

9. Ibid., Vol. 4, Part 3, p. 514.

10. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 3rd ed., Vol. 4, p. 937.

11. In Newby, 1975, p. 67.

12. In Columbus, Ferdinand, 1979, p. 10.

13. Ibid.

14. In Pigafetta, 1969, p. 57.

15. Aristotle, De Caelo, 298a, J. L. Stocks translation, McKeon edition, 1968, p. 437.

16. See Heyerdahl, 1979.

17. In Morison, 1963, p. 62.

18. Ibid., p. 65.

19. In Heyerdahl, 1979, p. 147.

20. In Morison, 1963, p. 383.

21. In Mason, 1977, p. 243.

22. In MacCurdy, 1939, p. 276.

CHAPTER FOUR: THE SUN WORSHIPERS

1. Copernicus, On the Revolutions, Duncan translation, preface.

2. In Panofsky, 1969, p. 10.

3. Copernicus, Commentariolus, in Rosen, 1959.

4. Copernicus, On the Revolutions, John Dobson and Selig Brodetsky, translators, Occasional Notes of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 2, No. 10, 1947, in Kuhn, 1979, p. 139.

5. Plutarch, Moralia, XII, p. 925; Cherniss and Helmbold translation, p. 75.

6. Nicole Oresme, “The Compatibility of the Earth’s Diurnal Rotation With Astronomical Phenomena and Terrestrial Physics,” in Grant, Edward, 1974, p. 505.

7. Copernicus, On the Revolutions, Wallis translation, pp. 526–527.

8. In Kuhn, 1979, p. 130.

9. Copernicus, On the Revolutions, Wallis translation, pp. 526–527.

10. Ibid., p. 511.

11. In Bienkowska, 1973.

12. In Russell, Bertrand, 1945, p. 528.

13. Martin Luther, Table Talk, p. 69, in Fosdick, 1952, p. xviii.

14. Copernicus, On the Revolutions, Wallis translation, pp. 516, 549. The translation has been altered slightly.

15. Aristotle, On the Heavens, 270:14, J.L. Stocks translation, in McKeon, 1968.

16. Tycho, ProgymnasmataChapter 3, in Clark and Stephenson, 1977, p. 174.

17. Tycho, De Nova Stella, in Clark and Stephenson, 1977, p. 172.

18. In Dryer, 1890, p. 27.

19. In Koestler, 1959, p. 273.

20. Ibid., p. 276.

21. In Baumgardt, 1951, p. 17.

22. Plato, Republic, VII: 530d, Paul Shorey translation, in Hamilton and Cairns edition, 1969.

23. Ibid., X:617c.

24. Aristotle, On the Heavens, 290b, J.L. Stocks translation, in Barnes, 1984, p. 479.

25. “On the Morning of Christ’s Nativity,” XIII, in Milton, 1952.

26. Shakespeare, Merchant of Venice, Act V, Scene 1.

27. Kepler, The Harmonies of the World, Wallis translation, pp. 1034, 1048.

28. Kepler, Epitome of Copernican Astronomy, p. 897.

29. In Koestler, p. 304.

30. Ibid, p. 278.

31. Ibid.

32. Ibid.

33. In Dryer, 1980, p. 386.

34. Kepler, The New Astronomy, in Koyré, 1973, p. 231.

35. Kepler, The Harmonies of the World, Wallis translation, p. 1009.

36. Ibid., p. 1009.

37. In Koestler, p. 381.

38. Ibid.

39. Ibid., p. 414.

40. Ibid., p. 421.

CHAPTER FIVE: THE WORLD IN RETROGRADE

1. Letter to Cosimo de’ Medici, 1610, in Drake, 1957, p. 61.

2. In Fermi and Bernardini, 1961, p. 12.

3. Galileo, The Assayer, in Drake, 1957, p. 238.

4. Galileo, The Starry Messenger, in Drake, 1957, p. 29.

5. In Fermi and Bernardini, 1961, p. 51.

6. Brecht, 1966, Scene 3, p. 66. The Galileo quotations are of course Brecht’s inventions.

7. Galileo, The Starry Messenger, Drake translation, p. 28.

8. Ibid., p. 57.

9. Ibid., p. 94.

10. Ibid., p. 49.

11. In Weaver, 1987, p. 683.

12. In Galileo, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, Drake translation, p. xix.

13. Galileo, Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences, Crew and De Salvio translation, p. 63.

14. Galileo, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, pp. 186–187.

15. Galileo, Letters on Sunspots, in Drake, 1957, p. 113.

16. Galileo, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, p. 462.

17. I. Bernard Cohen, “An Interview With Einstein,” in French, 1979, p. 41.

18. In Galileo, The Sidereal Messenger, Carlos translation, p. 111.

19. In Fermi & Bernardini, 1961, p. 72.

20. Galileo, Letters on Sunspots, in Drake, 1957, p. 62.

21. In Koestler, p. 440.

22. Bellarmine, letter to Paolo Foscarini, in Drake, 1957, pp. 163–164.

23. Ibid., p. 164.

24. Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina, in Drake, 1957, p. 166.

25. In Geymonat, 1965, pp. 85, 83.

26. Ibid., p. 73.

27. Koestler, p. 471.

28. Ibid., p. 472.

29. Galileo, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, p. 319.

30. In Geymonat, p. 146.

31. In Singer, 1917, p. 269.

32. Science 81, March 1981, p. 14.

33. In Kesten, 1945, p. 93.

34. Book VIII, 11. 167ff., in Milton 1952.

CHAPTER SIX: NEWTON’S REACH

1. J.M. Keynes, “Newton, The Man,” The Royal Society Newton Tercentenary Celebrations, Cambridge University Press, 1947, p. 27.

2. Westfall, 1980, p. 354.

3. In Manuel, 1968, p. 26.

4. In Westfall, p. 65.

5. Ibid., p. 89.

6. Ibid., p. 22.

7. Ibid., p. 143.

8. Ibid., p. 188–189.

9. Ibid., p. 245.

10. In Spinoza, 1928, p. 80.

11. In Jones, 1981, p. 197.

12. Descartes, Geometry, p. 353.

13. William Stukeley, Memoirs of Sir Isaac Newton’s Life, in Cohen, I. Bernard, 1971, p. 301.

14. In Manuel, pp. 27–28.

15. In Westfall, p. 141.

16. Ibid., p. 405.

17. Ibid., p. 406.

18. Ibid.

19. In Parton, 1882, Vol. 2, p. 213.

20. Newton, Principia, Cajori-Motte translation, p. 13.

21. Ibid.

22. In Westfall, p. 459.

23. Ibid.

24. Ibid., p. 581.

25. In Manuel, p. 216.

26. In Cohen, I. Bernard, 1958, p. 7.

27. Ibid., p. 284.

28. Newton, Principia, Cajori-Motte translation, p. 547.

29. Ibid.

30. Einstein, “Autobiographical Notes,” in Schilpp, 1969, pp. 32–33.

31. In Cohen, I. Bernard, 1958, p. 7.

32. In Dampier, 1949, p. 197.

33. In Cohen, I. Bernard, 1958, p. 284.

CHAPTER SEVEN: A PLUMB LINE TO THE SUN

1. Huygens, Systema Saturnium, 1659, in Van Helden, 1985, p. 123.

2. Richard Hakluyt, Principal Navigations, 2nd ed., Vol. 1, 1598, in Landes, 1983, p. 110.

3. In Howse, 1980, p. 12.

4. Edmond Halley, “A Unique Method by which the Parallax of the Sun, or its Distance from the Earth, may be Securely Determined by Means of Observing Venus Against the Sun,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, No. 348, April-June, 1716, pp. 454–455, 460, Dave Fredrick, translator.

5. In Albert Van Helden, “The Importance of the Transit of Mercury of 1631,” Journal for the History of Astronomy, Vol. 7, Part 1, No. 18, February 1976.

6. In Fernie, 1976, p. 10.

7. Ibid.

8. Ibid., p. 39.

9. Ibid. p. 49.

10. Ibid. pp. 52–53.

11. Ibid. p. 29.

CHAPTER EIGHT: DEEP SPACE

1. Kant, 1900, 1969, p. 30. The translation has been altered slightly.

2. Ibid., pp. 61–62.

3. Ibid., pp. 63–64.

4. In Lambert, 1976, p. 1.

5. Ibid., pp. 1–2.

6. Ibid., p. 53.

7. Ibid., pp. 106, 120–121. The translation has been altered somewhat.

8. In Lubbock, 1933, p. 10.

9. Ibid., p. 10.

10. Ibid., p 29.

11. Ibid., p. 31.

12. Ibid., pp. 61–62.

13. In Hoskin, 1963, p. 21.

14. In Lubbock, p. 66.

15. In King, 1979, p, 126.

16. In J. A. Bennett, “The Discovery of Uranus,” Sky and Telescope, March 1981, p. 188.

17. In MacPherson, 1933, p. 101.

18. In Lubbock, p. 138.

19. Ibid., p. 16.

20. In King, p. 133.

21. In Lubbock, p. 228.

22. In Burnham, 1978, p. 1317.

23. In Lubbock, p. 355.

CHAPTER NINE: ISLAND UNIVERSES

1. In Smith, Robert, 1982, p. 4.

2. Popular Astronomy, Vol. 34, 1926, p. 379, quoting a Boston newspaper article, in Warner, 1968, p. 10.

3. In MacPherson, 1933, p. 161.

4. In Owen Gingerich, “Unlocking the Chemical Secrets of the Cosmos,” Sky and Telescope, July 1981, p. 13.

5. In Abetti, 1952, p. 192.

6. William Huggins and Lady Huggins, The Scientific Papers of Sir William Huggins (London: Wesley & Son, 1909), p. 106, in Smith, 1982, pp. 2–3.

7. In Smith, 1982, p. 43.

8. In Lang and Gingerich, 1979, p. 523.

9. Ibid.

10. Ibid., p. 525.

11. Shapley, letter to Russell, March 31, 1920, in Smith, 1982, p. 66.

12. Edwin Hubble, “Cepheids in Spiral Nebulae,” Publications of the American Astronomical Society, Vol. 5, 1925, pp. 261–264.

13. In Smith, 1982, p. 114.

14. Shapley to Hubble, February 27, 1924, in Smith, 1982, p. 119.

15. In Dick, 1984, p. 147.

16. Edwin Hubble, “NGC6822, A Remote Stellar System,” Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 62, p. 432.

CHAPTER TEN: EINSTEIN’S SKY

1. Newton, Principia, Cajori-Motte translation, p. 6.

2. See Hoffmann, 1983, p. 60.

3. In Livingston 1973, p. 77.

4. Ibid., p. 132.

5. Ibid.

6. Poincaré, 1899, in Hoffmann, 1983, p. 86.

7. Dirac, 1971, pp. 13, 14.

8. In Hoffmann, 1972, p. 24.

9. Ibid. pp. 20, 25.

10. In Stachel, 1987, p. 334.

11. In Dukas and Hoffmann, 1979, p. 5.

12. Einstein, “Autobiographical Notes,” in Schilpp, 1969, p 11.

13. Ibid., p. 5.

14. In French, 1979, p. 31.

15. In John Stachel, “Albert Einstein: The Man Behind the Myths,” manuscript copy.

16. Einstein, “Autobiographical Notes,” in Schilpp, 1969, p. 9.

17. Ibid., p. 35.

18. In Goldman, 1983, p. 138.

19. Ibid., p. 146.

20. Einstein, “Autobiographical Notes,” in Schilpp, 1969, p. 33.

21. Ibid., p. 53.

22. Adams, 1931, p. 380.

23. In Miller, 1981, p. 145.

24. Sigmund Freud, “Memorandum on the Electrical Treatment of War Neurotics,” in Strachey, 1955, p. 211.

25. Einstein, letter to Grossman, 1901, in Stachel, 1987, p. 290.

26. In Szilard, 1978, p. 12.

27. In Seelig, 1956, p. 71.

28. In Miller, 1981, p. 125.

29. Mach, 1960, p. 279.

30. In Pais, 1982, p. 201.

31. Einstein, “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies,” in Miller, 1981, p. 392.

32. In Hoffmann, 1972, p. 131.

33. In Pais, 1982, p. 179.

34. Ibid., p. 152.

35. In Rucker, 1984, pp. 66, 68.

36. In Davis and Hersh, 1981, p. 221.

37. In Hoffmann, 1983, p. 129.

38. Hoskin, 1982, p. 83.

39. In Needham, Science and Civilization in China, Vol. 2, p. 388.

40. Lucretius, De Rerum Natura, Book I, lines 1012ff., Cyril Bailey translation, p. 227. The translation has been altered slightly.

41. In Cohen and Seeger, 1970, p. 181.

42. In Rosenthal-Schneider, 1980, p. 74.

43. In French, 1979, p. 31.

44. In Holton and Elkana, 1982, p. 104.

CHAPTER ELEVEN: THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE

1. Albert Einstein, “Cosmological Considerations on the General Theory of Relativity,” 1917, in Einstein, 1952, p. 188.

2. Einstein, 1923, p. 127.

3. In Smith, Robert, 1982, p. 173.

4. Hubble, 1985, p. 35.

5. Ibid.

6. Lemaître, quoted in The New York Times Magazine, February 19, 1933.

7. Andre Deprit, “Monsignor Georges Lemaître,” in Berger, 1985, p. 370.

8. Ibid., p. 376.

9. In Ferris, 1983, p. 119.

10. In Berger, p. 373.

11. Los Angeles Times, January 12, 1933.

12. The New York Times, January 12, 1933; Los Angeles Times, January 12, 1933.

13. Lemaître, 1950, p. 140.

14. Ralph A. Alpher and Robert C. Herman, “Evolution of the Universe,” Nature, Vol. 162, pp. 774ff., 1948, in Lang and Gingerich, 1979, p. 866.

CHAPTER TWELVE: SERMONS IN STONES

1. In Lyell, 1877, p. 29. The punctuation of the translation has been edited slightly.

2. S. Sambursky, “The Stoic Doctrine of Eternal Recurrence,” in Capek, 1976, p. 170.

3. Aristotle, Meteorology, 352b, E.W. Webster translation, in Aristotle, 1984, p. 574.

4. J.D. North, “Chronology and the Age of the World,” in Yourgrau and Breck, 1977, pp. 307ff.

5. In Toulmin and Goodfield, The Discovery of Time, 1982, p. 144.

6. In Ogburn, 1968, p. 32.

7. In Lovejoy, 1953, p. 184.

8. In Eiseley, 1970, p. 39.

9. In Lovejoy, p. 243.

10. In Loren Eiseley, “Charles Lyell,” Scientific American, Vol. 201, pp. 1959, 98–106.

11. In Toulmin and Goodfield, The Discovery of Time, 1982, p. 157.

12. Burnet, Book II, p. 173.

13. Lyell, 1863, Vol. II, p. 101.

14. In Knedler, p. 10.

15. Ibid., p. 16.

16. Ibid., p. 41.

17. Ibid.

18. Ibid., p. 51.

19. Ibid., p. 55.

20. Ibid., p. 56.

CHAPTER THIRTEEN: THE AGE OF THE EARTH

1. In Keynes, 1979, p. 18.

2. In Loren Eiseley, “Charles Lyell,” Scientific American, Vol. 201, August 1959, pp. 98, 106.

3. In W. W. Bartley III, “What Was Wrong With Darwin?” The New York Review of Books, September 15, 1977, p. 37.

4. In Keynes, p. 295.

5. Darwin, 1962, pp. 402–403.

6. Ibid., p. 480.

7. Ibid., p. 469.

8. In Keynes, p. 19.

9. In Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., Vol. 5, p. 492.

10. In Keynes, p. 19.

11. In Darwin, Francis, 1950, p. 57.

12. Darwin, Erasmus, 1818, Vol. 1, pp. 397, 400. Emphasis is Darwin’s.

13. Darwin, in Gardeners’ Chronicle and Agricultural Gazette, Vol. 45, November 8, 1862, p. 1052.

14. Darwin, in Journal of Horticulture and Cottage Gardener, Vol. 3, December 2, 1862, p. 696.

15. Darwin, “Notebooks on Transmutation of Species,” series D, in Ruse, 1979, p. 173.

16. Darwin, 1872, p. 99.

17. Ibid., pp. 99–100.

18. Ibid., p. 371.

19. Ibid., p. 374.

20. In DeBeer, 1964, p. 253.

21. In W. W. Bartley III, “What Was Wrong with Darwin?” The New York Review of Books, September 15, 1977, p. 34.

22. In Patterson, 1978, p. 14.

23. Darwin, letter to Lyell, June 3, 1858, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., Vol. 19, p. 530.

24. In Marchant, Vol. 1, 1916, pp. 29–30.

25. Ibid., p. 110.

26. In DeBeer, p. 149.

27. In Darwin, Francis, 1888, Vol 2, pp. 179–204.

28. Darwin, 1872, p. 38.

29. In Price, 1956, p. 28.

30. In Darwin, Francis, 1950, p. 68.

31. Ibid., p. 67.

32. In Huxley, Julian, 1903, Vol. 1, pp. 265–266.

33. Ibid., p. 268. Accounts of the debate differ somewhat in the exact wording of the quotations, as Huxley fils describes in the work cited. This quotation was cited by the elder Huxley as the most nearly accurate of the several accounts proffered by witnesses to the debate.

34. In DeBeer, p. 167.

35. Darwin, 1872, p. 236.

36. Kant, 1969, p. 159.

37. In Eiseley, 1958, pp. 234, 240.

38. In Toulmin and Goodfield, The Discovery of Time, 1982, p. 222.

39. Thompson, William, Baron Kelvin, 1891, Vol. 1, p. 16.

40. Rutherford, 1904, p. 657.

41. In Eve, 1939, p. 107.

42. Ibid.

43. In Segrè, 1980, p. 42.

44. Arthur Stanley Eddington, “The Internal Constitution of the Stars,” Nature, 1920, Vol. 106, pp. 14–20, in Lang and Gingerich, 1979, p. 281.

45. In Moss, 1968, p. 59.

46. P.M.S. Blackett, New Statesman, December 5, 1959.

47. In Dukas and Hoffmann, 1979, p. 81.

CHAPTER FOURTEEN: THE EVOLUTION OF ATOMS AND STARS

1. Chamberlin, Science, Vol. 9, July 7, 1899, p. 12, in Albritton, 1980, p. 198.

2. Planck, Nobel Prize address, in Heathcote, 1954, p. 415.

3. Annie Jump Cannon, “Pioneering in the Classification of Stellar Spectra,” from “The Henry Draper Memorial,” Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, Vol. 9, 1915, in Shapley, 1960, p. 158.

4. In Lang and Gingerich, 1979, pp. 14–20.

5. Ibid., p. 288.

6. Hans Bethe, Nobel Prize address, in Heathcote, 1954, p. 216.

7. In Bernstein, 1980, p. 53.

8. In Lang and Gingerich, p. 288.

9. Gamow, 1951, p. 73.

10. Hoyle, 1965, p. 102.

11. In Berger, 1985, p. 387.

12. Gamow, 1951, p. 49.

13. E. Margaret Burbidge, Geoffrey R. Burbidge, William A. Fowler, and Fred Hoyle, “Synthesis of the Elements in Stars,” Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol. 29, 1957, pp. 547–650, in Lang and Gingerich, p. 383.

14. Ibid., p. 377.

15. Ibid., p. 386.

16. Shu, 1982, p. 157.

CHAPTER FIFTEEN: THE QUANTUM AND ITS DISCONTENTS

1. Planck, Nobel Prize address, 1918, in Weaver, 1987, Vol II., p. 292.

2. In Moore, 1985, p. 127.

3. In Born, Max, 1971, p. 82. Einstein’s italics.

4. Ibid., p. 91.

5. Ibid., p. 158.

6. In Clark, 1971, p. 34.

7. In Segrè, 1970, p. 69.

8. Veltman, unpublished talk at Caltech, April 29, 1982.

9. Leon Lederman, interview with TF, Fermilab, February 24, 1985.

CHAPTER SIXTEEN: RUMORS OF PERFECTION

1. Poincaré, 1958, p. 19; Poincaré, 1908, p. 59. For a discussion of these remarks see Wechsler, 1978, p. 5.

2. Heisenberg, 1971, p. 68.

3. Dirac, “The Evolution of the Physicist’s Picture of Nature,” Scientific American, May 1963, p. 47, in Wechsler, 1978, p. 5.

4. Yang, 1983, p. 82.

5. In Judson, 1980, p. 198.

6. Wigner, 1967, p. 29.

7. Ibid., p. 5.

8. Behram Kursunoglu, in Mehra, 1973, p. 818.

9. Ibid.

10. Yang, 1961, p. 53.

11. Weinberg, “The Forces of Nature,” American Scientist, Vol. 65, No. 2, March-April 1977, pp. 171–176.

12. Ibid.

13. Glashow, Nobel Prize address, Review of Modern Physics, Vol. 52, No. 3, July 1980, p. 543.

14. Schwinger, 1958, pp. xvii.

15. Glashow, Nobel Prize address, Review of Modern Physics, Vol. 52, No. 3, July 1980, p. 540.

16. In Crease and Mann, 1986, p. 224.

17. Ibid., p. 225.

18. Glashow, “Partial Symmetries of Weak Interactions,” Nuclear Physics, Vol. 22, No. 4, February 1961, p. 579.

19. In Hassan and Lai, 1984, p. 17.

20. Weinberg, Review of Modern Physics, op. cit., p. 515.

21. Weinberg, interview with TF, Austin, Texas, February 28, 1985.

22. Weinberg, Review of Modern Physics, op. cit., p. 517.

23. Ibid., p. 518.

24. In Hilts, 1982, p. 86.

25. Wilson, interview with Linda Dackman, Arts and Architecture, Vol. 3, No. 1, 1984.

26. Abdus Salam, Nobel Prize address, Review of Modern Physics, op. cit., p. 530.

27. In Ne’eman and Kirsh, 1986, p. 250.

28. CERN Courier, January/February 1985, p. 5.

29. In Taubes, 1986, p. 39.

30. Rubbia, interview with TF, CERN, December 1984.

31. Engineering and Science, September 1985, p. 20.

32. In Crease and Mann, 1986, p. 417.

33. Green, Schwarz, and Witten, 1987, p. 55.

34. Gamow, 1966, p. 163.

35. Weinberg, interview with TF, Austin, Texas, April 5, 1982.

36. Sheldon Glashow and Paul Ginsparg, “Desperately Seeking Superstrings?” Physics Today, May 1986, p. 7.

37. Weinberg, interview with TF, Austin, Texas, April 5, 1982.

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN: THE AXIS OF HISTORY

1. Gell-Mann, interview with TF, Pasadena, February 2, 1985.

2. Weinberg, interview with TF, Austin, Texas, February 28, 1985.

3. Gell-Mann, interview with TF, Pasadena, February 2, 1985.

4. Turner, interview with TF, Fermilab, February 26, 1985.

5. John Archibald Wheeler, interview with TF, Austin, February 28, 1985.

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN: THE ORIGIN OF THE UNIVERSE

1. In Rothenberg, 1969, p. 34. The translation has been somewhat edited and revised.

2. Sandage, interview with TF, Pasadena, February 2, 1985.

3. Richard Feynman, talk at the University of Southern California, December 6, 1983.

4. In Yourgrau and Breck, 1977, p. 95.

5. Edward Tryon, interview with TF, New York, May 1, 1984.

6. Ibid.

7. Hawking, interview with TF, Pasadena, April 4, 1983.

8. In Root-Bernstein, Robert Scott, Discovering, prepublication manuscript, 1985.

9. Guth, Alan, in The New York Times, April 14, 1987, p. 17.

10. Hawking, private communication, August 11, 1987.

11. Hawking, talk at the 10th International Conference on General Relativity, Padua, Italy, July 7, 1983.

12. Hawking, interview with TF, Pasadena, 1985.

13. Wheeler, interview with TF, Austin, Texas, February 28, 1985.

14. Misner, Thorn and Wheeler, 1973, p. 1202.

15. Roger Penrose, Structure of Spacetime, in DeWitt and Wheeler, 1968, p 121.

16. Wheeler, “Beyond the Black Hole,” in Woolf, 1980, p. 351.

17. Ibid., p. 356. Wheeler’s italics.

CHAPTER NINETEEN: MIND AND MATTER

1. In Von Puttkamer, Jesco, “Extraterrestrial Life: Where Is Everybody?” Cosmic Search, Summer 1979, p. 43. See also F.M. Cornford, “Innumerable Worlds in Presocratic Philosophy,” Classical Quarterly, January 1934, p. 13.

2. In Bailey, Cyril, 1926, p. 25.

3. In Lange, 1925, p. 233.

4. In Debus, 1978, p. 87.

5. In Dick, 1984, p. 111.

6. Fontenelle, 1929, pp. 12, 82.

7. Ibid., p. 55.

8. Ibid., pp. 114–115.

9. Giuseppe Cocconi and Philip Morrison, “Searching for Interstellar Communications,” Nature, September 19, 1959.

10. William Proxmire, press release dated February 16, 1978, p. 2. The senator did not reveal the source of his intelligence on this point.

11. In Barrow and Tipler, 1986, p. 26.

CHAPTER TWENTY: THE PERSISTENCE OF MYSTERY

1. Lewis Thomas, “Debating the Unknowable,” The Atlantic Monthly, July 1981; address to the Mount Sinai School of Medicine, reprinted in The New York Times, July 2, 1978, p. 15.

2. Popper, Conjectures and Refutations, 1968, p. 28.

3. For a discussion of this painting, see Foucault, 1982.

4. In French, A.P., 1979, p. 53.

5. See, e.g., Santillana, 1970, p. 60.

6. Borges, interview with Amelia Barili, The New York Times Book Review, July 13, 1986, p. 28.

7. In Cohen and Seeger, 1970, p. 220.

8. In Mehta, 1965, p. 155.

9. Niels Bohr, interviewed by Thomas Kuhn, in Mackinnon, 1982, p. 375.

10. Wheeler, interview with TF, Austin Texas; remainder of quotation in Buckley and Peat, 1979.

11. Einstein, Out of My Later Years, 1979, p. 114.

12. Epictetus, Encheiridion, verse 43, Oldfather translation.