The Pleasure Instinct: Why We Crave Adventure, Chocolate, Pheromones, and Music - Gene Wallenstein (2008)
1 Foibles and Follies
6 Until recently, scientists have For an excellent review, see chapters in Ekman, P, Davidson, RJ (1997) The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental Questions. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England.
6 Academics have typically shied But see Johnston,VS (1999) Why We Feel:The Science of Human Emotions. Perseus Publishing, New York, NY.
7 Sociobiology and its heir apparent Excellent introductions to evolutionary psychology include Konner, MJ (2001) The Tangled Wing: Biological Constraints on the Human Spirit. W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, NY; Barkow, JH, Cosmides, L, Tooby, J (1997) The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England; Buss, DM (1998) Evolutionary Psychology: The New Science of Mind. Pearson Allyn and Bacon, New York, NY; Pinker, S (1999) How the Mind Works. W. W. Norton and Company, New York, NY.
7 Pleasure, as we shall see Cabanac, M (1992) Pleasure: the common currency. Journal of Theoretical Biology 155, no.2: 173-200.
7 Such biases persist A positive reinforcer is a stimulus that serves to increase the likelihood of the behavior that produces it.
2 How to Win Friends and Influence People
12 In his book The Language Instinct Pinker, S (1994) The Language Instinct. Perennial, New York, NY.
14 Such increasingly complicated Humphrey, N (1992) A History of the Mind. Simon and Schuster, New York, NY; Mithen, S (1996) The Prehistory of the Mind:The Cognitive Origins of Art, Religion, and Science. Thames and Hudson, England; Klein, RG (2002) The Dawn of Human Culture. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY.
16 Many scholars agree Diamond, JM (1992) The Third Chimpanzee:The Evolution and Future of the Human Animal. Harper Collins, New York, NY; Deacon, T (1997) The Symbolic Species. W. W. Norton, New York, NY.
17 In cognitive science circles For a recent review of the representation problem, see Pylyshyn, ZW (2002) Mental imagery: in search of a theory. Behavioral Brain Sciences 25, no.2: 157-182.
17 But this is premature Example used by Hauser, MD (2000) Wild Minds:What Animals Really Think. Henry Holt and Company, New York.
18 How did proto-emotions See Dunbar, R (1998) Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA; Deacon, T (1997) The Symbolic Species. W. W. Norton, New York, NY; Pinker, The Language Instinct.
18 We will employ a more modern See Striedter, GF (1998) Progress in the study of brain evolution: from speculative theories to testable hypotheses. The Anatomical Record (New Anatomy), 253: 105-112; and relevant chapters in Gould, SJ (2002) The Structure of Evolutionary Theory. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
18 “The human race began to talk Cited in Locke, The Child’s Path to Spoken Language.
20 In humans this exchange For a review, see ibid.; Owens, RE (2000) Language Development: An Introduction. Pearson Allyn and Bacon, New York, NY.
20 Detailed experiments following Stern, DN, Spieker, S, Barnett, RK, MacKain, K (1983) The prosody of maternal speech: infant age and context related changes. Journal of Child and Language, 10(1): 1-15; Halle, PA, de Boysson-Bardies, B, Vihman, MM (1991) Beginnings of prosodic organization: intonation and duration patterns of disyllables produced by Japanese and French infants. Language and Speech, 34, 299-318.
20 “Communication is successful” See Locke, The Child’s Path to Spoken Language.
22 For instance, synthesized sounds Murray, IR,Arnott, JL (1993) Toward the simulation of emotion in synthetic speech: a review of the literature on human vocal emotion. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 93(2): 1097-108; Collier,WG, Hubbard,TL (2001) Musical scales and evaluations of happiness and awkwardness: effects of pitch, direction, and scale mode. American Journal of Psychology, 114(3): 355-375.
22 Developmental psychologist Andrew Meltzoff For an overview of these experiments see Gopnick,A, Meltzoff,AN, Kuhl, PK (1999) The Scientist in the Crib: Minds, Brains, and How Children Learn. William Morrow, New York.
23 Studies have also shown that infants For a recent review of this literature see Turati, C, Simion, F, Milani, I, Umilta, C (2002) Newborns’ preference for faces: what is crucial? Developmental Psychology,38(6): 875-882.
3 What Makes Sammy Dance?
26 By the time he was twenty-four years old Published reports of case studies typically use a patient’s initials or some other descriptor in an effort to maintain their anonymity. Heath, RG (1972) Pleasure and brain activity in man. Deep and surface electroencephalograms during orgasm. Journal of Nervous Mental Disorders, 154(1): 3-18.
26 Impressed by the work of Olds Olds, J, Milner, P (1954) Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions of rat brain. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology, 47(6): 419-427.
26 “They function in an almost continuous Quoted in Hooper, J,Teresi, D (1986) The Three-Pound Universe. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York.
26 Electrodes and cannulas Olds, J, Milner, P (1954) Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions of rat brain. Journal of Comparative Physiology and Psychology,47(6): 419-427.
29 In the fifty years since For recent reviews see Berridge, KC (2002) Pleasure of the brain. Brain and Cognition, 52(1): 106-128; Wise, RA (2002) Brain reward circuitry: insights from unsensed incentives. Neuron, 36(2): 229-240; Kelley, AE, Berridge, KC (2002) The neuroscience of natural rewards: relevance to addictive drugs. Journal of Neuroscience, 22(9): 3312-3320.
29 As the circuit continued Olds, J (1976) Brain stimulation and the motivation of behavior. Progress in Brain Research, 45: 401-426; Berridge, KC (2002) Pleasure of the brain. Brain and Cognition, 52(1), 106-128; Wise, RA (2002) Brain reward circuitry: insights from unsensed incentives. Neuron, 36(2): 229-240; Kelley, AE, Berridge, KC (2002) The neuroscience of natural rewards: relevance to addictive drugs. Journal of Neuroscience, 22(9): 3312-3320.
30 Behavioral scientists have used Woodward, DJ, Chang, JY, Janak, P, Azarov, A, Anstrom, K (2000) Activity patterns in mesolimbic regions in rats during operant tasks for reward. Progress in Brain Research,126: 303-322.
31 Understanding how associative learning For examples see Eichenbaum, H (2001) The hippocampus and declarative memory: cognitive mechanisms and neural codes. Behavioral Brain Research, 127(1-2): 199-207; Hasselmo, ME, McClelland, JL (1999) Neural models of memory. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 9(2): 184-188; Wallenstein, GV, Eichenbaum, H, Hasselmo, ME (1998) The hippocampus as an associator of discontiguous events. Trends in Neuroscience, 21(8): 317-323; Kesner, RP, Gilbert, PE,Wallenstein, GV (2000) Testing neural network models of memory with behavioral experiments. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 10(2): 260-265.
31 Rats often learn to avoid Parker, LA (2003) Taste avoidance and taste aversion: evidence for two different processes. Learning and Behavior, 31(2): 165-172; Maren, S (2001) Neurobiology of Pavlovian fear conditioning. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 24: 897-931.
32 “The dancing chicken is exhibiting” Breland, K, Breland, M (1961) The misbehavior of organisms. American Psychologist, 16: 681-684.
32 In fact, sugars rated Sclafani, A, Fanizza, LJ, Azzara,AV (1999) Conditioned flavor avoidance, preference, and indifference produced by intragastric infusions of galactose, glucose, and fructose in rats. Physiology and Behavior, 67(2): 227-234.
37 Others are activated by stress, learning For a review see Wallenstein, GV (2003) Mind, Stress, and Emotions: The New Science of Mood. Commonwealth Press, Boston.
43 At present, there are several controversial Slezak, M, Pfrieger, FW (2003) New roles for astrocytes: regulation of CNS synaptogenesis. Trends in Neuroscience, 26(10): 531-535;Adams, P, Cox, K (2002) A new interpretation of thalamocortical circuitry. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences, 357(1428): 1767-1779; Grossman,AW, Churchill, JD, Bates, KE, Kleim, JA, Greenough, WT (2002) A brain adaptation view of plasticity: is synaptic plasticity an overly limited concept? Progress in Brain Research, 138: 91-108.
46 From culture to culture Sugarman, L (2001) Lifespan Development: Theories, Concepts and Interventions. Psychology Press, New York.
4 The Pleasure of Touch
49 By the time the world met him Ruckel, I (2002) Abandoned for Life: The Incredible Story of One Romanian Orphan. JB Information Station Publishers, St. Louis.
50 As late as 1915 Chapin, HD (1915) A plea for accurate statistics in children’s institutions. Transactions of the American Pediatric Society, 27: 180.
50 It is important to note Holt, LE (1935) The Care and Feeding of Children (15th edition). Appleton-Century, New York.
51 The pediatric wards of the famed Bellevue Brennemann, J (1932) The infant ward. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 43: 577.
51 “If they continued hurting themselves Ruckel, I (2002) Abandoned for Life: The Incredible Story of One Romanian Orphan. JB Information Station Publishers, St. Louis.
53 For touch to be perceived Falk, D, Gibson, KR (2001) Evolutionary Anatomy of the Primate Cerebral Cortex. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.
53 Each of these sensory modalities For a general review of the touch system, see Rowe, MJ, Iwamura, Y (2000) Somatosensory Processing: From Single Neuron to Brain Imaging. Taylor & Francis, New York.
54 A very active area of research Fox, K, Glazewski, S, Schulze, S (2000) Plasticity and stability of somatosensory maps in thalamus and cortex. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 10(4): 494-497; Jones, EG (2000) Cortical and subcortical contributions to activity-dependent plasticity in primate somatosensory cortex. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 23: 1-37; Rauschecker, JP (2002) Cortical map plasticity in animals and humans. Progress in Brain Research, 138:73-88.
54 Psychologist William Greenough Klintsova, AY, Greenough, WT (1999) Synaptic plasticity in cortical systems. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 9(2): 203-208; Greenough, WT (1987) Mechanisms of behaviorally-elicited and electrically-elicited long-term potentiation. International Journal of Neurology, 21: 137-144.
54 Experience-expectant stimuli In Barnard, KE, Brazelton, TB (1990) Touch: The Foundation of Experience. International University Press, Madison, CT.
55 Thus, whisker sensation Kossut, M (1998) Experience-dependent changes in function and anatomy of adult barrel cortex. Experimental Brain Research, 123 (1-2): 110-116; Glazewski, S (1998) Experience-dependent changes in vibrissae evoked responses in the rodent barrel cortex. Acta Neurobiologica Exp (Wars), 58(4): 309-320; Fox, K (2002) Anatomical pathways and molecular mechanisms for plasticity in the barrel cortex. Neuroscience, 111(4): 799-814.
55 For instance, when mice are placed For a review of these studies see van Praag, H, Kempermann, G, Gage, FH (2000) Neural consequences of environmental enrichment. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 1(3): 191-198; Rosenzweig, MR, Bennett, EL (1996) Psychobiology of plasticity: effects of training and experience on brain and behavior. Behavioral Brain Research, 78(1): 57-65.
56 Rather, the preferences for certain Victora, MD,Victora, CG, Barros, FC (1990) Cross-cultural differences in developmental rates: a comparison between British and Brazilian children. Child Care Health and Development, 6(3): 151-164; Chen, ST (1989) Comparison between the development of Malaysian and Denver children. Journal of the Singapore Pediatric Society, 31(3-4): 178-185; Lejarraga, H, Pascucci, MC, Krupitzky, S, Kelmansky, D, Bianco, A, Martinez, E,Tibaldi, F, Cameron, N, (2002) Psychomotor development in Argentinean children aged 0-5 years. Pediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 16(1): 47-60.
57 Some recent studies have shown Eriksson, PS (2003) Neurogenesis and its implications for regeneration in the adult brain. Journal of Rehabilitative Medicine, (41 Suppl): 17-19; Kozorovitskiy, Y, Gould, E (2003) Adult neurogenesis: a mechanism for brain repair? Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 25(5): 721-732; Eisch,AJ (2002) Adult neurogenesis: implications for psychiatry. Progress in Brain Research, 138: 315-342.
60 For instance, children who have delayed Rine, RM, Cornwall, G, Gan, K, LoCascio, C, O’Hare, T, Robinson, E, Rice, M (2000) Evidence of progressive delay of motor development in children with sensorineural hearing loss and concurrent vestibular dysfunction. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 90(3 Pt 2): 1101-1112.
60 The stress hormones See Wallenstein, GV (2003) Mind, Stress, and Emotions: The New Science of Mood. Commonwealth Press, Boston.
61 Moreover, animals that are given For review see Wallenstein, GV (2003) Mind, Stress, and Emotions: The New Science of Mood. Commonwealth Press, Boston; Gilmer,WS, McKinney,WT (2003) Early experience and depressive disorders: human and non-human primate studies. Journal of Affective Disorders, 75(2): 97-113.
61 For instance, gentle daily massage For a review see Fleming, AS, O’Day, DH, Kraemer, GW (1999) Neurobiology of mother-infant interactions: experience and central nervous system plasticity across development and generations. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 23(5): 673-685; Carvell, GE, Simons, DJ (1996) Abnormal tactile experience early in life disrupts active touch. Journal of Neuroscience,16(8): 2750-2757.
61 Although there have not been many controlled See articles in Barnard, KE, Brazelton, TB (1990) Touch: The Foundation of Experience. International University Press, Madison, CT.
62 The twin who received the motion For a comprehensive review of early studies see Ottenbacher, KJ, Petersen, P (1984) The efficacy of vestibular stimulation as a form of specific sensory enrichment. Quantitative review of the literature. Clinical Pediatrics (Phila.), 23(8): 428-433.
5 In Praise of Odors
65 This is true for humans, primates Tanabe, T, Iino, M, Takagi, SF (1975) Discrimination of odors in olfactory bulb, pyriform-amygdaloid areas, and orbitofrontal cortex of the monkey. Journal of Neurophysiology, 38: 1284-1296; Tanabe,T,Yarita, H, Iino, M, Ooshima, Y, Takagi, SF (1975) An olfactory projection area in orbitofrontal cortex of the monkey. Journal of Neurophysiology, 38: 1269-1283; Pritchard,TC, Hamilton, RB, Morse, JR, Norgren, R (1986) Projections of thalamic gustatory and lingual areas in the monkey, Macaca fascicularis. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 244: 213-228; Zatorre, RJ, Jones-Gotman, M, Evans,AC, Meyers, E (1992) Functional localization and lateralization of human olfactory cortex. Nature, 60: 339-340.
65 Experiments have shown that when humans Zatorre, RJ, Jones-Gotman, M, Evans, AC, Meyers, E (1992) Functional localization and lateralization of human olfactory cortex. Nature, 60: 339-340; Small, DM, Jones-Gotman, M, Zatorre, RJ, Petrides, M, Evans, AC (1997) A role for the right anterior temporal lobe in taste quality recognition. Journal of Neuroscience, 17: 5136-5142; Small, DM, Jones-Gotman, M, Zatorre, RJ, Petrides, M, Evans, AC (1997) Flavor processing: more than the sum of its parts. Neuroreport, 8: 3913-3917.
66 In her book A Natural History Ackerman, D (1991) A Natural History of the Senses. Vintage Books, New York.
66 One theory suggests that during the Devonian Watson, L (2000) Jacobson’s Organ and the Remarkable Nature of Smell. W. W. Norton & Company, New York.
69 By the twenty-eighth week, Kai’s placenta Psychologist Julie Mennella first tested this idea by taking amniotic fluid samples from women who were undergoing a routine amniocentesis and had ingested either garlic or placebo capsules approximately forty-five minutes before the procedure.The odor of the amniotic fluid from women who consumed garlic was judged, by independent evaluators, as smelling stronger and more like garlic than the fluid from those who consumed only saline (Mennella, JA, Johnson,A, Beuchamp, GK  Garlic ingestion by pregnant women alters the odor of amniotic fluid. Chemical Senses, 20: 207).
69 In fact, scientists have speculated that odor Eliot, L (2000) What’s Going on in There? How the Brain and Mind Develop in the First Five Years of Life. Bantam Books, New York.
70 Injections of simple saline solution Smotherman, WP, Robinson, SR (1988) Behavior of rat fetuses following chemical or tactile stimulation. Behavioral Neuroscience, 102: 24-34.
70 After birth, the rats that were exposed Pedersen, PE, Blass, EM (1982) Prenatal and postnatal determinants of the first sucking episode in albino rats. Development Psychobiology, 15: 349-355.
70 If their amniotic fluid is scented Smotherman,WP (1982) Odor aversion learning by the rat fetus. Physiology and Behavior, 29: 769-771.
70 Experiments performed in culturally diverse Varendi, H, et al. (1996) Attractiveness of amniotic fluid odor: evidence of prenatal olfactory learning? Acta Paediatrica, 85: 1223-1227.
71 Newborns also cry less and show Varendi, H, et al. (1998) Soothing effect of amniotic fluid smell in newborn infants. Early Human Development, 51: 47-55.
71 Within hours after birth, a breast-fed Schaal, B (1988) Olfaction in infants and children: development and functional perspectives. Chemical Senses, 13: 145.
71 Infants born to anise-consuming Schaal, B, Marlier, L, Soussigan, R (2000) Human fetuses learn odours from their pregnant mother’s diet. Chemical Senses, 25: 729-737.
72 Researchers have found that newborns Mennella, JA, Beauchamp, GK (1991) Olfactory preferences in children and adults. In The Human Sense of Smell, Lang, D, Dory, RL, Breipohl, W (eds.). Springer-Verlag, NY.
72 Some of the most popular smells include strawberry Schmidt, HJ, Beauchamp, GK (1988) Adult-like preferences and aversions in three-year-old children. Child Development, 59: 1138.
74 Within four months Russell, MJ, et al. (1980) Olfactory influences on the human menstrual cycle. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior, 13: 737.
74 The answer came Empson, J (1977) Periodicity in body temperature in man. Experientia, 33: 342.
77 Each person tested was brought Wedekind, C, Furi, S (1997) Body odour preferences in men and women: do they aim for specific MHC combinations or simply heterozygosity? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences, 22: 1471-1479.
77 In 2001,Wedekind’s group Milinski, M, Wedekind, C (2001) Evidence for MHC-CORRELATED perfume preferences in humans. Behavioral Ecology, 12: 140-149.
6 For the Love of Chocolate
80 Spouted, teapot-shaped vessels Hurst,WJ,Tarka, SM Jr., Powis,TG,Valdez, F Jr., Hester,TR (2002) Cacao usage by the earliest Maya civilization. Nature, 418: 289-290.
82 Placing a small amount of liquid Barr, RG et al. (1994) Effects of intra-oral sucrose on crying, mouthing, and hand-mouth contact in newborn and six-week-old infants. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 36: 608.
82 The key to unraveling this mystery di Tomaso, E, Beltramo, M, Piomelli, D (1996) Brain cannibinoids in chocolate. Nature, 382: 677-678.
84 In a very real sense, the opioid Molecular evidence has shown that the opioid system is highly conserved across anatomically diverse species and hence very old within the framework of hominid evolution. For instance, the gene sequence that codes the development of mu opioid receptors is essentially the same in humans, bovine chickens, bullfrogs, striped bass, thresher sharks, and the Pacific hagfish (Li, X, Keith, DE, Evans, CJ  Mu opioid receptorlike sequences are present throughout vertebrate evolution. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 43: 179-184.)
84 Study after study has shown that in humans For examples, see Facchinetti, F et al. (1986) Hyperendorphinemia in obesity and relationships to affective state. Physiology and Behavior, 36: 937-940; Melchior, JC, et al. (1991) Immunoreactive beta-endorphin increases after an aspartame chocolate drink in healthy subjects. Physiology and Behavior, 50: 941-944.
85 At least two independent studies have found that obese Facchinetti, F, et al. (1986) Hyperendorphinemia in obesity and relationships to affective state. Physiology and Behavior, 36: 937-940; Scavo, D, et al. (1990) Hyperendorphinemia in obesity is not related to affective state. Physiology and Behavior, 48: 681-683.
85 Hence, attachment behaviors depend on opioid Moles, A, Kieffer, BL, D’Amato, FR (2004) Deficit in attachment behavior in mice lacking the mu-opioid receptor gene. Science, 304: 1983-1986.
87 These include tongue protrusions to reject Steiner, JE (1973) The gustofacial response: Observation on normal and anencephalic newborn infants. In Fourth Symposium on Oral Sensation and Perception. JF Bosma (ed.), U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Bethesda, MD.
88 Studies performed during this time show that fetuses Mistretta, CM, Bradley, RM (1975) Taste and swallowing in utero: a discussion of fetal sensory function. British Medical Bulletin, 31: 80-84.
88 Likewise, rats born to mothers who consume The implications of this learning process for understanding and treating addiction will be discussed in chapter 9.
89 But this has changed with the discovery that simply putting a fatty Mattes, RD (2001) The taste of fat elevates postprandial triacylglycerol. Physiology and Behavior, 74: 343-348.
90 These findings are probably no surprise Drewnowski, A, Greenwood, MR (1983) Cream and sugar: human preferences for high-fat foods. Physiology and Behavior, 30: 629-633.
90 Michael Crawford of the Institute Cunnane, SC, Crawford, MA (2003) Survival of the fattest: fat babies were the key to evolution of the large human brain. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 136(1): 17-26.
92 They suggest the most dramatic increase Ibid.
92 For instance, both ALA and LA For a review, see Bourre, JM (2004) Roles of unsaturated fatty acids (especially omega-3 fatty acids) in the brain at various ages and during aging. Journal of Nutrition, Health, and Aging, 8(3): 163-174.
92 Another study showed that ALA Ibid.
93 It is known that humans and other animals See, for example, Imaizumi, M, Takeda, M, Sawano, S, Fushiki, T (2001) Opioidergic contribution to conditioned place preference induced by corn oil in mice. Behavioral Brain Research, 121(1-2): 129-136.
93 For instance, if LA and sucrose Gilbertson, TA (1999) The taste of fat. In Pennington Center Nutrition Series: Nutrition, Genetics, and Obesity. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, 192-207.
93 In a series of behavioral experiments Herzog, P, McCormack, DN,Webster, KL, Pittman, DW (2003) Linoleic acid alters licking responses to sweet, sour, and salt tastants in rats. Abstract, 25th Annual Meeting of the Association for Chemoreception Sciences.
93 Likewise, when Pittman’s rats Ibid.
7 The Evolution of the Lullaby
97 Indeed, given the omnipresence of music Hauser, MD, McDermott, J (2003) The evolution of the music faculty: a comparative perspective. Nature Neuroscience, 6(7): 663-668;Trehub, SE (2003) The developmental origins of music. Nature Neuroscience, 6(7): 669-673; Miller, GF (2000) Evolution of human music through sexual selection. In Wallin, NL, Merker, B, Brown, S (eds.) (2001), The Origins of Music. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 329-360.
98 The first group views music as an interesting Pinker, S (1994) The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language. William Morrow & Company, New York; Pinker, S (1997) How the Mind Works.W. W. Norton & Company, New York.
98 This view, however, has its problems Williams, GC (1966) Adaptation and Natural Selection. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.
98 Finally, a third school of thought Miller, GF (2000) The Mating Mind. Doubleday, New York; Levitan, DJ (2006) This Is Your Brain on Music. Dutton, New York ; Mithen, S (2006) The Singing Neanderthals: The Origins of Music, Language, Mind, and Body. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
99 Indeed, adaptations driven by sexual Zahavi, A (1997) The Handicap Principle. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England.
100 This has led some theorists to focus on the similarities Patel, AD (1998) Syntactic processing in language and music: Different cognitive operations, similar neural resources? Music Perception, 16: 27-42;Trehub, SE (2003) The developmental origins of musicality. Nature Neuroscience, 6: 669-673.
100 They viewed music as being built from a hierarchy Lerdahl, F, Jackendoff, R (1983) A Generative Theory of Tonal Music. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
102 They also discriminate two melodies Schellenberg, EG, Trehub, SE (1996) Natural musical intervals: evidence from infant listeners. Psychological Science, 7: 272-277.
103 To date, this experiment has only been performed with rhesus Trainor, LJ, Trehub, SE (1993) What mediates infants’ and adults’ superior processing of the major over the augmented triad? Music Perception,11: 185-196.
104 Practically everyone agrees on what is Trehub, SE, Unyk, AM, Trainor, LJ (1993) Adults identify infant-directed music across cultures. Infant Behavioral Development, 16: 193-211.
105 Interestingly, the abnormalities persisted Chang, EF, Merzenich, MM (2003) Environmental noise retards auditory cortical development. Science, 300: 498-502.
105 And when it finally gets them Howard Hughes Medical Institute Newsletter (2003)—available online at http://www.hhmi.org//news/chang.html.
107 Research has shown that fetuses older Shahidullah, BS, Hepper, PG (1994) Frequency discrimination by the fetus. Early Human Development, 36: 13-26.
108 Indeed, it is now clear that the sounds a fetus Hepper, PG (1988) Fetal “soap” addiction. Lancet, June: 1347-1348.
8 In Search of Pretty Things
114 In early primates this high concentration Neurobiologist John Allman was the first to point out this shift from olfactory to visual dominance that occurred with the evolution of primates. For a description, see Allman, J (1977) Evolution of the visual system in early primates. In Progress in Psychobiology and Physiological Psychology, ed. Sprague, J and Epstein A. Academic Press, New York, 1-53.
115 Evolutionary biologists have argued Cartmill, M (1972) Arboreal adaptations and the origin of the order primates. In The Functional and Evolutionary Biology of Primates, ed. Tuttle, R. Aldine-Atherton Press, Chicago, 97-212; Martin, R (1990) Primate Origins and Evolution: A Phylogenetic Reconstruction. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
115 This process resulted in a higher density Nathans, J (1989) Genes for color vision. Scientific American, 260: 42-49.
115 Recent work has shown that the advance from dichromacy Osorio, D, Vorobyev, M (1996) Colour vision as an adaptation to frugivory in primates. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B, 263: 593-599.
118 The latter stream is known as the “what” Ungerleider, LG, Haxby, JV (1994) “What” and “where” in the human brain. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 4 157-165.
120 If these cells are damaged in an adult Damasio, A, Yamada, T, Damasio, H, Corbett, J, McKee, J (1980) Central achromatopsia: behavioral, anatomic, and physiologic aspects. Neurology, 30: 1064-1071.
121 Experimental evidence shows that multiple cells from V1 Felleman DJ, Xiao Y, McClendon E (1997) Modular organization of occipito-temporal pathways: cortical connections between visual area 4 and visual area 2 and posterior inferotemporal ventral area in macaque monkeys. Journal of Neuroscience, 17(9): 3185-200.
123 For instance, at least one study has demonstrated that Annis, RC, Frost, B (1973) Human visual ecology and orientation anisotropies in acuity. Science, 182: 729-731.
126 In the parlance of evolutionary biology Ryan, MJ (1998) Sexual selection, receiver biases, and the evolution of sex differences. Science, 281: 1999-2003.
126 There are compelling examples where a physical For example, see Ryan, MJ (1998) Sexual selection, receiver biases, and the evolution of sex differences. Science, 281: 1999-2003.
127 Rather, stimulation of the frog’s Ibid.
127 sexual selection is often used as a theoretical For example, see Ridley, M (2003) The Red Queen: Sex and Evolution of Human Nature. HarperPerennial, New York; Miller, G (2001) The Mating Mind: How Sexual Choice Shaped the Evolution of Human Nature. Anchor Books, New York; Buss, D (1995) The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating. Basic Books, New York.
127 The pioneering biologist Amotz Zahavi, A, Zahavi, A (1997) The Handicap Principal: A Missing Piece of Darwin’s Puzzle. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England.
128 However, many of these “improvements” Miller, G (2001) The Mating Mind: How Sexual Choice Shaped the Evolution of Human Nature. Anchor Books, New York.
128 Although there is notable cultural For an entertaining review, see Etcoff, N (2000) Survival of the Prettiest. Anchor Books, New York.
129 Babies who have an innate fondness for faces Thornhill, R, Gangestad, SW (1993) Human facial beauty: averageness, symmetry, and parasite resistance. Human Nature, 4: 237-269.
9 Pleasure from Proportion and Symmetry
138 The English geneticist Angus Bateman, A J 1948. Intra-sexual selection in Drosophila. Heredity 2: 349-368.
138 Women produce approximately four hundred Williams, GC (1975) Sex and Evolution. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
139 We can find some help here in the work Hamilton,WD, Zuk, M (1982) Heritable true fitness and bright birds: a role for parasites? Science 218: 384-387.
140 Either way, it has been shown The best book to find examples of this is the first, Darwin, C, The Descent of Man.
140 Indeed, the handicap principle Zahavi, A (1975) Mate selection: A selection for a handicap. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 53: 205-214.
142 Plato and Plotinus wrote extensively Hofstader, A, Kuhns, R (eds.) (1964) Philosophies of Art and Beauty: Selected Readings in Aesthetics from Plato to Heidegger. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
144 Body shape is driven by the distribution Singh, D (2002) Female mate value at a glance: Relationship of waist-to-hip ratio to health, fecundity, and attractiveness. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 23(4); 81-91.
144 Increased testosterone in postpubertal boys Bjorntorp, P (1991) Adipose tissue distribution and function. International Journal of Obesity, 15: 67-81.
144 Healthy premenopausal women typically Singh, D (1993a) Adaptive significance of female physical attractiveness: role of waist-to-hip ratio. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65: 292-307.
145 In the early 1990s, psychologist Devendra Ibid.
145 The drawings seen as least attractive Ibid. Singh, D. (1993b) Body shape and women’s attractiveness:The critical role of waist-to-hip ratio. Human Nature, 4: 297-321.
146 For these variables, positive rankings Singh, D, Luis, S (1995) Ethnic and gender consensus for the effects of waist-to-hip ratio on judgement of women’s attractiveness. Human Nature, 6: 51-65; Singh, D (2004) Mating strategies of young women: role of physical attractiveness. The Journal of Sex Research, 41: 43-54.
146 Granted, but this is unlikely Ibid., Singh, Luis; ibid., Singh, D.
146 The classic beauties Marilyn Monroe Etcoff, N (1999) Survival of the Prettiest: The Science of Beauty. Anchor Books, New York.
147 Women with WHR lower than .8 have a significantly Singh, D (1993a); Singh, D (2002).
147 Women with WHRs below .8 are also significantly more likely Ibid., Singh, D; Ibid., Singh, D.
148 One important marker of phenotypic Scheib, JE, Gangestad, SW, Thornhill, R (1999) Facial attractiveness, symmetry and cues of good genes. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 266: 1913-1917; Gangestad, SW, Thornhill, R, Yeo, RA. (1994) Facial attractiveness, developmental stability, and fluctuating asymmetry. Ethology and Sociobiology, 15: 73-85; Moller, AP,Thornhill, R (1998) Bilateral symmetry and sexual selection: A meta-analysis. American Naturalist, 151: 174-192.
149 Considering this, it is thought that fluctuating asymmetry Moller, AP, Swaddle, JP (1997) Developmental Stability and Evolution. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England.
149 Increases are associated with decrements in biological fitness For an excellent review, see Thornhill, R, Moller, AP (1997) Developmental stability, disease and medicine. Biological Reviews 72: 497-548.
149 Insofar as fluctuating asymmetry has been found to be partly heritable Ibid.; Moller, AP (1990) Fluctuating asymmetry in male sexual ornaments may reliably reveal quality. Animal Behavior, 40: 1185-1187;Watson, PJ,Thornhill, R (1994) Fluctuating asymmetry and sexual selection. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 9: 21-25.
149 Indeed, in the majority of species tested Moller, AP, Thornhill, R (1998) Bilateral symmetry and sexual selection: a meta-analysis. American Naturalist, 151: 174-192.
149 In a large-scale review of sixty-five Ibid.
150 A second important finding was that in most species In general, secondary sexual traits exhibit greater variability in asymmetry than other traits. Moller, AP, Pomiankowski, A (1993) Fluctuating asymmetry and sexual selection. Genetica, 89: 267-279.
150 For instance, in the dozen or so studies of humans Moller, AP, Thornhill, R (1998) Bilateral symmetry and sexual selection: a meta-analysis. American Naturalist, 151: 174-192.
153 They will also visually track a line drawing of a face Maurer, D, Young, R (1983)
Newborns’ following of natural and distorted arrangements of facial features. Infant Behavior and Development, 6: 127-131. 153 Right out of the womb, babies have a preference Bushnell, IWR, Sai, F, et al. (1989) Neonatal recognition of mother’s face. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 7: 3-15.
153 By day three, infants can mimic certain facial Meltzoff, AN, Moore, MK (1977) Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. Science, 198: 75-78.
153 Add a few months and infants develop Barrera, ME, Maurer, D (1981) Discrimination of stranger by the three-month-old. Child Development, 52: 558-563.
153 and detect different emotional expressions Schwartz, GM, Izard, CE, et al. (1985) The 5-month-old’s ability to discriminate facial expressions of emotion. Infant Behavior and Development, 8: 65-77.
153 The “face as a kin recognition device” theory See one of my favorite books for an excellent review: Konner, M (2001) The Tangled Wing: Biological Constraints on the Human Spirit. Henry Holt and Company, New York.
153 For instance, newborns have a preference for stimuli Bornstein, MH, Ferdinandsen, K, et al. (1981) Perception of symmetry in infancy. Developmental Psychology, 17: 82-86.
154 They also prefer objects that are smooth Langlois, JH, Roggman, RJ, et al. (1987) Infant preferences for attractive faces: Rudiments of a stereotype? Developmental Psychology, 23: 363-369; McCall, RB, Melsom, WH (1970) Complexity, contour, and area as determinants of attention in infants. Developmental Psychology, 3: 343-349.
154 In a series of compelling studies, psychologist Judith Ibid., Langlois, Roggman, et al.
155 Langlois found that infants spent significantly more Ibid.
155 This result has since been replicated and extended Langlois, JH, Ritter, JM, et al. (1991) Facial diversity and infant preferences for attractive faces. Developmental Psychology, 27: 79-84.
155 Cross-cultural studies have been done See, for example, Jones, D, Hill, K (1993) Criteria for facial attractiveness in five populations. Human Nature, 4: 271- 295; Wagatsuma, E, Kleinke, CL (1979) Ratings of facial beauty by Korean-Americans and Caucasian females. Journal of Social Psychology, 109: 299-300.
156 Studies by evolutionary biologists and psychologists Symons, D (1979) The Evolution of Human Sexuality. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England; Langlois, JH, Roggman, LA, et al. (1994) What is average and what is not average about attractive faces? Psychological Science, 5: 214-219; Rhodes, G, Tremewan, T (1996) Averageness, exaggeration, and facial attractiveness. Psychological Science, 7: 105-110; Grammer, K, Thornhill, R (1994) Human (homo sapiens) facial attractiveness and sexual selection: the role of symmetry and averageness. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 108: 233-242.
156 Randy Thornhill and psychologist Steve Gangestad Thornhill, R, Gangestad, SW (1993) Human facial beauty: averageness, symmetry and parasite resistance. Human Nature, 4: 237-269.
156 Other studies have found that people Cunningham, MR, Barbee, AP, et al. (1990) What do women want? facial metric assessment of multiple motives in the perception of male physical attractiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59: 61-72.
156 These changes, in turn, raise the metabolic Grossman, CJ (1985) Interactions between the gonadal steroids and the immune system. Science, 227: 257-261.
157 In addition to averageness and attention to secondary For nice reviews, see Rhodes, G (2006) The evolutionary psychology of facial beauty. Annual Reviews of Psychology, 57: 199-226; Thornhill, R, Gangestad, SW (1999) Facial attractiveness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 3: 452-460.
157 In a diverse range of species tested For a review, see Thornhill, R, Moller, AP (1997) Developmental stability, disease and medicine. Biological Reviews, 72: 497-548.
157 Population biologist John Manning Manning, JT, Scutt, D, et al. (1998) Developmental stability, ejaculate size, and sperm quality in men. Evolution and Human Behavior, 19: 273-282.
157 They found that men with greater body asymmetry Ibid.
157 In women, breast asymmetry Manning, JT, Scutt, D, et al. (1997) Breast asymmetry and phenotypic quality in women. Evolution and Human Behavior, 18: 1-13.
157 and to the probability of marriage Moller, AP, Soler, M, et al. (1995) Breast asymmetry, sexual selection and human reproductive success. Ethology and Sociobiology, 16: 207-219.
158 Gangestad and Thornhill gave a series of health questionnaires to Gangestad, SW, Thornhill, R (1997a) Human sexual selection and developmental stability. In Evolutionary Social Psychology, ed. Simpson, JA, and Kenrick, DT. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, 169-195.
158 The researchers found a significant negative correlation Ibid.
158 In a study of 101 college students Shakleford, TK, Larsen, RJ (1997) Facial asymmetry as an indicator of psychological, emotional, and physiological distress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,72: 456-466.
159 They were also more likely to complain of depression Ibid.
159 Consistent with this observation Markow, TA, Wandler, K (1986) Fluctuating dermatoglyphic asymmetry and the genetics of liability to schizophrenia. Psychiatry Research, 19: 323-328; Mellor, CS (1992) Dermatoglyphic evidence of fluctuating asymmetry in schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 160: 467-472; Durfee, KE (1974) Crooked ears and bad boy syndrome:Asymmetry as an indicator of minimal brain dysfunction. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 38: 305-316.
159 Independent judgments by external observers Shakleford, Larsen (1997).
159 This study confirms other reports that facial See, for example, Grammer, K, Thornhill, R (1994) Human facial attractiveness and sexual selection: the role of symmetry and averageness. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 108: 233-242.
161 Such redundancy may facilitate the increased recognition Bornstein, MH, Ferdinandsen, K, et al. (1981) Perception of symmetry in infancy. Developmental Psychology, 17: 82-86.
161 Indeed, the data show the latter to be true, since newborns See, for example, McCall, RB, Melsom,WH (1970) Complexity, contour, and area as determinants of attention in infants. Developmental Psychology, 3: 343-349.
161 Newborns tend to look longer See, for example, McCall, RB, Melsom, WH (1970) Complexity, contour, and area as determinants of attention in infants. Developmental Psychology, 3: 343-349; Bronson, GW (1982) The Scanning Patterns of Human Infants: Implications for Visual Learning. Ablex Publishing, Norwood, NJ; Slater, AM (1998) Perceptual Development: Visual, Auditory and Speech Perception in Infants. Psychology Press, East Sussex, UK.
161 Newborns also prefer line drawings of faces Maurer, D, Young, R (1983) Newborns’ following of natural and distorted arrangements of facial features. Infant Behavior and Development, 6: 127-131.
162 As we have just reviewed, body and facial symmetry Manning, JT, Scutt, D, et al. (1998) Developmental stability, ejaculate size, and sperm quality in men. Evolution and Human Behavior, 19: 273-282; Manning, Scutt, et al. (1997); Moller, Soler, et al. (1995).
162 Hence there is evidence that individuals with greater symmetry Shakleford, Larsen (1997); Grammer, Thornhill (1994).
163 In a landmark study, evolutionary psychologist For a comprehensive review, see Buss, DM (1994) The Evolution of Desire. Basic Books, New York.
163 For instance, in comparison to men with high asymmetry Gangestad, SW, Thronhill, R, et al. (1994) Facial attractiveness, developmental stability and fluctuating asymmetry. Ethology and Sociobiology, 15: 73-85; Thornhill, R, Gangestad, SW (1994) Human fluctuating asymmetry and sexual behavior. Psychological Science, 5: 297-302; Gangestad,Thornhill (1997a); Gangestad, SW, Thorhill, R (1997b) The evolutionary psychology of extra-pair sex: the role of fluctuating asymmetry. Ethology and Sociobiology, 18: 69-88;Thornhill, R, Gangestad, SW, et al. (1995) Human female orgasm and mate fluctuating asymmetry. Animal Behavior, 50: 1601-1615.
163 In a recent study, biologist Craig Roberts Roberts, SC, Little, AC, et al. (2005) MHC-heterozygosity and human facial attractiveness. Evolution and Human Behavior, 26: 213-226.
164 Men with greater heterozygosity Ibid.
164 As we saw earlier, waist-to-hip Singh, D (1993a); Singh, D (1993b); Singh, D, Luis, S (1995); Singh, D (2004).
164 In other experiments, Devendra Singh Singh, D (1995) Female health, attractiveness, and desirability for relationships: role of breast asymmetry and waist-to-hip ratio. Ethology and Sociobiology, 16: 465-481.
164 Whereas most body parts exhibit fluctuating Moller, AP, Soler, M, et al. (1995) Breast asymmetry, sexual selection and human reproductive success. Ethology and Sociobiology, 16: 207-219; Manning, JT, Scutt, D, et al. (1996) Asymmetry and menstrual cycle in women. Ethology and Sociobiology, 17: 129-143.
165 For instance, similar to newborns Palmer, SE, Hemenway, K (1978) Orientation and symmetry: effects of multiple, near, and rotational symmetries. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 4: 691-702; Royer, F (1981) Detection of symmetry. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 7: 1186-1210.
165 Moreover, symmetric objects and patterns Humphrey, D (1997) Preferences in symmetries and symmetries in drawings: asymmetries between ages and sexes. Empirical Studies of the Arts, 15: 41-60; Berlyne, DE (1974) Studies in the New Experimental Aesthetics: Steps Toward an Objective Psychology of Aesthetic Appreciation. Hemisphere Company, Washington DC; Reber, R, Schwarz, N (2006) Perceptual fluency, preference, and evolution. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 37:16-22; Gombridge, EH (1984) The Sense of Order: A Study in the Psychology of Decorative Art. Phaidon, London.
165 Indeed, there is widespread use of symmetric designs Ibid. Gombridge; McManus, C (2002) Right Hand, Left Hand:The Origins of Asymmetry in Brains, Bodies, Atoms, and Cultures. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
165 The subjects were asked to “choose the design Cardenas, RA, Harris, LJ (2006) Symmetrical decorations enhance the attractiveness of faces and abstract designs. Evolution and Human Behavior, 27: 1-18.
166 This suggests that symmetry is preferred in nonbiological Ibid.
167 Interestingly, the application of an asymmetric design to a symmetric face Ibid.
10 Pleasure from Repetition and Rhythm
170 After only a few months, the scientists found Chang, EF, Merzenich, MM (2003) Environmental noise retards auditory cortical development. Science, 300: 498-502.
171 Most interesting of all, when the noise-reared rats Ibid.
171 For instance, it is commonly known that older infants Dissanayake, E (1992) Homoaestheticus. Free Press, New York.
171 Various religious groups practice meditation See, for example, Gass, R, Brehony, KA (2000) Chanting: Discovering Spirit in Sound. Broadway, New York; Hahn,TN (2006) Chanting from the Heart: Buddhist Ceremonies and Daily Practices. Parallax Press, Berkeley, CA; Crummet, M (1993) Sun Dance. Falcon Press Publishing, San Ramon, CA.
171 Babies as young as four months old Schellenberg, EG, Trehub, SE (1996) Natural musical intervals: evidence from infant listeners. Psychological Science, 7: 272-277.
172 As an example, let us consider music Miller, GF (2000) The Mating Mind. Doubleday, New York ; Levitan, DJ (2006) This Is Your Brain on Music. Dutton, New York; Mithen, S (2006) The Singing Neanderthals: The Origins of Music, Language, Mind, and Body. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.
172 Dawkins argued that the classic idea Dawkins, R (1982) The Extended Phenotype: The Long Reach of the Gene. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England.
173 Rather, he suggests that in addition to its potential importance Mithen, S (2006).
173 Following Darwin’s lead, he suggests that music Miller, GF (2000) Evolution of human music through sexual selection. In Wallin, NL, Nerker, B, Brown, S (eds.), The Origins of Music. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. Also see Mithen, S (2006), who suggests that both natural and sexual selection have driven the evolution of human music production and perception.
174 He notes that from this sample,“males Miller, GF (2000).
174 It is difficult to imagine the hunter-gatherer equivalent This example was also considered by Miller, GF (2000).
174 But as Dawkins and others have observed, examples abound Ibid. Dawkins, R (1982); and see Hauser, M (1996) The Evolution of Communication. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
175 Studies in rodents and primates have found For example, see Chang, EF, Merzenich, MM (2003).
175 Clearly, music has effects on social communication Mithen, S (2006).
176 That is, they exhibit learning similar Mache, FB (2000) The necessity and problem with a universal musicality. In Wallin, NL, Nerker, B, Brown, S (eds.), The Origins of Music. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
176 There is now evidence that females Catchpole, CK, Slater, PJB (1995) Bird Song: Biological Themes and Variations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England.
176 Many species of birds also sing songs Mache, FB (2000); Catchpole, CK, Slater, PJB (1995).
178 Likewise, virtuosic performance of instrumental Miller, GF (2000).
179 Indeed, experiments have demonstrated that when speaking Bolinger, D (1986) Intonation and Its Parts: Melody in Spoken English. Stanford University Press, Palo Alto, CA.
11 Homo Addictus
182 Rats that are made sick by ingesting tainted Reilly, S, Bornovalova, MA (2005) Conditioned taste aversion and amygdala lesions in the rat: A critical review. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 29(7): 1067-1088;Welzl, H, D’Adamo, P, Lipp, HP (2001) Conditioned taste aversion as a learning and memory paradigm. Behavioral Brain Science, 125(1-2): 205-213;Yamamoto,T, Shimura, T, Sako, N, et al. (1994) Neural substrates for conditioned taste aversion in the rat. Behavioral Brain Research, 65(2): 123-137.
188 Negative feelings occur with the presence of fitness decrements Panksepp, J, Knutson, B, Burgdorf, J (2002) The role of brain emotional systems in addiction: a neuro-evolutionary perspective and new “self-report” animal model. Addiction, 97: 459-469.
188 Many anthropologists have pointed out For example, see Sullivan, RJ, Hagan, EH (2002) Psychotropic substance seeking: evolutionary pathology or adaptation. Addiction, 97: 389-400; Dudley, R (2002) Fermenting fruit and the historical ecology of ethanol ingestion: is alcoholism in modern humans an evolutionary hangover? Addiction, 97: 381-388.
189 For instance, Areca catechu, commonly known Glover, IC (1977) Prehistoric plant remains from Southeast Asia with special reference to rice. In Taddei, M (ed.), South Asian Archaeology. Instituto Universitario Orientale, Naples, 7-37.
189 There is also evidence that nicotine Watson, P (1983) This Precious Foliage:A Study of the Aboriginal Psychoactive Drug Pituri. University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
189 For many psychoactive substances Sullivan, RJ, Hagan, EH, 2002.
189 Indeed, the anthropoid diet has been predominantly Dudley, R, 2002.
189 Temperate-zone fruit sources McKenzie, JA, McKechnie, W (1979) A comparative study of resource utilization in natural populations of Drosophila Malanogaster and D. simulans. Oecologia, 40: 299-309.
189 Comparative studies have found that as most temperate Brady, CJ (1987) Fruit ripening. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 38: 155-178.
189 Some anthropologists have suggested that ethanol Dudley, R (2002).
190 More than 60 percent of Americans have tried an illicit Johnston, LD, O’Malley, PM, Bachman, JG (2001) Monitoring the Future: National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2000.Volume II. College Students and Adults Aged 19-40. Bethesda, MD, National Institute on Drug Abuse, MIH Publication 01-4925.
190 For instance, recent studies have found that even for a highly Wagner, FA, Anthony, JC (2002) From first drug use to drug dependence: Developmental periods of risk for dependence upon marijuana, cocaine, and alcohol. Neuropsychopharmacology, 26: 479-488.
195 possessing an iron frame Harlow, JM (1868) Recovery from the passage of an iron bar through the head. Publications of the Massachusetts Medical Society, 2: 329-346; Harlow, JM (1848-1849) Passage of an iron rod through the head. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 39: 389.
195 This exacting and decisive nature Ibid.
195 “to please the fancy of the owner” Bigelo, HJ (1850) Dr. Harlow’s case of recovery from the passage of an iron bar through the head. American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 19: 13-22.
196 “Gage is no longer Gage” Ibid.
197 “possessed a well-balanced mind Ibid. Harlow, JM (1868).
197 A child in his intellectual capacity and manifestations Ibid.
198 There is emerging evidence that chronic exposure Jentsch, JD, Taylor, JR (1999) Impulsivity resulting from frontostriatal dysfunction in drug abuse: implications for the control of behavior by reward-related stimuli. Psychopharmacology, 146: 373-390;Volkow, ND, Hitzemann, R,Wang, GJ, et al. (1992) Long-term frontal brain metabolic changes in chronic cocaine abusers. Synapse, 11: 184-190.
198 Consistent with these findings, addicts For example, Jentsch and Taylor (1999); Bechara, A, Damasio, H (2002) Decision-making and addiction. Part I. Impaired activation of somatic states in substance dependent individuals when pondering decisions with negative future consequences. Neuropsychologia, 40: 1675-1689.
198 It is very likely that a loss of inhibitory Robinson, TE, Berridge, KC (2003) Addiction. Annual Review of Psychology, 54: 25-53.
198 This view is rooted in fairly recent findings Robinson, TE, Berridge, KC (1993) The neural basis of drug craving: An incentive-sensitization theory of addiction. Brain Research Reviews, 18: 157-198; Robinson, TE, Berridge, KC (2000) The psychology and neurobiology of addiction: an incentive-sensitization view. Addiction, 95: S91-S117; Robinson,TE, Berridge, KC (2003).
199 A major point, however, is that these animals See, for example, Pecina, S, Cagniard, B, Berridge, KC, et al. (2003) Hyperdopaminergic mutant mice have higher “wanting” but not “liking” for sweet rewards. Journal of Neuroscience, 23: 9395-9402.
199 Injection of chemicals that boost Parker, LA, Maier, S, Rennie, M, et al. (1992) Morphine- and naltrexone-induced modification of palatability: Analysis by the taste reactivity test. Behavioral Neuroscience,106: 999-1010.
200 Working in Berridge’s laboratory For an excellent review see Pecina, S, Smith, KS, Berridge, KC (2006) Hedonic hot spots in the brain. Neuroscientist, 12(6): 500-511.
201 Work in the late 1980s Berridge, KC (1988) Brainstem systems mediate the enhancement of palatability by chlordiazepoxide. Brain Research, 447: 262-268.
203 Chronic stress and the associated activation For a review see Wallenstein, GV (2002) Mind Stress, and Emotions: The New Science of Mood. Commonwealth Press, Boston.
203 For instance, in a landmark study, ethologist Dee Higley Higley, JD, Hasert, MF, Suomi, SJ, et al. (1991) Nonhuman primate model of alcohol abuse: Effects of early experience, personality, and stress on alcohol consumption. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 88: 7261-7265.
204 Another potential therapeutic target might be the opioid Panksepp, J (1998) Affective Neuroscience: The Foundations of Human and Animal Emotions. Oxford University Press, New York.
204 Clonidine, an alpha-1 noradrenergic Gold, MS (1993) Opiate addiction and the locus coeruleus: the clinical utility of clonidine, natrexone, methadone, and buprenophine. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 16: 61-73.
12 Parsing Pleasure
209 Indeed, becoming addicted to either smoking or drinking alcohol Pomerleau, CS, et al. (2004) Relationship between early experiences with tobacco and early experiences with alcohol. Addictive Behaviors,29(6): 1245-51.
210 This was the first broadly read account of how the advertising community Packard, V (1957) The Hidden Persuaders. Pocket Books, New York.
211 Our innate preference for these features has been studied by marketing See, for example, Bloch, PH (1995) Seeking the ideal form: Product design and consumer response. Journal of Marketing, 59(3): 16-29.