Notes - Proust Was a Neuroscientist - Jonah Lehrer

Proust Was a Neuroscientist - Jonah Lehrer (2007)


1. Walt Whitman: The Substance of Feeling

[>] "Was somebody asking": Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass: The "Death-Bed"
Edition (New York: Random House, 1993), 27.

[>] "a person": Ibid., 702.
"Your very flesh": As cited in Paul Berman, "Walt Whitman's Ghost," The
New Yorker (June 12, 1995): 98-104.
"The mind is embodied": Antonio Damasio, Descartes' Error (London: Quill, 1995), 118.

[>] "You might as easily": Brian Burrell, Postcards from the Brain Museum (New York: Broadway Books, 2004), 211.
"the greatest conglomeration": Jerome Loving, Walt Whitman (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999), 104.

[>] "its totality": Horace Traubel, Intimate with Walt: Selections from Whitman's
Conversations with Horace Traubel, 1882-1892 (Des Moines: University of Iowa Press, 2001).
"I was simmering": Loving, Walt Whitman, 168.

[>] "I like the silent": Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nature, Addresses, and Lectures
(Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1890), 272.
"broad shouldered": Loving, Walt Whitman, 224.
"Leading traits of character": Ibid., 150.
"one of the richest": Donald D. Kummings and J. R. LeMaster, eds., Walt
Whitman: An Encyclopedia (New York: Garland, 1998), 206.
"The poet stands among": Emerson, Nature, 455.

[>] "Doubt not": Ralph Waldo Emerson, Selected Essays, Lectures, and Poems
(New York: Bantam, 1990), 223.

[>] "I am the poet": Ed Folsom and Kenneth M. Price, "Biography," Walt Whitman
Archive, (accessed January 7, 2005).
"I am not blind": Loving, Walt Whitman, 189.

10 "in danger": Ibid., 241.
"What does a man": Ibid.
"the human body": Whitman, Leaves of Grass: The "Death-Bed" Edition,
"O my body": Ibid., 128.

[>] "where their priceless blood": Ibid., 387.
"pieces of barrel-staves": Loving, Walt Whitman, 1.
"the heap of feet": Edwin Haviland Miller, ed., Walt Whitman: The Correspondence.
(New York: New York University Press, 1961-1977), 59.
"Those three": Ibid., 77.

[>] "opened a new world": Loving, Walt Whitman, 1.
"From the stump": Whitman, Leaves of Grass: The "Death-Bed" Edition, 388.
"the hiss of the surgeon's knife": Ibid., 91.

[>] "a sense of the existence": Silas Weir Mitchell, Injuries of Nerves, and Their
Consequences (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1872).
"invisibly and uninterpenetratingly": Herman Melville, Redburn, White-Jacket, Moby Dick (New York: Library of America, 1983), 1294-98.

[>] "to his horror": Laura Otis, ed., Literature and Science in the Nineteenth Century
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 358-63.

[>] "How much of the limb": William James, "The Consciousness of Lost Limbs,"
Proceedings of the American Society for Psychical Research 1 (1887).

[>] "passionate and mystical": William James, Writings: 1878-1899 (New York: Library of America, 1987), 851.
"contemporary prophet" : Bruce Wilshire, ed., William James: The Essential
Writings (Albany: State University of New York, 1984), 333.
"the kind of fiber": Ibid., 337.

[>] "It is a sort of work": Louis Menand, The Metaphysical Club (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2001), 324.

[>] "The demand for atoms": James, Writings: 1878-1899, 996.
"I will not make poems": Whitman, Leaves of Grass: The "Death-Bed" Edition,
"there would be nothing": William James, "What Is an Emotion?" Mind 9
(1884): 188-205.

[>] "The body contributes": Antonio Damasio, Descartes' Error (London: Quill, 1995), 226.
One of Damasio's most surprising discoveries: Ibid., 212-17.
"There is more reason": Friedrich Nietzsche, The Portable Nietzsche (Viking: New York, 1977), 146.

[>] "the curious sympathy": Whitman, Leaves of Grass: The "Death-Bed" Edition,
"the spirit receives": Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), 456.
"I will make the poems": Ibid., 20.
"Hurray for positive science": Whitman, Leaves of Grass: The "Death-Bed" Edition, 64.
"for they are vascular": Ralph Waldo Emerson, Selected Essays, Lectures, and Poems (New York: Bantam, 1990), 291.

23 "I and this mystery": Whitman, Leaves of Grass: The "Death-Bed" Edition, 36.
"When you organize": Randall Jarrell, No Other Book (New York: Harper-Collins, 1999), 118.

[>] "Now I see it is true": Whitman, Leaves of Grass: The "Death-Bed" Edition, 77.

2. George Eliot: The Biology of Freedom

[>] "Seldom, very seldom": Jane Austen, Emma (New York: Modern Library, 1999), 314.
"simply a set of experiments": Gordon Haight, ed., George Eliot's Letters (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1954-1978), vol. VI, 216-17.

[>] Henry James once: David Caroll, ed., George Eliot: The Critical Heritage
(London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1971), 427.

[>] "had no need": Michael Kaplan and Ellen Kaplan, Chances Are... (New York: Viking, 2006), 42.

[>] "We must ... imagine": Louis Menand, The Metaphysical Club (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2002), 195.

[>] "I want to know": Haight, ed., George Eliot's Letters, vol. VIII, 56-5.
"The lack of physical": Ibid., 43.

[>] "She might have compared": George Eliot, Middlemarch (London: Norton, 2000), 305.
"We are not 'judicious'": Valerie A. Dodd, George Eliot: An Intellectual Life
(London: Macmillan, 1990), 227.
"a scientific poet": George Levine, ed., Cambridge Companion to George Eliot
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001), 107.

[>] "no thinking man": George Lewes, Comte's Philosophy of Science (London: 1853), 92.
"Necessitarianism": Haight, ed., George Eliot's Letters, vol. IV, 166.

[>] "Was she beautiful": Eliot, Daniel Deronda (New York: Penguin Classics, 1996), 1.
"epoch": Haight, ed., George Eliot's Letters, vol. III, 214.

[>] "Even Science": Eliot, Daniel Deronda, 1.

[>] "If we had a keen": Eliot, Middlemarch, 124.
"There lives more faith": Rosemary Ashton, George Eliot: A Life (New York: Allen Lane, 1996), 145.
"lost among small closets": Eliot, Middlemarch, 126.

37 "hard, unaccommodating Actual": Eliot, Daniel Deronda, 380.
"There is no creature": Eliot, Middlemarch, 514.
"Every limit": Ibid., 512.
"to throw the whole": As cited in Ashton, George Eliot: A Life, 305.

[>] "is not cut": Eliot, Middlemarch, 734.
"We are conscious": Thomas Huxley, "On the Hypothesis That Animals Are Automata, and Its History," Fortnightly Review (1874): 575-77.

[>] Beginning in 1962: J. Altman, "Are New Neurons Formed in the Brains of Adult Mammals?" Science 135 (1962): 1127-28.
Kaplan discovered: M. S. Kaplan, "Neurogenesis in the Three-Month-Old Rat Visual Cortex," Journal of Comparative Neurology 195 (1981): 323-38.
"At the time": Personal interview at Rockefeller Field Research Center, July 26, 2006.

[>] "Take nature away": Michael Specter, "Rethinking the Brain," The New Yorker, July 23, 2001.
"Until the scientist": Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 3rd ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996), 53.

[>] monkey mothers who live in stressful: C. L. Coe, et al., "Prenatal Stress Diminishes Neurogenesis in the Dentate Gyrus of Juvenile Rhesus Monkeys," Biology of Psychiatry 10 (2003): 1025-34.
The hippocampus: F. H. Gage et al., "Survival and Differentiation of Adult Neural Progenitor Cells Transplanted to the Adult Brain," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 92 (1995).
which help us to learn: Greg Miller, "New Neurons Strive to Fit In," Science 311 (2006): 938-40.

[>] antidepressants work: Luca Santarelli et al., "Requirement of Hippocampal Neurogenesis for the Behavioral Effects of Antidepressants," Science 301
(2003): 805-08.

[>] "Once 'information' has passed": Robert Olby, The Path to the Double Helix (London: Macmillan, 1974), 432.
"We are survival machines": Richard Dawkins, The Selfish Gene (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976), ix.

[>] the code sequence: Richard Lewontin, Biology as Ideology (New York: Harper Perennial, 1993), 67.

[>] their auditory cortex now: J. Sharma, A. Angelucci, and M. Sur, "Induction of Visual Orientation Modules in Auditory Cortex," Nature 404 (2000): 841-47.
"the most compelling": Sandra Blakeslee, "Rewired Ferrets Overturn Theories of Brain Growth," New York Times, April 25, 2000, sec. F1.

[>] Gage's new hypothesis: A. R. Muotri et al., "Somatic Mosaicism in Neuronal Precursor Cells Mediated by L1 Retrotransposition," Nature 435: 903-10.
"The more diversified": Charles Darwin, On the Origin of Species by Means of
Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life (London: John Murray, 1859), 112.

51 "highly irregular": Karl Popper, Objective Knowledge (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1972), ch. 6.
"Art is the nearest": George Eliot, "The Natural History of German Life,"
Westminster Review, July 1856.
"I refuse": Haight, ed., George Eliot's Letters, vol. VI, 216-17.

[>] "I shall not": Ibid., 166.

3. Auguste Escoffier: The Essence of Taste

[>] "Indeed, stock is everything": Auguste Escoffier, The Escoffier Cookbook: A Guide to the Fine Art of Cookery for Connoisseurs, Chefs, Epicures (New York: Clarkson Potter, 1941), 1.
"pleasurable occasion": Auguste Escoffier, Escoffier: The Complete Guide to the Art of Modern Cookery (New York: Wiley, 1983), xi.

[>] "carefully studying": Amy Trubek, Haute Cuisine: How the French Invented the Culinary Profession (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001), 126.
"Experience alone": Escoffier, The Escoffier Cookbook, 224.

[>] "The discovery of": Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, trans. M.F.K. Fisher, The Physiology of Taste (New York: Counterpoint Press, 2000), 4.

[>] "There is a taste": Alex Renton, "Fancy a Chinese?" Observer Food Magazine, July 2005, 27-32.

[>] "This study has": Ibid.
The chemical acronym: K. Ikeda, "New Seasonings," Journal of the Chemical Society of Tokyo 30 (1909): 820-36.
according to Democritus: J. I. Beare, ed., Greek Theories of Elementary Cognition from Alcmaeon to Aristotle (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906), 164.
In De Anima: Stanley Finger, Origins of Neuroscience (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994), 165.

[>] As a leg of prosciutto ages: For a delightful tour of the culinary uses of umami see Jeffrey Steingarten, It Must've Been Something I Ate (New York: Vintage, 2003), 85-99.

[>] The first receptor was discovered: N. Chaudhari et al., "A Novel Metabotropic
Receptor Functions as a Taste Receptor," Nature Neuroscience 3 (2000): 113-19.
The second sighting: G. Nelson et al., "An Amino-Acid Taste Receptor," Nature
416 (2002): 199-202.

[>] Unlike the tastes: M. Schoenfeld et al., "Functional MRI Tomography Correlates of Taste Perception in the Human Primary Taste Cortex," Neuroscience 127 (2004): 347-53.
breast milk has ten times: Stephen Pincock, "All in Good Taste," FT Magazine, June 25, 2005, 13.
"A well-displayed meal": Kenneth James, Escoffier: The King of Chefs (London: Hambledon and London, 2002), 109.

63 "The customer": Escoffier, The Complete Guide, 67.

[>] "No matter how high": Richard Axel, lecture, December 1, 2005: MIT, Picower Institute.

[>] Our sense of smell: Rachel Herz, "The Effect of Verbal Context on Olfactory Perception," Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 132 (2003): 595-606.
This feedback continually: Eric Kandel, James Schwartz, and Thomas Jessell, Principles of Neural Science, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw Hill, 2000), 632.
But when that same air: I. E. de Araujo et al., "Cognitive Modulation of Olfactory Processing," Neuron 46 (2005): 671-79.

[>] "Even horsemeat": James, Escoffier: The King of Chefs, 47.

[>] "can be much more": Daniel Zwerdling, "Shattered Myths," Gourmet (August 2004), 72-74.

[>] "organizing system": Donald Davidson, Inquiries into Truth and Interpretation (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), 189.
Everything else withers: O. Beluzzi et al., "Becoming a New Neuron in the Adult Olfactory Bulb," Nature Neuroscience 6 (2003): 507-18.

[>] Subjects repeatedly exposed: J. D. Mainland et al., "One Nostril Knows What the Other Learns," Nature 419 (2002): 802.
What was once: C. J. Wysocki, "Ability to Perceive Androstenone Can Be Acquired by Ostensibly Anosmic People," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 86 (1989). And L. Wang et al., "Evidence for Peripheral Plasticity in Human Odour Response," Journal of Physiology (January 2004): 236-44.

[>] He refused to learn: James, Escoffier: The King of Chefs, 132.
"No theory": Escoffier, The Escoffier Cookbook, 1.

[>] "If it works": Sam Sifton, "The Cheat," New York Times Magazine, May 8, 2005.

4. Marcel Proust: The Method of Memory

[>] "Even a bureau": Charles Baudelaire, Baudelaire in English (New York: Penguin, 1998), 91.

[>] "for if our life": Marcel Proust, Time Regained, vol. VI (New York: Modern Library, 1999), 441.

[>] "recognize in his own': Ibid., 322.
"I have enough": As cited in Joshua Landy, Philosophy as Fiction: Self, Deception, and Knowledge in Proust (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), 163.

[>] "The kind of literature": Proust, Time Regained, 284.
"the structure of his spirit": Ibid., 206.
"No sooner had": Marcel Proust, Swann's Way, vol. I (New York: Modern Library, 1998), 60.

80 "When from a long": Ibid., 63.
Rachel Herz: Rachel Herz and J. Schooler, "A Naturalistic Study of Autobiographical Memories Evoked by Olfactory and Visual Cues: Testing the Proustian Hypothesis," American Journal of Psychology 115 (2002): 21-32.

[>] "Perhaps because I had": Proust, Swann's Way, 63.
"the game wherein": Ibid., 64.
"It is a labor in vain": Ibid., 59.

[>] "I am obliged to depict errors": As cited in Landy, Philosophy as Fiction, 4.

[>] "speculative cavort": Stanley Finger, Minds Behind the Brain (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 214.

[>] But in a set of extraordinary: Karim Nader et al., "Fear Memories Require Protein Synthesis in the Amygdala for Reconsolidation after Retrieval," Nature 406: 686-87. See also J. Debiec, J. LeDoux, and K. Nader, "Cellular and Systems Reconsolidation in the Hippocampus," Neuron 36 (2002); and K. Nader et al., "Characterization of Fear Memory Reconsolidation," Journal of Neuroscience 24 (2004): 9269-75.

[>] "In this book": Proust, Time Regained, 225.
"How paradoxical it is": Proust, Swann's Way, 606.

[>] This theory, published in 2003: K. Si, E. Kandel, and S. Lindquist, "A Neuronal Isoform of the Aplysia CPEB Has Prion-Like Properties," Cell 115 (2003): 879-91.
It is at these tiny crossings: Kelsey Martin et al., "Synapse-Specific, Long-Term Facilitation of Aplysia Sensory to Motor Synapses: A Function for Local Protein Synthesis in Memory Storage," Cell 91 (1997): 927-38.

[>] He had heard of a molecule: Joel Richter, "Think Globally, Translate Locally: What Mitotic Spindles and Neuronal Synapses Have in Common," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98 (2001): 7069-71.
This same molecule also happened: L. Wu et al., "CPEB-Mediated Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation and the Regulation of Experience-Dependent Translation of Alpha-CaMKII mRNA at Synapses," Neuron 21 (1998): 1129-39.

[>] Essentially, the more likely: A. Papassotiropoulos et al., "The Prion Gene Is Associated with Human Long-Term Memory," Human Molecular Genetics 14 (2005): 2241-46.
Other experiments have linked: J. M. Alarcon et al., "Selective Modulation of Some Forms of Schaffer Collateral-CA1 Synaptic Plasticity in Mice with a Disruption of the CPEB-1 Gene," Learning and Memory 11 (2004): 318-27.

[>] "Thepast is hidden": Proust, Swann's Way, 59.

5. Paul Cézanne: The Process of Sight

[>] "that on or about": Virginia Woolf, Collected Essays (London: Hogarth Press, 1966-1967), vol. 1,320.
"art aim at a pseudo-scientific": Vassiliki Kolocotroni, Jane Goldman, and Olga Taxidou, eds., Modernism: An Anthology of Sources and Documents (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), 189-92.

[>] "being of no interest": Christopher Butler, Early Modernism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994), 216.
"The eye is not": Ulrike Becks-Malorny, Cézanne (London: Taschen, 2001), 46.

[>] "to be the servant": Charles Baudelaire, Charles Baudelaire: The Mirror of Art, trans. Jonathan Mayne (London: Phaidon Press, 1955). "the transient": Charles Baudelaire, Baudelaire: Selected Writings on Art and Artists, trans. P. E. Charvet (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972).

[>] "I want to make': John Rewald, Cézanne (New York: Harry Abrams, 1986), 159.
"Teachers are all": Peter Schjeldahl, "Two Views," The New Yorker, July 11, 2005.
"The eye must absorb everything": Becks-Malorny, Cézanne, 24. 104 "I tried to copy nature": Michael Doran, ed., Conversations with Cézanne (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001), 120.

[>] "it is as if there": As cited in Daniel Schwarz, Reconfiguring Modernism (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 1997), 108.

[>] Why does the mind: M. Bar et al., "Top-Down Facilitation of Visual Recognition," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (2006): 449-54.
"His [Dr. P's] responses": Oliver Sacks, The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat (London: Picador, 1985), 9.

[>] "He [Dr. P] then started": Ibid., 10.

[>] "Is painting only a whim": Becks-Malorny, Cézanne, 8.

[>] "employing the experimental": Kolocotroni, Modernism, 170.
"wild mental activity": Emile Zola, trans. Thomas Walton, The Masterpiece (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), x.
"describe man": Ibid., 180.
"new literature": Ibid.
"Our enemies": Rachel Cohen, "Artist's Model," The New Yorker, November 7, 2005, 62-85.

[>] "disappear, and simply show": Kolocotroni, Modernism, 173.
"I have a better understanding": Rewald, Cézanne, 182.

[>] "The imagination": Immanuel Kant, The Critique of Pure Reason, trans. J.M.D. Meiklejohn (New York: Prometheus Books, 1990).

[>] Unlike the Wundtians: Mitchell G. Ash, Gestalt Psychology in German Culture, 1890-1967: Holism and the Quest for Objectivity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 126.
The visual cortex is divided: The V5 region is often referred to as the MT region. Richard Born and D. Bradley, "Structure and Function of Visual Area MT," Annual Review of Neuroscience 28 (2005): 157-89.

118 When these specific neurons light up: R. Quiroga et al., "Invariant Visual Representation by Single Neurons in the Human Brain," Nature 435 (2005): 1102-07.
"A sensation is rather like": William James, Writings 1902-1910 (New York: Library of America, 1987), 594.

[>] His paintings are criticisms: The critic Clement Greenberg argued that such Kantian self-criticism represented the essence of modernism. The modernist artist, he said, uses "the characteristic methods of a discipline to criticize the discipline itself" Clement Greenberg, "Modernist Painting," Art and Literature 4 (1965).
"Cézanne made the fruit": Rainer Maria Rilke, Letters on Cézanne (London: Vintage, 1985), 33.

6. Igor Stravinsky: The Source of Music

[>] "the immense sensation": Stephen Walsh, Igor Stravinsky: A Creative Spring (Berkeley: University of California, 2002), 208.

[>] "We could hear nothing": Gertrude Stein, The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas (London: Penguin Classics, 2001), 150.

[>] "Exactly what I wanted": Igor Stravinsky and Robert Craft, Conversations with Igor Stravinsky (London: Faber, 1979), 46-47.
"before the arising of Beauty": Vera Stravinsky and Robert Craft, eds., Stravinsky in Pictures and Documents (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1978), 524-26.

[>] "as a period of waiting": Igor Stravinsky and Robert Craft, Memories and Commentaries (London: Faber and Faber, 1960), 26.

[>] "If I must commit": Alex Ross, "Whistling in the Dark," The New Yorker, February 18, 2002.
"The overwhelming multitude": As cited in Charles Rosen, Arnold Schoenberg (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996), 33.
"Schoenberg is one": Walsh, Igor Stravinsky, 190.
"One atom of hydrogen": As cited in Peter Conrad, Modern Times, Modern Places (New York: Knopf, 1999), 85.

[>] "If it is art":Ross, "Whistling in the Dark."
"rationalism and rules": Walsh, Igor Stravinsky, 397.

[>] When these selective neurons: D. Bendor and Q. Wang, "The Neuronal Representation of Pitch in the Primate Auditory Cortex," Nature 436 (2005): 1161-65.

130 It projects imaginary order: A. Patel and E. Balaban, "Temporal Patterns of Human Cortical Activity Reflect Tone Sequence Structure," Nature 404 (2002).

[>] Meyer wanted to show: Leonard Meyer, Emotion and Meaning in Music (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961), 145-60.

[>] "For the human": Ibid., 16.
"is the whole": Ibid., 151.

[>] "all art aspires": William Pater, The Renaissance: Studies in Art and Poetry (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), 86.

[>] "Very little tradition": Igor Stravinsky and Robert Craft, Expositions and Development (London: Faber and Faber, 1962), 148.

[>] "I have confided": Stravinsky, ed., Stravinsky in Pictures, 524-26.

[>] The order is our own: Peter Hill, Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000), 53.

[>] "To listen is an effort": Alex Ross, "Prince Igor," The New Yorker, November 6, 2000.
"Music is": Igor Stravinsky, Chronicle of My Life (Gollancz: London, 1936), 91.

[>] "only by being": Igor Stravinsky, Poetics of Music (New York: Vintage, 1947), 23.
"an ally in the fight": Plato, Timaeus, trans. Donald Zeyl (New York: Hackett, 2000), 36.

[>] "In music, advance": Stravinsky and Craft, Expositions and Development, 138.
"Our little Igor": Walsh, Igor Stravinsky, 233.

[>] The brain tunes: N. Sugaand E. Gao, "Experience-Dependent Plasticity in the Auditory Cortex and the Inferior Colliculus of Bats: Role of the Cortico-Fugal System," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences5 (2000): 8081-86.
Feedback from higher-up: S. A. Chowdury and N. Suga, "Reorganization of the Frequency Map of the Auditory Cortex Evoked by Cortical Electrical Stimulation in the Big Brown Bat," Journal of Neurophysiology 83, no. 4 (2000): 1856-63.
This learning is largely: S. Bao, V. Chan, and M. Merzenich, "Cortical Remodeling Induced by Activity of Ventral Tegmental Dopamine Neurons," Nature 412 (2001): 79-84.

[>] In fact, the brainstem: D. Perez-Gonzalez et al., "Novelty Detector Neurons in the Mammalian Auditory Midbrain," European Journal of Neuroscience 11 (2005): 2879-85.
When the musical pattern: J. R. Hollerman and W. Schultz, "Dopamine Neurons Report an Error in the Temporal Prediction of Reward During Learning," Nature Neuroscience 1 (1998): 304-09.
If dopamine neurons can't correlate: S. Tanaka, "Dopaminergic Control of Working Memory and Its Relevance to Schizophrenia: A Circuit Dynamics Perspective," Neuroscience 139 (2005): 153-71.
Pierre Monteux, the conductor: Thomas Kelly, First Nights (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000), 277.
"Gentlemen, you do not": Kelly, First Nights, 281.

142 "If something is to stay": Friedrich Nietzsche, The Genealogy of Morals, trans. Walter Kaufmann (New York: Vintage, 1989), 61.

7. Gertrude Stein: The Structure of Language

[>] "There are automatic movements": As cited in Steven Meyer, Irresistible Dictation (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001), 221.
"There is no good nonsense": Ibid., 228.
Even Stein later admitted: Gertrude Stein, The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas (London: Penguin Classics, 2001), 86.

[>] "A CARAFE, THAT IS": Gertrude Stein, The Selected Writings of Gertrude Stein (New York: Vintage, 1990), 461.

[>] "If an unusual foreign': William James, The Principles of Psychology (New York: Dover, 1950), vol. 1, 262.
"the way sentences diagram": Gertrude Stein, Lectures in America (Boston: Beacon Press, 1985), 211.
"Other things maybe": Ibid.

[>] "Language is an instinctive": Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (New York: Hurst and Co., 1874), 101.
"Practical medicine did not": As cited in Meyer, Irresistible Dictation, 55.
"and she was bored": Stein, Autobiography, 81.
"Either I am crazy": James Mellow, Charmed Circle: Gertrude Stein and Company (London: Phaidon, 1974), 45.

[>] "I was alone": Gertrude Stein, Picasso (Boston: Beacon Press, 1959).
They discussed art and philosophy: Judith Ryan, The Vanishing Subject (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), 92.
"Picasso had never": Stein, Autobiography, 52-60.

[>] "To see the things': Mellow, Charmed Circle, 430.

[>] "You see": Robert Haas, ed., A Primer for the Gradual Understanding of Gertrude Stein (Los Angeles: Black Sparrow, 1971), 15.
"Henry James was": Stein, Autobiography, 87.
"has not one window": As quoted in Jacques Barzun, A Stroll with William James (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983), 200.

[>] "It is, in short": James, Principles of Psychology, 254.
"We ought to say": Edward Reed, From Soul to Mind (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1997), 208.

[>] "William James taught me": Richard Poirier, Poetry and Pragmatism (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1992), 92.
"A great deal I owe": Haas, A Primer, 34.
"He looked and gasped": Stein, Autobiography, 89.

157 "If there is anything': Mellow, Charmed Circle, 404.

[>] It even found a more elegant: Howard Gardner, The Mind's New Science: A History of the Cognitive Revolution (New York: Basic Books, 1987), 147-55.
The psychologist George Miller: George Miller, "The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two," The Psychological Review 63 (1956): 81-97.

[>] "There are processes of language": Chomsky's original 1956 paper is accessible here: web.mitedu/afs/

[>] This boundless creativity: Marc Hauser, Noam Chomsky, Tecumseh Fitch, "The Faculty of Language: What Is It, Who Has It, and How Did It Evolve?" Science 298 (2002): 1569-79.
The best evidence: Michal Ben-Shachar, "Neural Correlates of Syntactic Movement: Converging Evidence from Two fMRI Experiments," Neuro-image 21 (2004): 1320-36.

[>] Although these Nicaraguan children: Ann Senghas et al., "Children Creating Core Properties of Language: Evidence from an Emerging Sign Language in Nicaragua," Science 305: 1779-82.
"Everybody said the same": Gertrude Stein, Lectures in America, 138.

[>] "in enormously long": Gertrude Stein, Writings 1932-1946 (New York: Library of America, 1998), 326.
Stein always said: As cited in Meyer, Irresistible Dictation, 138.

[>] "When you make a thing": Stein, Autobiography, 28.
"If you keep on doing": Ibid., 230.
Stein later bragged: Ibid., 234.

[>] "Now listen! I'm no fool": As cited in Mellow, Charmed Circle, 404.

[>] "I found out that": Haas, ed., A Primer, 18.

8. Virginia Woolf: The Emergent Self

[>] "I have finally": Virginia Woolf, The Diary of Virginia Woolf, ed. Anne Olivier Bell, 5 vols. (London: Hogarth, 1977-1980), vol. 2,13.
"Only thoughts and feelings": Virginia Woolf, Congenial Spirits: The Selected Letters of Virginia Woolf, ed. Joanne Trautmann Banks (New York: Harvest, 1991), 128.
"They have looked": Virginia Woolf, The Virginia Woolf Reader (New York: Harcourt, 1984), 205 [emphasis mine].
"Is it not the task": Ibid., 287.

[>] "was very erratic": Virginia Woolf, A Room of One's Own (New York: Harvest, 1989), 110.
"I press to my centre": Woolf, The Diary, vol. 3, 275.
"One must have a whole": As cited in Hermione Lee, Virginia Woolf (New York: Vintage, 1996), 407.
"We are the words": Virginia Woolf, Moments of Being (London: Pimlico, 2002), 85.

171 "I intend to keep": Woolf, The Diary, vol. 5, 64.
"I feel my brains": Lee, Virginia Woolf, 187.
"of depositing experience": Woolf, The Diary, vol. 4, 231.

[>] "difficult nervous system": Ibid., vol. 3,39.
"It's odd how being ill": Nigel Nicolson and Joanne Trautmann, eds., The Letters of Virginia Woolf, 6 vols. (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 19751980), vol. 3,388.
"It is no use": Virginia Woolf, Jacob's Room (New York: Harvest, 1950), 154.
"At [the age of] forty": Woolf, The Diary, vol. 2, 205-06.
"those infinitely obscure": Woolf, A Room of One's Own, 89.
"Let us not take it": Virginia Woolf, "Modern Novels," Times Literary Supplement, April 10, 1919.

[>] "felt very much": Virginia Woolf, Mrs. Dalloway (New York: Harvest Books, 1990), 186.
"something central which permeated": Ibid., 31.
"some indescribable outrage": Ibid., 184.
"transcendental theory": Ibid., 151.
"Pointed; dartlike; definite": Ibid., 37.

[>] "world of her own": Ibid., 76.
"For there she was": Ibid., 194.

[>] "kind of whole": Quentin Bell, Virginia Woolf: A Biography (New York: Harvest, 1974), 138.
"The mind receives": Virginia Woolf, The Common Reader: First Series (New York: Harvest, 2002), 150.
"There was nobody": Virginia Woolf, To the Lighthouse (New York: Harcourt, 1955), 32.

[>] "thought is like": Ibid., 33.
"What does one mean": Woolf, A Roomof One's Own, 97.
"suddenly split off": Ibid.
"like a cloud": Woolf, The Diary, vol. 3, 218.
"My hypothesis is the subject": Christopher Butler, Early Modernism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994), 92.
"mutations of the self": William James, The Principles of Psychology (New York: Dover, 1950), vol. 1,399.
"The poet has": T. S. Eliot, The Sacred Wood and Major Early Essays (New York: Dover, 1998), 32.

[>] "splinters and mosaics": Woolf, The Diary, vol. 2,314.
Experiment after experiment: Merlin Donald, A Mind So Rare (New York: Norton, 2001), 13-25.
"of multiple channels": Daniel Dennett, Consciousness Explained (New York: Back Bay Books, 1991), 253-54.
"Such was the complexity": Woolf, To the Lighthouse, 102.

178 The right
"Everything that we": Stanley Finger, Minds Behind the Brain (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), 281.

[>] "Oh, that's easy": Michael Gazzaniga, The Social Brain (New York: Basic Books, 1985), 72.

[>] "Am I here": Woolf, The Virginia Woolf Reader, 253.
"What happens is": Woolf, The Diary, vol. 2, 234.

[>] "a thing that you": Ibid., 171.
"scraps, orts and fragments": Virginia Woolf, Between the Acts (New York: Harvest Books, 1970), 189.
"With what magnificent": Virginia Woolf, The Waves (New York: Harvest Books, 1950), 261.
"like a light stealing": Woolf, To the Lighthouse, 106-07.

[>] "No, ... she did not want": Ibid., 108.
"But now and again": Ibid., 62.
"Of such moments": Ibid., 105.
"theme, recurring": Virginia Woolf, The Years (New York: Harvest, 1969), 369.

[>] These cells can now see: C. J. McAdams, J.H.R. Maunsell, "Effects of Attention on Orientation Tuning Functions of Single Neurons in Macaque Cortical Area V4," Journal of Neuroscience 19 (1999): 431-41.
The illusory self is causing: Steven Yantis, "How Visual Salience Wins the Battle for Awareness," Nature Neuroscience 8 (2005): 975-76. And John Reynolds et al., "Attentional Modulation of Visual Processing," Annual Review of Neuroscience 27: 611-47.
"our central oyster": Woolf, The Virginia Woolf Reader, 248.

[>] While they have no explicit: Lawrence Weiskrantz, "Some Contributions of Neuropsychology of Vision and Memory to the Problem of Consciousness," in A. Marcel and E. Bisiach, eds., Consciousness in Contemporary Science (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988).
Brain scans confirm: A. Cowey and P. Stoerig, "The Neurobiology of Blindsight," Trends in Neuroscience 14 (1991): 140-45.
Of course, the one thing: Seth Gillihan and Martha Farah, "Is Self Special? A Critical Review of Evidence from Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience," Psychological Bulletin 131 (2005): 76-97.

[>] "There are no words": Woolf, The Waves, 287.

[>] "What happens": Christof Koch, The Quest for Consciousness (Englewood, Colorado: Roberts and Company, 2004), 271.
"The two percepts": Ibid.

187 "Life is not": Woolf, The Virginia Woolf Reader, 287.
"simplify rather than": Virginia Woolf, "Freudian Fiction," Times Literary Supplement, March 25, 1920.

[>] "It is quite possible": Noam Chomsky, Language and the Problems of Knowledge (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1988), 159.
"For it was not knowledge": Woolf, To the Lighthouse, 51.
"The final belief": Wallace Stevens, "Adagia," Opus Posthumous (New York: Knopf, 1975), 163.

[>] "What she [Lily] wished": Woolf, To the Lighthouse, 193.
"Instead there are": Ibid., 161.
"the great revelation": Ibid.
"to be on a level":Ibid., 202.
"queer amalgamation": As cited in Julia Briggs, Virginia Woolf: An Inner Life (New York: Harcourt, 2005), 210.
"With a sudden intensity": Woolf, To the Lighthouse, 208.


[>] "To say that": Richard Rorty, Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), 8.

[>] "is that all tangible": E. O. Wilson, Consilience (New York: Vintage, 1999), 291.

[>] "the philosophy of modernism": Steven Pinker, The Blank Slate (New York: Penguin, 2003), 404.

[>] "it's not clear to him": Ian McEwan, Saturday (London: Jonathan Cape, 2005), 3.
"It's as if": Ibid.
"what the chances are": Ibid., 128.
"is biological determinism": Ibid., 92.

[>] "the wonder will remain": Ibid., 255.
"touched off a yearning": Ibid., 279.
"There's always this": Ibid.

[>] "The greater one's science": Vladimir Nabokov, Strong Opinions (New York: Vintage, 1990), 44.

[>] "the ability to remain": John Keats, Selected Letters (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 41.
"It is imperative": Karl Popper, Conjectures and Refutations (New York: Routledge, 2002), 39.