NOTES - The Mind and the Brain - Jeffrey M. Schwartz, Sharon Begley

The Mind and the Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force - Jeffrey M. Schwartz, Sharon Begley (2003)

NOTES

from a psychological-epistemological point of view: Wigner, E. 1967. Symmetries and reflections. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, p. 202.

INTRODUCTION

1913 classic: Watson, J. B. 1913. Psychology as the behaviorist views it. Psychological Review, 20, pp. 158-177.

exposure and response prevention: Baer, L., & Minichello, W. E. 1998. Behavioral treatment for OCD. In: Jenike, M. A., Baer, L., & Minichiello, W. E. (Eds.) 1998. Obsessive-compulsive disorders: Practical management, 3rd ed. St. Louis: Mosby.

scientism: Barzun, J. 2000. From dawn to decadence: 500 years of Western cultural life. New York: HarperCollins, p. 218.

Bare Attention: Nyanaponika Thera. 1973. The heart of Buddhist meditation. York Beach, Maine: Samuel Weiser, p. 30.

impartial and well-informed spectator: Smith, A. 1976. Raphael, D. D., & Macfie, A. L., (Eds.) The theory of moral sentiments. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 112-113.

the essential achievement of the will”: James, W. 1983. The principles of psychology. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, p. 1166. “prolong the stay in consciousness”: Ibid., p. 429.

the utmost a believer in free-will can ever do”: Ibid., p. 1177.

choose and sculpt how our ever-changing minds”: Merzenich, M. M., & deCharms, R. 1996. Neural representations, experience, and change. In: Llinás, R., & Churchland, P. S. (Eds.) The mind-brain continuum: Sensory processes. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, pp. 62-81.

user illusion”: Dennett, D. 1994. In: Guttenplan, S. A companion to the philosophy of mind. Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell, pp. 236-243.

CHAPTER ONE

Alcmaeon of Croton: Burnet, J. 1920. Early Greek philosophy, 3rd ed. London: A. & C. Black.

“the brain has the most power for man”: Hippocrates, On the sacred disease. Translation from Kirk, G. S., & Raven, J. E. 1963. The pre-socratic philosophers: A critical history with a selection of texts.

New York: Cambridge University Press, p. 442.

stimulated tiny spots on the surface: Penfield, W., & Perot, P. 1963. The brain’s record of auditory and visual experience. Brain, 86, pp. 595-697.

“The word Mind is obsolete”: Bogen, J. E. 1998. My developing understanding of Roger Wolcott Sperry’s philosophy. Neuropsychologia, 36 (10), pp. 1089-1096.

“understand the brain”: Nichols, M.J. & Newsome, W.T. 1999. The neurobiology of cognition. Nature, 402, p. C35-38.

“the fundamental features of [the physical] world are as described by physics”: Searle, J. R. 2000. A philosopher unriddles the puzzle of consciousness. Cerebrum, 2, pp. 44-54.

explanatory gap: Levine, J. 1983. Materialism and qualia: The explanatory gap. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 6, pp. 354-361. Imagine a color-blind neuroscientist: Jackson, J. 1982. Epiphenomenal qualia. Philosophical Quarterly, 3, pp. 127-136.

“The problem with materialism”: McGinn, C. 1999. The mysterious flame: Conscious minds in a material world. New York: Basic Books, p. 28.

“That one body may act upon another”: The Correspondence of Isaac Newton. Volume III, 1688-1694. Edited by H. W. Turnbull, F.R.S. Cambridge: Published for the Royal Society at the University Press, 1961. Letter 406 Newton to Bentley, 25 February 1692/3.

one version of quantum theory: Von Neumann, J. 1932. Mathema-tische Grundlagen der Quanten Mechanik. English translation from Beyer, R.T. 1953. Mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Descartes and La Mettrie: see the discussion of their work in: Reck, A. J. 1972. Speculative philosophy: A study of its nature, types, and uses. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

As Colin McGinn puts it: McGinn, 1999, pp. 18-19.

Steven Rose: Rose, S. 1998. Brains, mind and the world. In: Rose, S. (Ed.) From brains to consciousness: Essays on the new sciences of the mind. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, p. 12.

“That our being should consist of two fundamental elements”: Sherrington, C. S. 1947. The integrative action of the nervous system, 2d ed. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, p. xxiv.

In 1986 Eccles proposed: Eccles, J. C. 1986. Do mental events cause neural events analogously to the probability fields of quantum mechanics? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 227, pp. 411-428.

Among the warring theories: Edelman, G. M., & Tononi, G. A. 2000. Universe of consciousness: How matter becomes imagination. New York: Basic Books, p. 6.

“Mentalistic Materialism” as the neurosurgeon Joe Bogen has termed it: Bogen, 1998.

“Mental processes are just brain processes”: Flanagan, O. 1992. Consciousness reconsidered. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, p. xi. Churchland and Daniel Dennett: Churchland, P. M., & Churchland, P. S. 1998. On the contrary: Critical essays, 1987-1997. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press; Dennett, D. C. 1991. Consciousness explained. Boston: Little, Brown.

“mind does not move matter”: Herrick, C. J. 1956. The evolution of human nature. Austin, Tex.: University of Texas Press, p. 281.

the causal efficacy of mind: James, W. 1983. The automaton theory. In: The principles of psychology. Cambridge Mass: Harvard University Press, Chap. 5.

called such traits spandrels: Gould, S. J., & Lewontin, R. C. 1979. The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist programme. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 205, pp. 581-598.

Emergent materialism: Sperry, R. W. 1992. Turnabout on consciousness: A mentalist view. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 13, pp. 259-280.

As he put it in 1970: Sperry, R. W. 1970. Perception in the absence of the neocortical commissures. Research Publications Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease, 48, pp. 123-138.

Agnostic physicalism: Bogen, 1998.

Process philosophy: for a useful overview see Reck, A. J. 1972. A useful book on Whitehead’s profoundly abstract philosophical system is Sherburn, D. W. (Ed.) 1981. A key to Whitehead’s process and reality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Dualistic interactionism: Popper, K. R., & Eccles J. C. 1977. The self and its brain: An argument for interactionism. New York: Springer International.

the Australian philosopher David Chalmers: Chalmers, D.J. 1996. The conscious mind: In search of a fundamental theory. New York: Oxford University Press.

started out life as a materialist”: Kuhn, R. L. 2000. Closer to the truth. New York: McGraw-Hill, p. 21.

To truly bridge the gap”: Ibid.

“When I first got interested in”: Searle, 2000.

Crick: Crick, F. J. 1994. The astonishing hypothesis: The scientific search for the soul. New York: Scribner’s.

Edelman: Edelman & Tononi, 2000.

“reductionistic neurobiological explanations”: Singer, W. 1998. Consciousness from a neurobiological perspective. In: Rose (Ed.) 1998, p. 229.

“ambiguous relationship to mind”: Rose, 1998.

“mind is but the babbling of a robot”: Doty, R. W. 1998. The five mysteries of the mind, and their consequences. Neuropsychologia, 36, pp. 1069-1076.

CHAPTER TWO

obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) : Two standard general reference books for information on OCD are: Jenike, M. A., Baer, L., & Minichiello, W. E. (Eds.) 1998. Obsessive-compulsive disorders: Practical management, 3rd ed. St. Louis: Mosby; Koran, L. M. 1999. Obsessive-compulsive and related disorders in adults: A comprehensive clinical guide. New York: Cambridge University Press.

exposure and response prevention: Foa, E. B., & Wilson, R. 2001. Stop obsessing! How to overcome your obsessions and compulsions, rev. ed. New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell; Meyer V., Levy, R., & Schnurer, A. 1974. The behavioral treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorders In: Beech, H. R. (Ed.) Obsessional states. London: Methuen, pp. 233-256.

some 25 percent of patients: Baer, L., & Minichello, W. E. 1998. Behavioral treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder. In: Jenike, Baer, & Minichiello, 1998, pp. 337-367.

Cognitive therapy—a form of structured introspection—was already widely used: Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. 1979. Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford Press.

we had studied depression: Baxter, L. R., Jr., Phelps, M. E., Mazziotta, J. C., Schwartz, J. M., et al. 1985. Cerebral metabolic rates for glucose in mood disorders: Studies with positron emission tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose F 18. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, pp. 441-447.

analysis of the PET scans: Baxter, L. R., Jr., Schwartz, J. M., Mazziotta, J. C., et al. 1988. Cerebral glucose metabolic rates in nonde-pressed patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145, pp. 1560-1563; Baxter, L. R., Jr., Phelps, M.E., Mazziotta, J. C., Guze, B. H., Schwartz, J. M., & Selin, C. E. 1987. Local cerebral glucose metabolic rates in obsessive-compulsive disorder: A comparison with rates in unipolar depression and in normal controls. Archives of General Psychiatry, 44, pp. 211-218.

anterior cingulate gyrus: Swedo, S. E., Schapiro, M. B., Grady, C. L., et al. 1989. Cerebral glucose metabolism in childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, pp. 518-523.

elevated metabolism in the orbital frontal cortex: Rauch, S. L., & Baxter, L. R. 1998. Neuroimaging in obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders. In: Jenike, Baer, & Minichiello, 1998, pp. 289-317.

behavioral physiologist E. T. Rolls at Oxford: Thorpe, S. J., Rolls, E.T., & Maddison, S. 1983. The orbitofrontal cortex: Neuronal activity in the behaving monkey. Experimental Brain Research, 4, pp. 93-115.

The orbital frontal cortex, it seems, functions as an error detector: reviews of recent work on this subject are in: Rolls, E.T. 2000. The orbitofrontal cortex and reward. Cerebral Cortex, 10, pp. 284-294; O’Doherty, J., Kringelbach, M. L., Rolls, E.T., et al. 2001. Abstract reward and punishment representations in the human orbitofrontal cortex. Nature Neuroscience, 4, pp. 95-102; Rogers, R. D., Owen, A.M., Middleton, H. C., et al. 1999. Choosing between small, likely rewards and large, unlikely rewards activates inferior and orbital prefrontal cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 15, pp. 9029-9038.

volunteers play a sort of gambling game: Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Tranel, D., & Damasio, A. R. 1997. Deciding advantageously before knowing the advantageous strategy. Science, 275, pp. 1293-1295. Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Damasio, A. R., & Lee, G.P. 1999. Different contributions of the human amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex to decision-making. Journal of Neuroscience, 19, pp. 5473-5481.

traffic pattern connecting the striatum and the cortex: For accessible reviews of this see: Schwartz, J. M., 1998. Neuroanatomical aspects of cognitive-behavioral therapy response in obsessive-compulsive disorder: An evolving perspective on brain and behavior. British Journal of Psychiatry, 173, Supplement 35, pp. 39-45; Schwartz, J. M. 1997. Obsessive-compulsive disorder. Science & Medicine, 4(2), pp. 14-23.

are called matrisomes: Eblen, F., & Graybiel, A. M. 1995. Highly restricted origin of prefrontal cortical inputs to striosomes in the macaque monkey. Journal of Neuroscience, 15, pp. 5999-6013.

neuronal mosaic of reason and passion: Graybiel, A. M., & Rauch, S. L. 2000. Toward a neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Neuron, 28, pp. 343-347; Graybiel, A. M. & Canales, J. J. 2001. The neurobiology of repetitive behaviors: Clues to the neurobiology of Tourette syndrome. Advances in Neurology, 85, pp. 123-131.

tonically active neurons (TANs) : Aosaki, T., Kimura, M., & Graybiel, A.M. 1995. Temporal and spatial characteristics of tonically active neurons of the primate’s striatum. Journal of Neurophysiology, 73, pp. 1234-1252.

serve as a sort of gating mechanism, redirecting information flow: Graybiel, A. M. 1998. The basal ganglia and chunking of action repertoires. Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, 70, pp. 119-136. role in the development of habits: Jog, M. S., Kubota, Y., Connolly, C. I., Hillegaart, V., & Graybiel, A. M. 1999. Building neural representations of habits. Science, 26, pp. 1745-1749.

purposefully alter the response contingencies of their own TANs: Schwartz, J. M. 1999. A role for volition and attention in the generation of new brain circuitry: Toward a neurobiology of mental force. In: Libet, B., Freeman, A., & Sutherland, K. (Eds.) The volitional brain: Towards a neuroscience of free will. Thorverton, U.K.: Imprint Academic.

two output pathways: one direct and one indirect: Baxter, L. R., Jr., Clark, E. C., Iqbal, M., & Ackermann, R. F. 2001. Cortical-subcortical systems in the mediation of obsessive-compulsive disorder: Modeling the brain’s mediation of a classic “neurosis.” In: Lichter, D. G., & Cummings, J. L. (Eds.) Frontal-subcortical circuits in psychiatric and neurological disorders. New York: Guilford Press, pp. 207-230. “worry circuit”: Baxter, L. R., Jr., Schwartz, J. M., et al. 1992. Caudate glucose metabolic rate changes with both drug and behavior therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, pp. 681-689.

“streams of thought and motivation”: Graybiel & Rauch, 2000.

what I came to call Brain Lock: Schwartz, J. M., & Beyette, B. 1997. Brain lock: Free yourself from obsessive-compulsive behavior. New York: HarperCollins.

anterior cingulate: Bush, G., Luu, P., & Posner, M. I. 2000. Cognitive and emotional influences in anterior cingulate cortex. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, pp. 215-222.

Researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital: Breiter, H. C., Rauch, S. L., et al. 1996. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of symptom provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, pp. 595-606; Rauch, S. L., Jenike, M. A., et al. 1994. Regional cerebral blood flow measured during symptom provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder using oxygen 15-labeled carbon dioxide and positron emission tomography. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, pp. 62-70.

Nyanaponika Thera: Nyanaponika Thera, 1973.

Ludwig von Mises, who defined valuing: Von Mises, L. 1962. The ultimate foundation of economic science: An essay on method. Kansas City, Kans.: Sheed Andrews & McMeel.

significantly diminished metabolic activity: Schwartz, J. M., Stoes-sel, P.W., Baxter, L. R., Jr., et al. 1996. Systematic changes in cerebral glucose metabolic rate after successful behavior modification treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, pp. 109-113.

Benazon of Wayne State: Benazon, N. R., Ager, J., & Rosenberg, D. R. 2002. Cognitive behavior therapy in treatment-naïve children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: An open trial. Behavior Research and Therapy, 40, p. 529-539.

William James posed the question: Meyers, G. E. (Ed.) 1992. Psychology: Briefer course. In: William James Writings 1878-1899. New York: Library of America, p. 417.

CHAPTER THREE

lasting language deficit: Ratey, J. J. 2000. A user’s guide to the brain. New York: Pantheon, p. 270.

to process visual information instead: Eliot, Lise. 1999. What’s going on in there? How the brain and mind develop in the first five years of life. New York: Bantam, p. 250.

congenitally deaf people: Bavelier, D., & Neville, H. J. 2002. Cross-modal plasticity: where and how? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3(6), pp. 443-452.

In their breakthrough experiment: Von Melchner, L., Pallas, S. L., Sur, M. 2000. Visual behaviour mediated by retinal projections directed to the auditory pathway. Nature, 404, pp. 871-875.

“the animals ‘see’”: Merzenich, M. 2000. Seeing in the sound zone. Nature, 404, pp. 820-821.

as a cause of behavioral improvements: Van Praag, H., Kempermann, G., & Gage, F. H. 2000. Neural consequences of environmental enrichment. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 1, pp. 191-198.

strengthened their synaptic connections: Robertson, I. H., & Murre, J. M. J. 1999. Rehabilitation of brain damage: Brain plasticity and principles of guided recovery. Psychological Bulletin, 125, pp. 544-575.

molecular changes: Kandel, E R. 1998. A new intellectual framework for psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155(4), pp. 457-469. an average of 2,500 of these specialized junctions, or synapses: Gopnik, A., Meltzoff, A. N., & Kuhl, P. K. 1999. The scientist in the crib: Minds, brains and how children learn. New York: William Morrow, p. 186.

100 trillionsynapses: Ibid., p. 181.

About half the neurons that form in the fetal brain die before the baby is born: Ratey, 2000, p. 26.

1.8 million synapses per second: Eliot, 1999, p. 27.

20 billion synapses are pruned every day: Ibid., p. 32.

They literally could not hear any difference: Gopnik, Meltzoff & Kuhl, 1999, p. 103.

by twelve months they could not: Ibid., p. 107.

rarely learn to speak it like a native: Ibid., p. 192.

forms millions of connections every day: Ibid., p. 1.

in the wilds of New York City: Ibid., p. 182.

all of the 100 million neurons of the primary visual cortex form: Eliot, 1999, p. 204.

10 billion per day: Ibid.

visual acuity has improved fivefold: Maurer, D., Lewis, T. L., Brent, H. P., & Levin, A.V. 1999. Rapid improvement in the acuity of infants after visual input. Science, 286, pp. 108-109.

sees the world almost as well as a normal adult: Sireteanu, R. 1999.

Switching on the infant brain. Science, 286, pp. 58-59.

“eliminate addressing errors”: Shatz, C. J. 1992. The developing brain. Scientific American, 267, pp. 62-67.

strikes about 1 baby in 10,000: Sireteanu, 1999, p. 60.

the brain never develops the ability to see normally: Ibid., p. 59.

“visual input was focused on the retina”: Maurer, 1999, p. 108.

as well as normal language development: Sireteanu, 1999, p. 61.

led by Elizabeth Sowell: Sowell, E. R., Thompson, P.M., Holmes, C. J., Jernigan, T. L., Toga, A. W. 1999. In vivo evidence for post-adolescent brain maturation in frontal and striatal regions. Nature Neuroscience, 2, pp. 859-861.

increased through age eleven or twelve: Giedd, J. N., Blumenthal, J., Jeffries N. O., Castellanos, F. X., Liu, H., Zijdenbos, A., Paus, T., Evans, A. C., Rapoport, J. L. 1999. Brain development during childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal MRI study. Nature Neuroscience, 2, pp. 861-863.

“In adult centres”: In Lowenstein, D.H. & Parent, J.M. 1999. Brian, heal thyself. Science, 283, pp. 1126-1127.

“We are still taught”: Ibid. p. 1126.

CHAPTER FOUR

As a student at Ohio State: Guillermo, K. S. 1983. Monkey business: The disturbing case that launched the animal rights movement. Washington, D.C.: National Press Books, p. 32.

bought at a toy store: Guillermo, 1983, p. 25.

The saga of the Silver Spring monkeys: for an excellent and concise account of the case, see Fraser, Caroline. 1993. The raid at Silver Spring. The New Yorker, 69, p. 66.

In 1895 Sherrington: Reprinted in Denny-Brown, D. (Ed.) 1940. Selected writings of Sir Charles Sherrington. New York: Harper & Bros. pp. 115-119.

Reflecting on the 1895 results: Sherrington, C.S. 1931. Hughlings Jackson Lecture. Brain, 54, pp. 1-28.

By 1947: Sherington, 1947, pp. xxi-xxiii.

“A negative reinforcer”: Skinner, B.F. 1974. About Behaviorism. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, p. 47.

electric shock that lasted up to 3.5 seconds: Taub, E. 1980. Somatosensory deafferentation research with monkeys: Implications for rehabilitation medicine. In Ince, L. P. (Ed.) Behavioral psychology in rehabilitation medicine. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, pp. 371-401.

“was to be of long duration, if necessary”: Ibid., p. 374.

the monkey uses it: Taub, E. 1977. Movement in nonhuman primates deprived of somatosensory feedback. Exercise and Sports Sciences Reviews, 4, pp. 335-374.

“except the most precise”: Ibid., p. 368.

“potentially useful”: Ibid., p. 342.

“major difficulties in carrying out deafferentation experiments with monkeys”: Ibid., p. 343.

six out of eleven fetuses died: Ibid., p. 359.

“are not the inevitable consequences of deafferentation”: Guillermo, 1983, p. 133.

“let the monkeys go?”: Kilpatrick, J. 1986. Jailed in Poolesville. The Washington Post, May 12, A15.

the fifteen surviving monkeys: Dajer, T. 1992. Monkeying with the brain. Discover, 13, p. 70.

“had been through hell and back”: Ibid.

when they were three or four years old: Pons, T. P., Garraghty, P. E., Ommaya, A. K., Kaas, J. H., Taub, E., & Mishkin, M. 1991. Massive cortical reorganization after sensory deafferentation in adult macaques. Science, 252, pp. 1857-1860.

“a couple of millimeters”: Ibid., p. 1857.

Paul stopped eating: Goldstein, A. A. 1990. Silver Spring monkey undergoes final experiment. The Washington Post, January 22, E3.

rejected the advice: Dajer, 1992.

held up experiments on the seven surviving monkeys: Barnard, N. D. 1990. Animal experimentation: The case of the Silver Spring monkeys. The Washington Post, February 25, B3.

“euthanized for humane reasons”: Sullivan, L. W. 1990. Free for all: Morality and the monkeys. The Washington Post, March 17, A27. was denied on April 12, 1991: Okie, S. S., & Jennings, V. 1991. Rescued animals killed: Animal rights group defends euthanasia. The Washington Post, April 13, Al.

he never awoke: Ibid.

“advantageous to study the Silver Spring monkeys”: Suplee, C. 1991. Brain’s ability to rewire after injury is extensive; “Silver Spring monkeys” used in research. The Washington Post. June 28, A3.

CHAPTER FIVE

“a distinct and different essence”: Penfield, W. 1975. The mystery of the mind. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, p. 55, 62. chapter on habit: James, 1983, p. 110.

In 1912 T. Graham Brown and Charles Sherrington: Graham Brown, T., & Sherrington, C. S. 1912. On the instability of a cortical point. Proceedings of Royal Science Society of London, 85B, pp. 250-277.

S. Ivory Franz compared movement maps: Franz, S. I. 1915. Variations in distribution of the motor centers. Psychological Review, Monograph Supplement 19, pp. 80-162.

Sherrington himself described “the excitable cortex”: Leyton, A. F. S., & Sherrington, C. S. 1917. Observations on the excitable cortex of the chimpanzee, orang-utan and gorilla. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Physiology, 1, pp. 135-222.

Karl Lashley, a former colleague of Franz: Lashley, K. S. 1923. Temporal variation in the function of the gyrus precentralis in primates. American Journal of Physiology 65, pp. 585-602.

“plasticity of neural function”: Lashley, K. S. 1926. Studies of the cerebral function of learning. Journal of Comparative Neurology 4, pp. 1-58.

remodeled continually by experience: Merzenich, M. M., & Jenkins, W. M. 1993. Cortical representations of learned behaviors. In: Andersen, P. et al. (Eds.) Memory concepts. New York: Elsevier, pp. 437-454.

Donald Hebb postulated coincident-based synaptic plasticity: Hebb, D. O. 1949. The organization of New York: John Wiley.

the great Spanish neuroanatomist Ramón y Cajal: DeFelipe, J., & Jones, E. G. (Eds.) 1988. Ramón y Cajal Santiago: Cajal on the cerebral cortex: An annotated translation of the complete writings. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.

auditory cortex: Disterhoft, J. F., & Stuart, D. K. 1976. Trial sequence of changed unit activity in auditory system of alert rat during conditioned response acquisition and extinction. Journal of Neurophysiology, 39(2), pp. 266-281.

“paw cortex”: Kalaska, J., & Pomeranz, B. 1979. Chronic paw denervation causes an age-dependent appearance of novel responses from forearm in “paw cortex” of kittens and adult cats. Journal of Neurophysiology, 42,pp. 618-633.

amputating a raccoon’s fifth digit: Rasmusson, D. D. 1982. Reorganization of raccoon somatosensory cortex following removal of the fifth digit. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 10, pp. 313-326.

somatosensory reorganization in the cortices of raccoons: Kelahan, A.M., & Doetsch, G. S. 1984. Time-dependent changes in the functional organization of somatosensory cerebral cortex following digit amputation in adult raccoons. Somatosensory Research, 2, pp. 49-81. Patrick Wall’s prescient suggestion: Wall, P. D. 1977. The presence of ineffective synapses and the circumstances which unmask them. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 26, pp. 361-372.

fifteen times as dense as those on, for instance, your shin: Haseltine, E., 2000. How your brain sees you. Discover, September, p. 104.

The poor brain was hoodwinked: Paul, R. L., Goodman, H., & Merzenich, M. 1972. Alterations in mechanoreceptor input to Brodmann’s areas 1 and 3 of the postcentral hand area of Macaca mulatta after nerve section and regeneration. Brain Research, 14, pp. 1-19.

roughly eight to fourteen square millimeters: Merzenich, M. M., & Jenkins, W. M. 1993. Reorganization of cortical skin representations of the hand following alterations of skin inputs induced by nerve injury, skin island transfers, and experience. Journal of Hand Therapy, 6, pp. 89-104.

neuroscience landmark: Ibid.

inputs from the radial and ulnar nerves: Merzenich, M. M., Kaas, J. H., Wall, J. T., et al. 1983. Progression of change following median nerve section in the cortical representation of the hand in areas 3b and 1 in adult owl and squirrel monkeys. Neuroscience, 10, pp. 639-665.

“complete topographic representation”: Merzenich & Jenkins, 1993, p. 92.

“completely contrary to a view of sensory systems”: Merzenich, Kass, & Wall, 1983, p. 662.

“Hubel and Wiesel’s work had shown just the opposite”: Hubel, D. H., & Wiesel, T. N. 1970. The period of susceptibility to the physiological effects of unilateral eye closure in kittens. Journal of Physiology, 206, pp. 419-436; Hubel, D. H., Wiesel, T. N., & LeVay, S. 1977. Plasticity of ocular dominance columns in monkey striate cortex. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 197 (26), pp. 377-409.

The representation of the hand: Merzenich, M. M., Nelson, R. J., Kaas, J. H., et al. 1987. Variability in hand surface representations in areas 3b and 1 in adult owl and squirrel monkeys. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 258, pp. 281-296.

“differences in lifelong use of the hands”: Merzenich, Nelson, & Kaas, 1987, p. 281.

amputated a single finger in owl monkeys: Merzenich, M. M., Nelson, R. J., Stryker, M.P., et al. 1984. Somatosensory cortical map changes following digit amputation in adult monkeys. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 224, pp. 591-605.

a single, continuous, overlapping representation: Clark, S. A., Allard, T., Jenkins, W. M., & Merzenich, M. M. 1988. Receptive fields in the body-surface map in adult cortex defined by temporally correlated inputs. Nature, 332, pp. 444-445; Allard, T., Clark, S. A., Jenkins, W. M., & Merzenich, M. M. 1991. Reorganization of somatosensory area 3b representations in adult owl monkeys after digital syndactyly. Journal of Neurophysiology, 66, pp. 1048-1058. when the fused digits were separated: Mogilner, A., Grossman, J. A., Ribary, U., et al. 1993. Somatosensory cortical plasticity in adult humans revealed by magnetoencephalography. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 90, pp. 3593-3597.

adult visual cortex seemed just as capable of reorganizing: Kaas, J. H., Krubitzer, L. A., Chino, Y. M., et al. 1990. Reorganization of retinotopic cortical maps in adult mammals after lesions of the retina. Science, 248, pp. 229-231.

experiment on four of the Silver Spring monkeys: Pons, Garraghty, et al., 1991.

“new direction of research”: Ramachandran, V.S., & Blakeslee, S. 1998. Phantoms in the brain: Probing the mysteries of the human mind. New York: William Morrow; Ramachandran, V. S., & Rogers-Ramachandran, D., 2000. Phantom limbs and neural plasticity. Archives of Neurology, 57, pp. 317-320.

the term phantom limb: Herman, J. 1998. Phantom limb: From medical knowledge to folk wisdom and back. Annals of Internal Medicine, 128, pp. 76-78.

feel the missing appendage: Ramachandran & Blakeslee, 1998; Ramachandran, V. S., Stewart, M., & Rogers-Ramachandran, D. 1992. Perceptual correlates of massive cortical reorganization. Neuroreport, 3, pp. 583-586; Ramachandran, V. S. 1993. Behavioral and magnetoencephalographic correlates of plasticity in the adult human brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 90, pp. 10413-10420.

invaded by nerves from the genitals: Robertson, I. H. 1999. Mind sculpture: Unlocking your brain’s untapped potential. London: Bantam Press, p. 54. For excellent reviews of the clinical aspects of plasticity, see: Robertson & Murre, 1999, and Robertson, I. H., 1999. Setting goals for cognitive rehabilitation. Current Opinion and Neurology, 12, pp. 703-708.

double by 2050: Taub, E., Uswatte, G., & Pidikiti, R. 1999. Constraint-induced movement therapy: a new family of techniques with broad application to physcial rehabilitation—a clinical review. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. 36. pp. 237-251.

speed and strength of movement: Ibid.

“neurological injury, including stroke”: Taub, E., Miller, N. E., Novack, T. A., et al. 1993. Technique to improve chronic motor deficit after stroke. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 74, pp. 347-354.

In just two weeks: Robertson, I. H., & Murre, J. M. J. 1999. Rehabilitation of brain damage: Brain plasticity and principles of guided recovery. Psychological Bulletin, 125, pp. 544-575.

improvement on standard tests of motor ability: Kunkel, A., Kopp, B., Muller, G., et al. 1999. Constraint-induced movement therapy for motor recovery in chronic stroke patients. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 80, pp. 624-628.

patients who had lost the use of a leg: Taub, Uswatte, & Pidikiti, 1999.

brain changes in six chronic stroke patients: Liepert, J., Miltner, W. H., Bauder, H., et al. 1998. Motor cortex plasticity during constraint-induced movement therapy in stroke patients. Neuroscience Letters, 250, pp. 5-8.

changes in the brain’s electrical activity: Kopp, B., Kunkel, A., Muhlnickel, W., et al. 1999. Plasticity in the motor system related to therapy-induced improvement of movement after stroke. Neuroreport, 10, pp. 807-810.

“induced expansion”: Taub, Uswatte & Pidikiti, 1999.

left aphasic: Pulvermuller, F., Neininger, B., et al. 2001. Constraint-induced therapy of chronic aphasia after stroke. Stroke, 32(7), pp. 1621-1626.

largely destroyed their Wernicke’s area: Weiller, C., Isensee, C., Rijntjes, M., et al. 1995. Recovery from Wernicke’s aphasia: A positron emission tomographic study. Annals of Neurology, 37, pp. 723-732.

accompanied by cortical reorganization: Liepert, J., Bauder, H., Wolfgang, H. R., et al. 2000. Treatment-induced cortical reorganization after stroke in humans. Stroke, 6, pp. 1210-1216.

reported a similar finding: Buckner, R. L., Corbetta, M., Schatz, J., et al. 1996. Preserved speech abilities and compensation following prefrontal damage. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93, pp. 1249-1253.

tactile discrimination tasks activate the visual cortex: Sadato, N., Pascual-Leone, A., Grafman, J., et al. 1996. Activation of the primary visual cortex by Braille reading in blind subjects. Nature, 380, pp. 526-528.

superior tactile sense of the congenitally blind: Cohen, L. G., Celnik P., Pascual-Leone, A., et al. 1997. Functional relevance of cross-modal plasticity in blind humans. Nature, 389, pp. 180-183; Musso, M., Weiller, C., Kiebel, S., et al. 1999. Training-induced brain plasticity in aphasia. Brain, 122, pp. 1781-1790.

for the good of millions of stroke patients: Taub, E., & Morris, D. M. 2001. Constraint-induced movement therapy to enhance recovery after stroke. Current Atherosclerosis Reports, 3, pp. 279-286.

CHAPTER SIX

a route to cortical reorganization that is the polar opposite: Elbert, T., Candia, V., Altenmuller, E., et al. 1998. Alteration of digital representations in somatosensory cortex in focal hand dystonia. Neuroreport, 9, pp. 3571-3575; Byl, N. N., McKenzie, A., & Nagarajan, S. S. 2000. Differences in somatosensory hand organization in a healthy flutist and a flutist with focal hand dystonia: A case report. Journal of Hand Therapy, 13, pp. 302-309; Pujol, J., Roset-Llobet, J., Rosines-Cubells, D., et al. 2000. Brain cortical activation during guitar-induced hand dystonia studied by functional MRI. Neuroimage, 12, pp. 257-267.

use-dependent cortical reorganization: Jenkins, W. M., Merzenich, M. M., Ochs, M.T., et al. 1990. Functional reorganization of primary somatosensory cortex in adult owl monkeys after behaviorally controlled tactile stimulation. Journal of Neurophysiology, 63, pp. 82-104; Nudo, R. J., Jenkins, W. M., Merzenich, M. M., et al. 1992. Neurophysiological correlates of hand preference in primary motor cortex of adult squirrel monkeys. Journal of Neuroscience, 12, pp. 2918-2947.

a study of the effects of motor skill learning: Nudo, R. J., Milliken, G.W., Jenkins, W. M., Merzenich, M. M. 1996. Use-dependent alterations of movement representations in primary motor cortex of adult squirrel monkeys. Journal of Neuroscience, 16, pp. 785-807.

“the cortical part of the skill acquisition”: Merzenich, M., Wright, B., Jenkins, W., et al. 1996. Cortical plasticity underlying perceptual, motor, and cognitive skill development: Implications for neu-rorehabilitation. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, 61, pp. 1-8.

the researchers made small lesions in the monkeys’ brains: Xerri, C., Merzenich, M. M., Peterson, B. E., & Jenkins, W. 1998. Plasticity of primary somatosensory cortex paralleling sensorimotor skill recovery from stroke in adult monkeys. Journal of Neurophysiology, 79, pp. 2119-2148.

“the reemergence of the representation of functions”: Merzenich, Wright, and Jenkins, 1996, p. 2.

spinning disk experiment: Jenkins, Merzenich, & Ochs, 1990.

flutter-vibration studies: Recanzone, G. H., Jenkins, W. M., Hradek, G.T., & Merzenich, M. M. 1992. Progressive improvement in discriminative abilities in adult owl monkeys performing a tactile frequency discrimination task. Journal of Neurophysiology, 67, pp. 1015-1030.

“cortical representations of the trained hands”: Recanzone, G. H., Merzenich, M. M., Jenkins, W. M., et al. 1992. Topographic reorganization of the hand representation in cortical area 3b of owl monkeys trained in a frequency-discrimination task. Journal of Neurophysiology, 67, pp. 1031-1056.

only when the monkeys were attentive: Merzenich, M., Byl, N., Wang, X., & Jenkins, W. 1996. Representational plasticity underlying learning: Contributions to the origins and expressions of neurobehavioral disabilities. In: Ono, T., et al. (Eds.) Perception, memory, and emotion: Frontiers in neuroscience. Oxford, U.K., and Tarrytown, N.Y.: Pergamon, pp. 45-61; Merzenich & deCharms, 1996.

discriminate small differences in the frequency of tones: Recanzone, G. H., Schreiner, C. E., & Merzenich, M. M. 1993. Plasticity in the frequency representation of primary auditory cortex following discrimination training in adult owl monkeys. Journal of Neuroscience, 13, pp. 87-103.

“idiosyncratic features of cortical representation”: Merzenich, M. M., Recanzone, G. H., Jenkins, W. M., & Grajski, K. A. 1990. Adaptive mechanisms in cortical networks underlying cortical contributions to learning and nondeclarative memory. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, 55, pp. 873-887.

fifteen proficient Braille readers: Pascual-Leone, A., & Torres, F. 1993. Plasticity of the sensorimotor cortex representation of the reading finger in Braille readers. Brain, 116, Part 1, pp. 39-52. amputation produces extensive reorganization: Flor, H., Elbert, T., Knecht, S., et al. 1995. Phantom-limb pain as a perceptual correlate of cortical reorganization following arm amputation. Nature, 375, pp. 482-484.

There was no difference between the string players: Elbert, T., Pan-tev, C., Wienbruch, C., Rockstroh, B., & Taub, E. 1995. Increased cortical representation of the fingers of the left hand in string players. Science, 270, pp. 305-307.

tactile stimuli to the fingers changes the maps of the hand: Wang, X., Merzenich, M. M., Sameshima, K., & Jenkins, W. M. 1995. Remodeling of hand representation in adult cortex determined by timing of tactile stimulation. Nature, 378, pp. 71-75.

merely think about practicing it: Pascual-Leone, A., Dang, N., Cohen, L. G., et al. 1995. Modulation of muscle responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation during the acquisition of new fine motor skills. Journal of Neurophysiology, 74, pp. 1037-1045.

Merzenich’s group was already suggesting: Merzenich, Recanzone, & Jenkins, 1990.

simulated writer’s cramp in two adult owl monkeys: Byl, N. N., Merzenich, M. M., & Jenkins, W. M. 1996. A primate genesis model of focal dystonia and repetitive strain injury. I. Learning-induced dedifferentiation of the representation of the hand in the primary somatosensory cortex in adult monkeys. Neurology, 47, pp. 508-520. remap their own somatosensory cortex: Byl, N. N., & McKenzie, A. 2000. Treatment effectiveness for patients with a history of repetitive hand use and focal hand dystonia: A planned, prospective follow-up study. Journal of Hand Therapy, 13, pp. 289-301.

85 to 98 percent improvement in fine motor skills: Byl, N. N., Nagarajan, S., & McKenzie, A. 2000. Effect of sensorimotor training on structure and function in three patients with focal hand dystonia. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts.

professional musicians with focal hand dystonia: Candia, V., Elbert, T., Altenmuller, E., et al. 1999. Constraint-induced movement therapy for focal hand dystonia in musicians. Lancet, 353, p. 42.

walk in an ever-more constrained way: Merzenich, Byl, & Wang, 1996, p. 53.

Tinnitus, or ringing in the ears, is characterized: Muhlnickel, W., Elbert, T., Taub, E., & Flor, H. 1998. Reorganization of auditory cortex in tinnitus. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95, pp. 10340-10343.

cortex that used to control the movement of the elbow and shoulder: Nudo, R. J., Wise, B. M., SiFuentes, F., & Milliken, G.W. 1996. Neural substrates for the effects of rehabilitative training on motor recovery after ischemic infarct. Science, 272, pp. 1791-1794.

cortex that used to register when the left arm was touched: Pons, Garraghty, & Ommaya, 1991.

visual cortex that has been reprogrammed to receive and process tactile inputs: Sadato, N., Pascual-Leone, A., Grafman, J., et al. 1998. Neural networks for Braille reading by the blind. Brain, 121, pp. 1213-1229.

most remarkable observations made in recent neuroscience history”: Jones, E. G. 2000. Cortical and subcortical contributions to activity-dependent plasticity in primate somatosensory cortex. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 23, pp. 1-37.

little-attended exercises are of limited value”: Merzenich & Jenkins, 1993, p. 102.

CHAPTER SEVEN

dyslexia, which affects an estimated 5 to 17 percent: Temple, E., Poldrack, R. A., Protopapas, A., et al. 2000. Disruption of the neural response to rapid acoustic stimuli in dyslexia: Evidence from functional MRI. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97, pp. 13907-13912.

processing certain speech soundsfast ones: Tallal, P. 2000. The science of literacy: From the laboratory to the classroom. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America., 97, pp. 2402-2404; Poldrack, R. A., Temple, E., Protopapas, A., Nagarajan, S., Tallal, P., Merzenich, M., & Gabrieli, J. D. 2001. Relations between the neural bases of dynamic auditory processing and phonological processing: Evidence from fMRI. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 13, pp. 687-697.

a failure to assign neurons to particular phonemes: Temple, E., Poldrack, R. A., & Salidis, J., et al. 2001. Disrupted neural responses to phonological and orthographic processing in dyslexic children: An fMRI study. Neuroreport, 12, pp. 299-307.

“how we might develop a way to train the brain to process sounds correctly”: Tallal, P., Merzenich, M. M., Miller, S., & Jenkins, W. 1998. Language learning impairments: Integrating basic science, technology, and remediation. Experimental Brain Research, 123, pp. 210-219.

produce modified speech tapes: Nagarajan, S. S., Wang, X., Merzenich, M. M., et al. 1998. Speech modification algorithms used for training language learning-impaired children. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering, 6, pp. 257-268.

the Rutgers and UCSF teams reported their results in the journal Science: Tallal, P., Miller, S. L., Bedi, G., et al. 1996. Language comprehension in language-learning impaired children improved with acoustically modified speech. Science, 271, pp. 81-84; Merzenich, M. M., Jenkins, W. M., Johnston, P., et al. 1996. Temporal processing deficits of language-learning impaired children ameliorated by training. Science, 271, pp. 77-81.

Merzenich, Tallal, and colleagues had teamed up with John Gabrieli: Temple, Poldrack, & Protopapas, et al., 2000.

other scientists: Beauregard, M., Levesque, J., & Bourgouin, P. 2001 Neural correlates of conscious self-regulation of emotion. Journal of Neuroscience, 21(18), p. RC165; Paquette, V., Levesque, J., et al. 2003. “Change the mind and you change the brain”: effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on the neural correlates of spider phobia. Neuroimage, 18(2), pp. 401-409; Levesque. J., Eugene, F., et al. 2003. Neural circuitry underlying voluntary suppression of sadness. Biological Psychiatry, 53(6), pp. 502-510.

Applied mindfulness could change neuronal circuitry: Schwartz, 1998.

this disease strikes: Kadesjo, B., & Gillberg, C. 2000. Tourette’s disorder: Epidemiology and comorbidity in primary school children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, pp. 548-555.

is a biological link between OCD and Tourette’s: State, M.W., Pauls, D. L., & Leckman, J.F. 2001. Tourette’s syndrome and related disorders. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 10, pp. 317-331.

The defining symptoms of Tourette’s: For details, see the excellent textbook, Leckman, J., & Cohen, D. J. 1999. Tourette’s syndrome: Tics, obsessions, compulsions: Development, psychopathology and clinical care. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

The two diseases also seem to share a neural component: Stern, E., Silbersweig, D. A., Chee, K. Y., et al. 2000. A functional neuroanatomy of tics in Tourette syndrome. Archives of General Psychology, 57, pp. 741-748.

central role in switching from one behavior to another: Leckman, J.F., & Riddle, M. A. 2000. Tourette’s syndrome: When habit-forming systems form habits of their own? Neuron, 28, pp. 349-354. appeared in 1825:Kushner, H. I. 2000. A cursing brain? The histories of Tourette syndrome. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Drugs typically reduce tic symptoms: Leckman & Cohen, 1999.

That leaves behavioral treatment: Piacentini, J., & Chang, S. 2001. Behavioral treatments for Tourette syndrome and tic disorders: State of the art. In: Cohen, D. J., Jankovic, J., & Goetz, C. G. (Eds.) Advances in neurology: Tourette syndrome, 85. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, pp. 319-332.

in a study based on reasoning: Peterson, B. S., Skudlarski, P., Anderson, A.W., et al. 1998. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of tic suppression in Tourette syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, pp. 326-333.

Patients are trained to recognize and label tic urges: Piacentini & Chang, 2001, p. 328.

“simply as events in the mind”: Teasdale, J. D. 1999. Metacognition, mindfulness and the modification of mood disorders. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 6, pp. 146-155.

in the titles of their research papers: Teasdale, J. D., Segal, Z., & Williams, J. M. G. 1995. How does cognitive therapy prevent depressive relapse, and why should attentional control (mindfulness) training help? Behavior Research & Therapy, 33, pp. 25-39.

Teasdale named his approach: Teasdale, J. D., Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., et al. 2000. Prevention of relapse/recurrence in major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 68, pp. 615-623.

cognitive therapy, too, had the power to prevent relapses: Scott, J., Teasdale, J. D., Paykel, E. S., et al. 2000. Effects of cognitive therapy on psychological symptoms and social functioning in residual depression. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, pp. 440-446; Paykel, E. S., et al. 1999. Prevention of relapse in residual depression by cognitive therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, pp. 829-835 Teasdale thought he knew why: Teasdale, J. D. 1999. Emotional processing, three modes of mind and the prevention of relapse in depression. Behavior Research & Therapy, 37 Supplement 1, pp. 53-77.

interpersonal therapy: Brody, A., Saxena, S., Stoessal, P., et al. 2001. Regional brain metabolic changes in patients with major depression treated with either paroxetine or interpersonal therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, pp. 631-640.

how navigation expertise might change the brain: Maguire, E. A., Gadian, D. G., Johnsrude, I. S., Good, C. D., Ashburner, J., Frackowiak, R. S. J., & Frith, C. 2000. Navigation-related structural change in the hippocampi of taxi drivers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97, pp. 4398-4403.

exploring the cellular and molecular mechanisms: Van Praag, Kempermann, & Gage, 2000.

the actual creation of new neurons: Kempermann, G., & Gage, F. H. 1999. New nerve cells for the adult brain. Scientific American, 280, pp. 48-53.

the formation and survival of new neurons: Kempermann, G., Kuhn, H. G., & Gage, F. H. 1997. More hippocampal neurons in adult mice living in an enriched environment. Nature, 386, pp. 493-495.

directly related to learning tasks: Gould, E., Beylin, A., Tanapat, P., Reeves, A., & Shors, T. J. 1999. Learning enhances adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal formation. Nature Neuroscience, 2, pp. 260-265.

exercising on a wheel: van Praag, H., Christie, B. R., Sejnowski, T. J., & Gage, F. H. 1999. Running enhances neurogenesis, learning, and long-term potentiation in mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96, pp. 13427-13431; van Praag, H., Kempermann, G., & Gage, F. H. 1999. Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus. Nature Neuroscience 2, pp. 266-270.

newly generated neurons: Shors, T. J., Miesegaes, G., et al. 2001. Neurogenesis in the adult is involved in the formation of trace memories. Nature, 410, pp. 372-376.

neurogenisis occurs in the adult human hippocampus: Eriksson, P. S., Perfilieva, E., Bjork-Ericksson, T., et al. 1998. Neurogenisis in the adult human hippocampus. Nature Medicine, 4, pp. 1313-1317.

“it is for the science of the future”: Cajal, S. R., & Mays R.T. 1959. Degeneration and regeneration of the nervous system. New York: Hafner, p. 750.

CHAPTER EIGHT

“actual philosophy”: Born, M. 1968. My life and my views. New York: Scribner.

“from the object”: Heisenberg, W. 1958. The representation of nature in contemporary physics. Daedalus, 87, pp. 95-108.

my second book: Schwartz, J. M., Gottlieb, A., & Buckley, P. 1998. A return to innocence. New York: Regan Books/HarperCollins.

a book published the year before: Chalmers, D. 1996. The conscious mind: In search of a fundamental theory. New York: Oxford University Press.

a justice on the Australian Supreme Court: Hodgson, D. 1991. The mind matters: Consciousness and choice in a quantum world. New York: Oxford University Press.

purchased Stapp’s 1993 book: Stapp H. 1993. Mind, matter and quantum mechanics. New York: Springer-Verlag.

“not coercive”: James, 1983, p. 1177.

“the feeling of effort”: Ibid., p. 1142.

“active element”: Ibid., p. 428.

“the brain is an instrument of possibilities”: Ibid., p. 144.

“the ordinary laws of physics and chemistry”: Wigner, E. 1969. Are we machines? Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 113, pp. 95-101.

“as important as that of Newton”: Motz, L., & Weaver, J. H. 1989. The story of physics. New York Perseus, pp. 194-195.

Planck’s talk: Zeilinger, A. 2000. The quantum centennial. Nature, 408, pp. 639-641.

“a deep understanding of chemistry”: Greenberger, D. M. 1986.

Preface. In: Greenberger, D. M. (Ed.) New techniques and ideas in quantum measurement theory. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 480, pp. xiii-xiv.

“gift from the gods”: Ibid., p. xiii.

“the silliest is quantum theory”: Kaku, M. 1995. Hyperspace. A scientific odyssey through parallel universes, time warps and the tenth dimension. New York: Anchor.

“Any other situation in quantum mechanics”: Feynman, R. 1965. The character of physical law. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

physicists in Paris: Gribbin, J. 1995. Schrödinger’s kittens and the search for reality: solving the quantum msyteries. New York: Little, Brown.

Hitachi research labs: Ibid., p. 7.

“God does not play dice”: Einstein’s exact words, in a letter to Cornel Lanczos on March 21, 1942, were “It is hard to sneak a look at God’s card’s. But that he would choose to play dice with the world…is something I cannot believe for a single moment.”

physicist John Bell showed: Bell, J. 1987. Speakable and unspeakable in quantum mechanics. New York: Cambridge University Press. For a lucid discussion of this challenging subject, see: Stapp, H. 2001. Quantum theory and the role of mind in nature. Foundations of Physics, 31, pp. 1465-1499. Available online at: http:// www-physics.lbl.gov/~stapp/vnr.txt.

many-worlds view: Everett, H., III. 1957. Relative state formulation of quantum mechanics. Review of Modern Physics, 29, p. 454-462.

Copenhagen Interpretation: Stapp, H. 1972. The Copenhagen interpretation. American Journal of Physics, 40, pp. 1098-1116.

“objective existence of an electron”: Pagels, H. 1982. The cosmic code: Quantum physics as the language of nature. New York: Simon & Schuster.

the mind of an observer: Wigner, 1967 (see especially chapters 12 and 13).

“One aim of the physical sciences”: Bronowski, J. 1973. The ascent of man. Boston: Little, Brown.

“has thus evaporated”: Heisenberg, 1958.

“It is wrong”: In: Nadeau, R., & Kafatos, M. 1999. The non-local universe: The new physics and matters of the mind. New York: Oxford University Press, p. 96.

Schrödinger’s cat: Schrödinger’s original 1935 description of the cat is translated in: Jauch, J. M. 1977. Foundations of quantum mechanics. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, p. 185.

“shrouded in mystery”: Wigner, 1967.

his book on the foundations of quantum theory: von Neumann, J. 1955. Mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. Translation from the 1932 German original.

“the content of consciousness”: Wigner, 1969.

“biologists are more prone”: Wigner, E. P. 1964. Two kinds of reality. The Monist, 48, pp. 248-264.

“A brain was always going to do”: Dennett, 1994.

CHAPTER NINE

a talk on how my OCD work: Schwartz, J. M. 2000. First steps toward a theory of mental force: PET imaging of systematic cerebral changes after psychological treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. In: Hameroff, S. R., Kaszniak, A. W., & Chalmers, D. J. (Eds.) Toward a science of consciousness III: The third Tucson discussions and debates. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, pp. 111-122.

final version of my “Volitional Brain” paper: Schwartz, J. M. 1999. A role for volition and attention in the generation of new brain circuitry: Toward a neurobiology of mental force. In Libet, Freeman, & Sutherland, 1999, pp. 115-142.

“mind as a force field”: Lindahl, B. I. B., & Årheim, P. 1993. Mind as a force field: Comments on a new interactionist hypothesis. Journal of Theoretical Biography, 171, pp. 111-122.

“conscious mental field”: Libet, B. 1996. Conscious mind as a field. Journal of Theoretical Biography, 178, pp. 223-224.

In his own JCS paper, Stapp argued: Stapp, H. P. 1999. Attention, intention, and will in quantum physics. In: Libet, Freeman, & Sutherland, 1999, pp. 143-164.

our strongest argument yet: Ibid., pp. 140-142.

Kant, in fact, succumbed to the same temptation: Ibid., p. ix.

In 1931, Einstein had declared: Ibid., p. xii.

Carl Rogers wrote: Rogers, C. R. 1964. Freedom and commitment. The Humanist 29, pp. 37-40.

conditioned responses to stimuli: Skinner, B.F. 1971. Beyond freedom and dignity. New York: Alfred A Knopf.

risk taking: Benjamin, J., Li, L., Patterson, C., et al. 1996. Population and familial association between the D4 dopamine receptor gene and measures of novelty seeking. Nature Genetics, 12, pp. 81-84.

and hence obesity: Barinaga, M. 1995. “Obese” protein slims mice. Science, 269, pp. 475-476.

dopamine imbalances with addiction: Koob, G.F., & Bloom, F. E. 1988. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of drug-dependence. Science, 242, pp. 715-723.

eternity is impossible: James, William. 1992. The dilemma of determinism. In: William James Writings 1878-1899, p. 570.

“is not imagined to be ultimately responsible for itself”: Libet, Freeman, & Sutherland, 1999, pp. ix-xxiii.

“needed for a particular movement”: Doty, R. W. 1998. The five mysteries of the mind, and their consequences. Neuropsychologia, 36, pp. 1069-1076.

“effortless volitions”: James, William. 1992. Psychology: Briefer course. In: William James Writings 1878-1899, p. 423.

“Actualities”: James, Ibid, p. 570.

as the theorist Thomas Clark puts it: Clark, T. W. 1999. Fear of mechanism. In Libet, Freeman, & Sutherland, 1999, p. 277.

“a benign user illusion”: Dennett, D.C. 1991. Consciousness explained. Boston: Little, Brown.

“the owner” of the state of your will: Anguttara Nikåya V, 57. Translated in: Nyanaponika Thera & Bhikkhu Bodhi. 1999. Numerical discourses of the Buddha. Walnut Creek, Calif.: AltaMira Press, p. 135. work reported in 1964: Kornhuber, H. H., & Deecke, L. 1964. Brain potential changes in man preceding and following voluntary movement, displayed with magnetic tape storage and time-reversed analysis. Pflugers Archiv für die gesamte Physiologie des Menschen und der Tiere, 281, p .52.

he reported in 1982 and 1985: Libet, B., Wright, E. W., Jr., & Gleason, C. A. 1982. Readiness-potentials preceding unrestricted “spontaneous” vs. pre-planned voluntary acts. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 54, pp. 322-335; Libet, B. 1985. Unconscious cerebral initiative and the role of conscious will in voluntary action. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 8, pp. 529-566.

“produced the movement”: Libet, B. 1999. Do we have free will? In: Libet, Freeman, & Sutherland, 1999, pp. 47-57.

“how we could view free will”: Libet in ibid., p. 49.

“allow[s] enough time”: Libet in ibid., p. 51.

as Libet wrote in 1998: Libet, B. 1998. Do the models offer testable proposals of brain functions for conscious experience? In: Jasper, H. H., Descarries, L., Castellucci, V. F., & Rossignol, S. (Eds.) Advances in neurology, 77: Consciousness: At the frontiers of neuroscience. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, p. 215.

“free won’t”: Claxton, G. 1999. Who dunnit? Unpicking the “seems” of free will. In: Libet, Freeman, & Sutherland, 1999, pp. 99-113.

Experiments published in 1983: Libet, B., Wright, E.W., Jr., & Gleason, C. A. 1983. Preparation- or intention-to-act, in relation to pre-event potentials recorded at the vertex. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 56, pp. 367-372; Libet, B., Gleason, C. A., Wright, E. W., & Pearl, D. K. 1983. Time of conscious intention to act in relation to onset of cerebral activity (readiness-potential) : The unconscious initiation of a freely voluntary act. Brain, 106, Part 3, pp. 623-642.

almost two full seconds: Deecke, L., & Lang, W. 1996. Generation of movement-related potentials and fields in the supplementary sensorimotor area and the primary motor area. Advances in Neurology 7, pp. 127-146.

“veto the process”: Libet in Libet, Freeman, & Sutherland, 1999, pp. 51-52.

Ten Commandments: Libet in ibid., p. 54.

all five of the basic moral precepts: Saddhatissa, H. 1987. Buddhist ethics. London: Wisdom Publications.

“Restraint everywhere”: Dhammapada, Verse 361.

“I’ve always been able to avoid that question”: Horgan, John. 1999.

The undiscovered mind: How the human brain defies replication, medication and explanation. New York: Free Press, p. 234.

“volition is nothing but attention”: James, 1983, p. 424.

“our conscious veto may not require”: Libet in Libet, Freeman, & Sutherland, 1999, p. 53.

“attention is the fundamental act of will”: James, 1983, p. 1168.

led by the Swedish physiologist David Ingvar: Ingvar, D. H., & Philipson, L. 1977. Distribution of cerebral blood-flow in dominant hemisphere during motor ideation and motor-performance. Annals of Neurology, 2, pp. 230-237.

activated during the willful mental activity: Frith, C.D., Friston, K., Liddle, P. F., & Frackowiak, R. S. J. 1991. Willed action and the prefrontal cortex in man: A study with PET. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 244, pp. 241-246; Passingham, R. 1993. The frontal lobes and voluntary action. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Miller, E. K. 2000. The prefrontal cortex and cognitive control. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 1, pp. 59-65.

In schizophrenics: Spence, S. A., Brooks, D. J., Hirsch, S. R., et al. 1997. A PET study of voluntary movement in schizophrenic patients experiencing passivity phenomena (delusions of alien control). Brain, 120, pp. 1997-2011; Frackowiak, R. S. J., Friston, K. J., Frith, C., & Dolan, R. 1997. Human brain function. San Diego: Academic Press; Spence, S. A., Hirsch, S. R., Brooks, D. J., & Grasby, P.M. 1998. Prefrontal cortex activity in people with schizophrenia and control subjects: Evidence from positron emission tomography for remission of “hypofrontality” with recovery from acute schizophrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 17, pp. 316-323.

In depression: Drevets, W. C. 1998. Functional neuroimaging studies of depression: The anatomy of melancholia. Annual Review of Medicine, 49, pp. 341-361; Mayberg, H. S., Liotti, M., Brannan, S. K., et al. 1999. Reciprocal limbic-cortical function and negative mood: Converging PET findings in depression and normal sadness. American Journal of Psychology, 156, pp. 675-682.

what Ingvar calls “action programs for willed acts”: Ingvar, D. H. 1999. On volition: A neurophysiologically oriented essay. In Libet, Freeman, & Sutherland, 1999, pp. 1-10.

primary role for the prefrontal cortex: Seitz, R. J., Stephan, K. M., & Binkofski, F. 2000. Control of action as mediated by the human frontal lobe. Experimental Brain Research, 133, pp. 71-80.

and associated brain regions: Libet, Freeman, Sutherland, 1999, p. 16.

accompanied by activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: Jahanshahi, M., Jenkins, I. H., Brown, R. G., et al. 1995. Self-initiated versus externally triggered movements. I. An investigation using measurement of regional cerebral blood flow with PET and movement-related potentials in normal and Parkinson’s disease subjects. Brain, 118, pp. 913-933; Jenkins, I. H., Jahanshahi, M., Jueptner, M., et al. 2000. Self-initiated versus externally triggered movements. II. The effect of movement predictability on regional cerebral blood flow. Brain, 123, pp. 1216-1228.

unable to stifle inappropriate responses: Spence, S. S., & Frith, C. 1999. Towards a functional anatomy of volition. In: Libet, Freeman, & Sutherland, 1999, 11-29.

testing how volition affects conscious perception: Silbersweig, D. A., & Stern, E. 1998. Towards a functional neuroanatomy of conscious perception and its modulation by volition: Implications of human auditory neuroimaging studies. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 353, pp. 1883-1888. fortune sent Stern and Silbersweig a young man known as S.B.: Engelien, A., Huber, W., Silbersweig, D., et al. 2000. The neural correlates of “deaf-hearing” in man: Conscious sensory awareness enabled by attentional modulation. Brain, 123, pp. 532-545.

experiments in the late 1990s: Birbaumer, N., Ghanayim, N., Hinterberger, T., et al. 1999. A spelling device for the paralysed. Nature, 398, pp. 297-298; Kübler, A., Kotchoubey, B., Hinterberger, T, et al. 1999. The thought translation device: A neurophysiological approach to communication in total motor paralysis. Experimental Brain Research, 124, pp. 223-232.

“Volitional effort”: James, 1992, pp. 417-418.

“master of course of thought”: Majjhima Nikåya, Sutta 20. Translated in: Nyanaponika Thera & Bhikku Bodhi. 1995. The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha. Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications, p. 213.

“strange arrogance”: James, 1983, pp. 429-430.

“It is volition, monks, that I declare to be Karma (Action)”: Anguttara Nikåya VI, 63. Numerical Discourses, p. 173.

“Volition becomes the chief”: Ledi Sayadaw. 1999. The Manuals of Dhamma. Maharastra, India: Vipassana Research Institute, p. 95.

“[One] branch of these bifurcations”: James, 1992, p. 593.

CHAPTER TEN

copy of James’s: Page references for William James are to the following editions: James, William. 1992. Psychology: Briefer course, In: William James Writings 1878-1899. New York: Library of America, p. 272,278. James, William. 1983. The principles of psychology. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, p. 429.

“pivotal question”: James, 1890/1983, p. 424.

footlights’”: James, 1890/1983, p. 426.

“limited processing resources”: Kastner, S., & Ungerleider, L. G. 2000. Mechanisms of visual attention in the human cortex. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 23, pp. 315-341.

Selectively focusing attention on target images: Kastner, S. & Ungerleider, L. G. 2001. The neural basis of biased competition in human visual cortex. Neuropsychologia, 39, pp. 1263-1276.

“biasing the brain circuit for the important stimuli”: Desimone, R. 1998. Visual attention mediated by biased competition in extrastriate visual cortex. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 353, pp. 1245-1255.

fascinating series of experiments: see the papers referenced in the two preceding notes.

activity spikes in human brains: Kastner, S., Pinsk, M. A., De Weerd, P., Desimone, R., & Ungerleider, L. G. 1999. Increased activity in human visual cortex during directed attention in the absence of visual stimulation. Neuron, 22, pp. 751-761.

In 1990, researchers: Corbetta, M., Miezin, F. M., Dobmeyer, S., et al. 1990. Attentional modulation of neural processing of shape, color, and velocity in humans. Science, 248, pp. 1556-1559; Corbetta, M., Miezin, F. M., Dobmeyer, S., et al. 1991. Selective and divided attention during visual discriminations of shape, color, and speed: Functional anatomy by positron emission tomography. Journal of Neuroscience, 11, pp. 2383-2402.

during the directing of such selective attention: Rees, G. & Lavie, N. 2001. What can functional imaging reveal about the role of attention in visual awareness? Neuropsychologia, 39, pp. 1343-1353; de Fockert, J.W., Rees, G., Frith, C.D., & Lavie, N. 2001. The role of working memory in visual selective attention. Science, 291, pp. 1803-1806; Vandenberghe, R., Duncan, J., Arnell, K. M., et al. 2000. Maintaining and shifting attention within left or right hemi-field. Cerebral Cortex, 10, pp. 706-713.

paying attention to the vibrations: Meyer, E., Ferguson, S. S., Zatorre, R. J., et al. 1991. Attention modulates somatosensory cerebral blood flow response to vibrotactile stimulation as measured by positron emission tomography. Annals of Neurology, 29, pp. 440-443.

“can sculpt brain activity”: Robertson, 1999, p. 43.

fascinating experiment, Dick Passingham: Jueptner, M., Stephan, K. M., Frith, C.D., et al. 1997. Anatomy of motor learning. I. Frontal cortex and attention to action. Journal of Neurophysiology, 77, pp. 1313-1324; Toni, I., et al. 1998. The time course of changes during motor sequence learning: A whole-brain fMRI study. NeuroImage, 8, p. 50.

willful selection of self-initiated responses: Jenkins, I. H., Jahanshahi, M., Jueptner, M., et al. 2000. Self-initiated versus externally triggered movements. II. The effect of movement predictability on regional cerebral blood flow. Brain, 123, pp. 1216-1228.

fusiform face area: Kanwisher, N., McDermott, J., & Chun, M. M. 1997. The fusiform face area: A module in human extrastriate cortex specialized for face perception. Journal of Neuroscience, 17, pp. 4302-4311; Kanwisher, N., & Wojciulik, E. 2000. Visual attention: Insights from brain imaging. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 1, pp. 91-100.

as the MIT team stated it: Wojciulik, E., Kanwisher, N., & Driver, J. 1998. Covert visual attention modulates face-specific activity in the human fusiform gyrus: fMRI study. Journal of Neurophysiology, 79, pp. 1574-1578.

an image in your mind’s eye: O’Craven, K. M. & Kanwisher, N. 2000. Mental imagery of faces and places activates corresponding stimulus-specific brain regions. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12, pp. 1013-1023.

“active participants in our own process of perception”: Kanwisher, N., & Downing, P. 1998. Separating the wheat from the chaff. Science, 282, pp. 57-58.

“altered by patterns of attention”: Merzenich & deCharms, 1996, p. 62. tonotopic reorganization of the auditory cortex: Recanzone, G. H., Schreiner, C. E., & Merzenich, M. M. 1993. Plasticity in the frequency representation of primary auditory cortex following discrimination training in adult owl monkeys. Journal of Neuroscience, 13, pp. 87-103.

“Experience coupled with attention”: Merzenich & deCharms, 1996, p. 77.

the more stroke patients concentrated on their tasks: Taub, E., & Morris, D. M. 2001. Constraint-induced movement therapy to enhance recovery after stroke. Current Atherosclerosis Reports, 3, pp. 279-286; Taub, E., Uswatte, G., & Pidikiti, R. 1999. Constraint-induced movement therapy: A new family of techniques with broad application to physical rehabilitation; a clinical review. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 36, pp. 237-251.

“just after a right-brain stroke”: Robertson, 1999, p. 108.

“steadily before the mind”: James, 1983, p. 1169.

He himself used it: Ibid., p. 1152.

Bell’s Theorem: Bell, 1987; Stapp, 2001, pp. 1475-1479.

Albert Einstein and two younger colleagues: Einstein, A., Podolsky, B., & Rosen, N. 1935. Can quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete? Physical Review, 47, pp. 777-780.

David Bohm: Gribbin, John. 1995. Schrödinger’s kittens and the search for reality: Solving the quantum mysteries. New York: Little, Brown.

Schrödinger called entanglement: Zeilinger, A. 2000. The quantum centennial. Nature, 408, pp. 639-641.

experiments by Alain Aspect: Aspect, A., Dailbard, J., & Roger, G. 1982. Experimental test of Bell inequalities using time-varying analyzers. Physical Review Letters, 49 (25), pp. 1804-1807.

Aspect’s conclusions were confirmed: Tittle, W., Brendel, J., Zbinden, H., & Gisin, N. 1998. Violation of Bell inequalities by photons more than 10 km apart. Physical Review Letters, 81 (17), pp. 3563-3566. See also Stapp, H. A Bell-type theorem without hidden variables. American Journal of Physics, in press. Appears at www-physics. lbl.gov/~stapp/stappfiles.html, where Stapp shows that nonlocality holds within an orthodox quantum perspective.

“most momentous in the history of science”: Nadeau, R., & Kafatos, M. 1999. The non-local universe: The new physics and matters of the mind. New York: Oxford University Press.

called the Quantum Zeno Effect: Misra, B., & Sudarshan, E. C. G. 1977. Zeno’s paradox in quantum-theory. Journal of Mathematical Physics, 18 (4), pp. 756-763. An approachable description of Quantum Zeno is in: Milonni, P. W. 2000. Nature, 405, p. 526.

“The wave function has ceased oozing”: Rothman, T., & Sudarshan, G. 1998. Doubt and certainty. Reading, Mass.: Perseus Books, p. 290.

the probability that beryllium ions would decay: Casti, J. L. 2000. Paradigms regained. New York: William Morrow, p. 233.

activates the same regions of the brain: Kosslyn S. M., Ganis, G., & Thompson, W. N. 2001. Neural foundations of imagery. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2 (9), pp. 635-642.

the migration of calcium ions: Stapp, 2001, p. 1485.

“bootstrapping effect”: Varela, F. 1999. Present-time consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 6 (2-3), pp. 111-140.

“coexistence with the triumphant thought of other thoughts”: James, 1983, p. 1172.