How God Changes Your Brain: Breakthrough Findings from a Leading Neuroscientist - Andrew B. Newberg, Mark Robert Waldman (2009)

ENDNOTES

CHAPTER 1. WHO CARES ABOUT GOD? (PAGES 3-21)

1. Newberg A, d'Aquili E. Why God Won't Go Away. Ballantine, 2002.

2. Newberg A, Waldman M. Why We Believe What We Believe. The Free Press, 2006.

3. Newberg A, Waldman M. Born to Believe. The Free Press, 2007.

Newberg AB, Wintering NA, Morgan D, Waldman MR. The measurement of regional cerebral blood flow during glossolalia: a preliminary SPECT study. Psychiatry Res. 2006 Nov 22;148(1):67–71.

Newberg A, Pourdehnad M, Alavi A, d'Aquili EG. Cerebral blood flow during meditative prayer: preliminary findings and methodological issues. Percept Mot Skills. 2003 Oct; 97(2):625–30.

Newberg AB, Iversen J. The neural basis of the complex mental task of meditation: neurotransmitter and neurochemical considerations. Med Hypotheses. 2003 Aug;61(2):282–91.

Newberg A, Alavi A, Baime M, Pourdehnad M, Santanna J, d'Aquili E. The measurement of regional cerebral blood flow during the complex cognitive task of meditation: a preliminary SPECT study. Psychiatry Res. 2001 Apr 10;106(2):113–22.

4. The nature of human consciousness is a hotly debated topic in science, and the reality-formation mechanisms of the brain are poorly understood. To draw the hypothesis that two inner maps of reality coexist, Mark and I have combined two important theories—put forth by Nobel laureates Francis Crick and Eric Kandel—with a recent MRI study I just completed showing how meditation stimulates activity in parts of the striatum. According to Kandel, the striatum plays an essential role in creating contentment and a sense of safety in the brain. Our brain-scan study showed increased striatal dopamine release during meditation, which helps explain the sense of relaxation, happiness, and peacefulness meditators experience. The striatum sends this information on to many parts of the brain, including the thalamus, which orchestrates our senses about the outside world. The brain perceives this as an internal state of reality, but another internal experience of reality is associated with the claustrum, which Crick considers to be the key to how our brain generates consciousness.

Here's where things become interesting: The claustrum is heavily interconnected with most of the cortex, with the exception of the thalamus. Kandel believes that the thalamus creates a holistic sense of reality, but obviously this sense of reality is disconnected from the sense of reality created by the striatum. In other words, there are two reality maps created by the brain, one conscious, the other subconscious, and they process incoming data about the world in very different ways. Now, they may somehow come together through other neural circuits, but the evidence collected from neurological disorders strengthens the argument that the brain has very different maps of reality. When you add to this model the discovery we've made that advanced meditators have unusual asymmetric activity in the thalamus, we are drawn to the conclusion that spiritual practices may create independent realms of separate realities, or they may help to unify separate realities that coexist in the brain.

We further hypothesize that thalamic asymmetry may make spiritual concepts feel objectively real, similar to other objects the brain perceives in the world. However, consciousness has so many elements associated with it that no single theory, or neural circuit, may lie at the core of this unique human experience. For example, recent research on the precuneus suggests that this part of the brain plays an essential role in increasing or decreasing our conscious awareness of the world, and as we will explain later in the book, yawning is one way to increase activity in the precuneus. See also:

Kandel E. In Search of Memory: The Emergence of a New Science of Mind. Norton, 2006.

Rogan MT, Leon KS, Perez DL, Kandel ER. Distinct neural signatures for safety and danger in the amygdala and striatum of the mouse. Neuron. 2005 Apr 21;46(2):309–20.

Crick FC, Koch C. What is the function of the claustrum? Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2005 Jun 29;360(1458):1271–9.

Stevens CF. Consciousness: Crick and the claustrum. Nature. 2005 Jun 23;435(7045):1040–1.

Edelstein LR, Denaro FJ. The claustrum: a historical review of its anatomy, physiology, cytochemistry and functional significance. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2004 Sep;50(6):675–702.

Cavanna AE. The precuneus and consciousness. CNS Spectr. 2007 Jul;12(7):545–52.

5. Altemeyer B. The Authoritarians. Published online by the University of Manitoba, 2006.

6. Pape R. Dying to Win. Gibson Square, 2007.

7. Over the past ten years the Southern Baptist membership has declined from 10 percent of the American population to six percent, while more liberal institutes have rapidly increased their memberships: Lyons L. Tracking U.S. Religious Preferences Over the Decades. Gallup News Service: Religion and Social Trends, May 24, 2005.

8. Carter J. Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis. Simon and Schuster, 2005.

Archbishop Desmond Tutu on “God's Word and World Politics.” United Nations Lecture Series, March 17, 2004.

9. Luke 6:26–28. New Testament, New International Version.

10. When people have attempted to leave authoritarian religious groups like Jehovah's Witnesses, some have been harassed to the point where they are cut off from family members. The practice, known as shunning, has numerous references in the New Testament. For example:

Thessalonians 3:6: “In the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, we command you, brothers, to keep away from every brother who is idle and does not live according to the teaching you received from us.”

Thessalonians 3:14–15: “If anyone does not obey what we say in this letter, take note of that person and have nothing to do with him, that he may be ashamed. Do not regard him as an enemy, but warn him as a brother.”

Romans 16:17: “I urge you, brothers, to watch out for those who cause divisions and put obstacles in your way that are contrary to the teaching you have learned. Keep away from them.”

John 10–11, NASB: “If anyone comes to you and does not bring this teaching, do not receive him into your house, and do not give him a greeting; for the one who gives him a greeting participates in his evil deeds.”

These passages have been used successfully in court to justify the act of shunning. As reported in New York Times on June 15, 1987, the Federal District Court ruled that “because the practice of shunning is a part of the faith of the Jehovah's Witness, we find that the ‘free exercise’ provision of the United States Constitution … precludes [the ostracized individuals] from prevailing [in receiving punitive damages]. The defendants have a constitutionally protected privilege to engage in the practice of shunning.”

11. Churches of Religious Science, Unitarian Universalists, Unity Churches, New Age congregations, many Eastern sects, and certain Sufi groups often combine a variety of spiritual philosophies in their teachings.

12. For a comprehensive evaluation and listing of religious extremist groups (as well as racist groups that masquerade as religious with titles like “Christian Identity”), see the Anti-Defamation League's website at http://www.ADL.org and click on the “extremism” link.

13. For an excellent overview of the history of American religion, see Gaustad, E.S. The Religious History of America. HarperOne, 2004.

14. Yoshii A, Constantine-Paton M. BDNF induces transport of PSD-95 to den-drites through PI3K-AKT signaling after NMDA receptor activation. Nat Neurosci. 2007 Jun;10(6):702–11.

15. Actually, the lowly sea slug did make it to the New York Times list. See: Kandel E. In Search of Memory: The Emergence of a New Science of Mind. Norton, 2006.

16. Gaiarsa JL, Caillard O, Ben-Ari Y. Long-term plasticity at GABAergic and glycinergic synapses: mechanisms and functional significance. Trends Neurosci. 2002;25(11): 564–570.

17. The Centre for Synaptic Plasticity provides an excellent online overview of neuroplasticity. The center is a joint venture between the Medical Research Council and the University of Bristol, advancing the understanding of synaptic plasticity in normal human functioning, especially during learning and memory and in certain pathological states such as Alzheimer's disease, memory loss, and epilepsy. For an online list of relevant research papers, see http://www.bris.ac.uk/synaptic/research/res2.html.

18. Polley DB, Kvasnak E, Frostig RD. Naturalisitic experience transforms sensory maps in the adult cortex of caged animals. Nature. 2004;429: 67–71.

Frostig RD. Functional organization and plasticity in the adult rat barrel cortex: moving out-of-the-box. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2006; 16:1–6.

CHAPTER 2. DO YOU EVEN NEED GOD TO PRAY? (PAGES 22-40)

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Charlton RA, Barrick TR, McIntyre DJ, Shen Y, O'Sullivan M, Howe FA, Clark CA, Morris RG, Markus HS. White matter damage on diffusion tensor imaging correlates with age-related cognitive decline. Neurology. 2006 Jan 24;66(2):217–22.

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3. There are several versions of “sa-ta-na-ma” meditation, but its most popular form was introduced to Westerners by Yogi Bhajan, who came to the United States in 1969 to teach students a variety of kundalini and tantric yoga techniques drawn from various Eastern practices.

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8. Different kundalini, kriya, and tantric yoga teachers may ascribe different meanings to the same mantra or sound. According to Dr. Dharma Singh Khalsa, sa means beginning, infinity, or absolute totality, while other teachers have ascribed the features of wisdom or knowledge. Ta symbolizes life, existence, and creativity to one teacher, but symbolizes patience to another. For Khalsa, na means death, change, and the transformation of consciousness. Ma means rebirth, regeneration, and resurrection to some teachers, while to others it stands for intuitive communication. According Yogi Bhajan, the ahpart of the sound means “truth manifested” (The Teachings of Yogi Bhajan, Dutton, 1977). According to extensive studies by Herbert Benson and others, it appears to make no difference, in terms of the relaxation response, which sound or word you use. What matters is that is symbolizes something positive to the practitioner.

9. Novel and unusual sounds specifically heighten the neural pathways of consciousness. See, for example: Jaaskelainen IP, Ahveninen J, Bonmassar G, Dale AM, Ilmoniemi RJ, Levanen S, Lin FH, May P, Melcher J, Stufflebeam S, Tiitinen H, Belliveau JW. Human posterior auditory cortex gates novel sounds to consciousness. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Apr 27;101(17):6809–14.

New research also shows that the cerebellum plays a key role in memory, attention, and coordination, and that repetitive activities, like finger tapping, play crucial roles in modulating cerebellar activity. See: Spencer RM, Verstynen T, Brett M, Ivry R. Cerebellar activation during discrete and not continuous timed movements: An fMRI study. Neuroimage. 2007 Jun;36(2):378–87; Akshoomoff NA, Courchesne E, Townsend J. Attention coordination and anticipatory control. Int Rev Neurobiol. 1997;41:575-98.

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35. Nobel Laureate Eric Kandel wrote a simple autobiographical book, In Search of Memory: The Emergence of a New Science of Mind (Norton, 2006), that explains this neurological process.

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56. The brain-scan technology we use to view neural activity during meditation measures cerebral blood flow, and this is associated with synaptic firing between neurons.

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O'Hara R, Brooks JO 3rd, Friedman L, Schroder CM, Morgan KS, Kraemer HC. Long-term effects of mnemonic training in community-dwelling older adults. J Psychiatr Res. 2007 Oct;41(7):585–90.

Willis SL, Tennstedt SL, Marsiske M, Ball K, Elias J, Koepke KM, Morris JN, Rebok GW, Unverzagt FW, Stoddard AM, Wright E; ACTIVE Study Group. Long-term effects of cognitive training on everyday functional outcomes in older adults. JAMA. 2006 Dec 20;296(23):2805–14.

Cheng ST, Chan AC, Yu EC. An exploratory study of the effect of mahjong on the cognitive functioning of persons with dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006 Jul;21(7):611–7.

Ball K, Berch DB, Helmers KF, Jobe JB, Leveck MD, Marsiske M, Morris JN, Rebok GW, Smith DM, Tennstedt SL, Unverzagt FW, Willis SL. Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly Study Group. Effects of cognitive training interventions with older adults: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002 Nov 13;288(18):2271–81.

Brooks JO 3rd, Friedman L, Pearman AM, Gray C, Yesavage JA. Mnemonic training in older adults: effects of age, length of training, and type of cognitive pretraining. Int Psychogeriatr. 1999 Mar;11(1):75–84.

58. Derwinger A, Stigsdotter Neely A, Backman L. Design your own memory strategies! Self-generated strategy training versus mnemonic training in old age: an 8-month follow-up. Neuropsychol Rehabil. 2005 Mar;15(1):37–54.

Derwinger A, Stigsdotter Neely A, MacDonald S, Bäckman L. Forgetting numbers in old age: strategy and learning speed matter. Gerontology. 2005 Jul–Aug;51(4):277–84.

59. Small GW, Silverman DH, Siddarth P, Ercoli LM, Miller KJ, Lavretsky H, Wright BC, Bookheimer SY, Barrio JR, Phelps ME. Effects of a 14-day healthy longevity lifestyle program on cognition and brain function. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2006 Jun;14(6):538–45.

60. Finucane A, Mercer SW. An exploratory mixed methods study of the acceptability and effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for patients with active depression and anxiety in primary care. BMC Psychiatry. 2006 Apr 7;6:14.

See also: Mark J, Williams G, Teasdale JD, Segal ZV, Kabat-Zinn J. The Mindful Way Through Depression: Freeing Yourself from Chronic Unhappiness. Guilford Press, 2007; and Segal ZV, Mark J, Williams G, Teasdale JD. Mind-fulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Depression: A New Approach to Preventing Relapse. Guilford Press, 2001.

61. Ritchie K, Carrière I, de Mendonca A, Portet F, Dartigues JF, Rouaud O, Barberger-Gateau P, Ancelin ML. The neuroprotective effects of caffeine: a prospective population study (the Three City Study). Neurology. 2007 Aug 7;69(6):536–45.

Van Gelder BM, Buijsse B, Tijhuis M, Kalmijn S, Giampaoli S, Nissinen A, Kromhout D. Coffee consumption is inversely associated with cognitive decline in elderly European men: the FINE Study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Feb;61(2):226–32.

Arendash GW, Schleif W, Rezai-Zadeh K, Jackson EK, Zacharia LC, Crac-chiolo JR, Shippy D, Tan J. Caffeine protects Alzheimer's mice against cognitive impairment and reduces brain beta-amyloid production. Neuroscience. 2006 Nov 3;142(4):941–52.

Haskell CF, Kennedy DO, Wesnes KA, Scholey AB. Cognitive and mood improvements of caffeine in habitual consumers and habitual non-consumers of caffeine. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005 Jun;179(4):813–25. Beaumont M, Batejat D, Pierard C, Coste O, Doireau P, Van Beers P, Chauffard F, Chassard D, Enslen M, Denis JB, Lagarde D. Slow release caffeine and prolonged (64-h) continuous wakefulness: effects on vigilance and cognitive performance. J Sleep Res. 2001 Dec;10(4):265–76.

62. Abel EL, Hendrix SO, McNeeley SG, Johnson KC, Rosenberg CA, Mossavar-Rahmani Y, Vitolins M, Kruger M. Daily coffee consumption and prevalence of nonmelanoma skin cancer in Caucasian women. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2007 Oct;16(5):446–452.

Hu G, Bidel S, Jousilahti P, Antikainen R, Tuomilehto J. Coffee and tea consumption and the risk of Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2007 Nov 15;22(15):2242–8.

Choi HK, Willett W, Curhan G. Coffee consumption and risk of incident gout in men: a prospective study. Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Jun;56(6):2049–55.

Greenberg JA, Axen KV, Schnoll R, Boozer CN. Coffee, tea and diabetes: the role of weight loss and caffeine. Int J Obes (Lond). 2005 Sep;29(9):1121–9. Michels KB, Willett WC, Fuchs CS, Giovannucci E. Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and incidence of colon and rectal cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 Feb 16;97(4):282–92.

63. Lieberman HR, Tharion WJ, Shukitt-Hale B, Speckman KL, Tulley R. Effects of caffeine, sleep loss, and stress on cognitive performance and mood during U.S. Navy SEAL training. Sea-Air-Land. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2002 Nov;164(3):250–61.

See also: Tharion WJ, Shukitt-Hale B, Lieberman HR. Caffeine effects on marksmanship during high-stress military training with 72 hour sleep deprivation. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2003 Apr;74(4):309–14.

64. Ganmaa D, Willett WC, Li TY, Feskanich D, van Dam RM, Lopez-Garcia E, Hunter DJ, Holmes MD. Coffee, tea, caffeine and risk of breast cancer: a 22-year follow-up. Int J Cancer. 2008 May 1;122(9):2071–6.

Happonen P, Läärä E, Hiltunen L, Luukinen H. Coffee consumption and mortality in a 14-year follow-up of an elderly northern Finnish population. Br J Nutr. 2007 Dec 6;1–8.

Hino A, Adachi H, Enomoto M, Furuki K, Shigetoh Y, Ohtsuka M, Kuma-gae S, Hirai Y, Jalaldin A, Satoh A, Imaizumi T. Habitual coffee but not green tea consumption is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome: an epidemiological study in a general Japanese population. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007 Jun;76(3):383–9.

Lopez-Garcia E, van Dam RM, Qi L, Hu FB. Coffee consumption and markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in healthy and diabetic women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Oct;84(4):888–93.

Iwai N, Ohshiro H, Kurozawa Y, Hosoda T, Morita H, Funakawa K, Okamoto M, Nose T. Relationship between coffee and green tea consumption and all-cause mortality in a cohort of a rural Japanese population. J Epidemiol. 2002 May;12(3):191–8.

65. Hering-Hanit R, Gadoth N. Caffeine-induced headache in children and adolescents. Cephalalgia. 2003 Jun;23(5):332–5.

Bic Z, Blix GG, Hopp HP, Leslie FM. In search of the ideal treatment for migraine headache. Med Hypotheses. 1998 Jan;50(1):1–7.

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67. Fujiyoshi N, Yoshioka T, Morimoto F, Suzuki Y, Sueyoshi K, Shibuya M, Shimazaki J. A case of caffeine poisoning, survived by percutaneous cardio-pulmonary support. Chudoku Kenkyu. 2008 Jan;21(1):69–73.

Kerrigan S, Lindsey T. Fatal caffeine overdose: two case reports. Forensic Sci Int. 2005 Oct 4;153(1):67–9.

Holmgren P, Nordén-Pettersson L, Ahlner J. Caffeine fatalities—four case reports. Forensic Sci Int. 2004 Jan 6;139(1):71–3.

68. Haskell CF, Kennedy DO, Milne AL, Wesnes KA, Scholey AB. The effects of L-theanine, caffeine and their combination on cognition and mood. Biol Psychol. 2008 Feb;77(2):113–22.

Kuriyama S, Hozawa A, Ohmori K, Shimazu T, Matsui T, Ebihara S, Awata S, Nagatomi R, Arai H, Tsuji I. Green tea consumption and cognitive function: a cross-sectional study from the Tsurugaya Project 1. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Feb;83(2):355–61.

Hindmarch I, Rigney U, Stanley N, Quinlan P, Rycroft J, Lane J. A naturalistic investigation of the effects of day-long consumption of tea, coffee and water on alertness, sleep onset and sleep quality. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2000 Apr;149(3):203–16.

69. Rogers PJ, Smith JE, Heatherley SV, Pleydell-Pearce CW. Time for tea: mood, blood pressure and cognitive performance effects of caffeine and thea-nine administered alone and together. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008 Jan;195(4):569–77.

70. Bryan J. Psychological effects of dietary components of tea: caffeine and L-theanine. Nutr Rev. 2008 Feb;66(2):82–90.

71. Petri NM, Dropulic N, Kardum G. Effects of voluntary fluid intake deprivation on mental and psychomotor performance. Croat Med J. 2006 Dec;47(6):855–61.

Wilson MM, Morley JE. Impaired cognitive function and mental performance in mild dehydration. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003;57(Suppl 2):S24–9.

72. Adam GE, Carter R 3rd, Cheuvront SN, Merullo DJ, Castellani JW, Lieberman HR, Sawka MN. Hydration effects on cognitive performance during military tasks in temperate and cold environments. Physiol Behav. 2007 Nov 28.

Lieberman HR. Hydration and cognition: a critical review and recommendations for future research. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Oct;26(5 Suppl):555S–561S.

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Szinnai G, Schachinger H, Arnaud MJ, Linder L, Keller U. Effect of water deprivation on cognitive-motor performance in healthy men and women. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2005 Jul;289(1):R275–80.

73. Morgan J, Banerjee R. Post-event processing and autobiographical memory in social anxiety: the influence of negative feedback and rumination. J Anxiety Disord. 2008 Jan 9.

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CHAPTER 3. WHAT DOES GOD DO TO YOUR BRAIN? (PAGES 41-63)

1. For a comprehensive list of studies relating the health benefits of church attendance and spirituality, see http://www.dukespiritualityandhealth.org/resources/pdfs/Research%20-%20latest%20outside%20Duke.pdf

2. Luu P, Posner MI. Anterior cingulate cortex regulation of sympathetic activity. Brain. 2003 Oct;126(Pt 10):2119–20.

Critchley HD, Mathias CJ, Josephs O, O'Doherty J, Zanini S, Dewar BK, Cipolotti L, Shallice T, Dolan RJ. Human cingulate cortex and autonomic control: converging neuroimaging and clinical evidence. Brain. 2003 Oct;126(Pt 10):2139–52.

Paus T. Primate anterior cingulate cortex: where motor control, drive and cognition interface. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2001 Jun;2(6):417–24.

The anterior cingulate cortex lends a hand in response selection. Nat Neurosci. 1999 Oct;2(10):853–4.

3. Deckro GR, Ballinger KM, Hoyt M, Wilcher M, Dusek J, Myers P, Green-berg B, Rosenthal DS, Benson H. The evaluation of a mind/body intervention to reduce psychological distress and perceived stress in college students. J Am Coll Health. 2002 May;50(6):281–7.

Stefano GB, Fricchione GL, Slingsby BT, Benson H. The placebo effect and the relaxation response: neural processes and their coupling to constitutive nitric oxide. Brain Res Rev, 2001;35:1-19.

Goodale IL, Domar AD, Benson H. Alleviation of premenstrual syndrome symptoms with the relaxation response. Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Apr;75(4):649–55.

Leserman J, Stuart EM, Mamish ME, Benson H. The efficacy of the relaxation response in preparing for cardiac surgery. Behav Med. 1989 Fall;15(3):111–7.

Kass JD, Friedman R, Leserman J, Zuttermeister PC, Benson H. Health outcome and a new index of spiritual experience. J Sci Stud Religion 1991;30:203-11.

Benson H, Lehmann JW, Malhotra MS, Goldman RF, Hopkins J, Epstein MD. Body temperature changes during the practice of g tum-mo (heat) yoga. Nature 1982;295:234-6.

Hoffman JW, Benson H, Arns PA, Stainbrook GL, Landsberg L, Young JB, Gill A. Reduced sympathetic nervous system responsivity associated with the relaxation response. Science 1982;215:190-2.

Benson H, McCallie DP Jr. Angina pectoris and the placebo effect. N Engl J Med 1979;300:1424-9.

Beary JF, Benson H. A simple psychophysiologic technique which elicits the hypometabolic changes of the relaxation response. Psychosom Med 1974;36: 115–20.

Benson H, Beary JF, Carol MP. The relaxation response. Psychiatry 1974;37: 37–46.

Wallace RK, Benson H, Wilson AF A wakeful hypometabolic physiologic state. Am J Physiol 1971;221:795-9.

4. Galvin JA, Benson H, Deckro GR, Fricchione GL, Dusek JA. The relaxation response: reducing stress and improving cognition in healthy aging adults. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2006 Aug;12(3):186–91.

5. Roof W. A Generation of Seekers. HarperCollins, 1993.

6. The twenty references to meditation, from the King James version of the Bible, can be found in: Genesis 24:63, Joshua 1:8, Psalm 1:2, Psalm 5:1, Psalm 19:14, Psalm 49:3, Psalm 63:6, Psalm 77:12, Psalm 104:34, Psalm 119:15, Psalm 119:23, Psalm 119:48, Psalm 119:78, Psalm 119:97, Psalm 119:99, Psalm 119:148, Psalm 143:5, Isaiah 33:18, Luke 21:14, and 1 Timothy 4:15.

7. For a comprehensive overview of Christian meditative practices, see the online Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/index.html.

8. The author of this Christian mystical text is unknown, although it has been attributed to an English cloistered monk living in the fourteenth century. The excerpt cited here is from Evelyn Underwood's adaptation, A Book of Contemplation Which Is Called the Cloud of Unknowing, In Which a Soul is One with God, edited from a British Museum manuscript and published by John M. Watkins in 1922.

9. Keating T Intimacy With God. New York: Crossroad Publishing Co, 1994.

10. For a complete history and description of the Centering Prayer, see http://www.centeringprayer.com.

11. Newberg A, Pourdehnad M, Alavi A, d'Aquili EG. Cerebral blood flow during meditative prayer: preliminary findings and methodological issues. Percept Mot Skills. 2003 Oct;97(2):625–30.

12. For a complete description of the similarities, see Newberg, A.; Waldman, M. Born to Believe. The Free Press, 2007.

13. Gödel K. “Ontological Proof,” in Collected Works: Unpublished Essays & Lectures (vol. III), Oxford University Press, 1995; 403–4.

14. Creswell JD, Way BM, Eisenberger NI, Lieberman MD. Neural correlates of dispositional mindfulness during affect labeling. Psychosom Med. 2007 Jul–Aug;69(6):560–5.

15. Newberg A, Waldman M. Born to Believe. The Free Press, 2007.

16. V. S. Ramachandran and Michael Persinger are the two leading researchers who argue that religious and paranormal experiences might be related to temporal lobe dysfunction, but only a few rare examples have been found. The majority of people who have religious experiences show no signs of neural dysfunction. See: Persinger MA, Valliant PM. Temporal lobe signs and reports of subjective paranormal experiences in a normal population: a replication. Percept Mot Skills 1985;60(3): 903–9; and Ramachandran VS, Blakeslee S. Phantoms in the Brain. New York: William Morrow, 1998.

17. Shalom DB, Poeppel D. Functional anatomic models of language: assembling the pieces. Neuroscientist. 2008 Feb;14(1):119–27.

18. Hölzel BK, Ott U, Hempel H, Hackl A, Wolf K, Stark R, Vaitl D. Differential engagement of anterior cingulate and adjacent medial frontal cortex in adept meditators and non-meditators. Neurosci Lett. 2007 Jun 21;421(1):16–21.

Critchley HD, Melmed RN, Featherstone E, Mathias CJ, Dolan RJ. Brain activity during biofeedback relaxation: a functional neuroimaging investigation. Brain. 2001 May;124(Pt 5):1003–12.

Lazar SW, Bush G, Gollub RL, Fricchione GL, Khalsa G, Benson H. Functional brain mapping of the relaxation response and meditation. Neurore-port. 2000 May 15;11(7):1581–5.

19. Pujol J, López A, Deus J, et al. Anatomical variability of the anterior cingulate gyrus and basic dimensions of human personality. Neuroimage 2002; 15: 847–855.

20. Gündel H, López-Sala A, Ceballos-Baumann AO, Deus J, Cardoner N, Marten-Mittag B, Soriano-Mas C, Pujol J. Alexithymia correlates with the size of the right anterior cingulate. Psychosom Med. 2004 Jan–Feb;66(1):132–40.

21. Berthoz S, Artiges E, Van De Moortele PF, Poline JB, Rouquette S, Consoli SM, Martinot JL. Effect of impaired recognition and expression of emotions on frontocingulate cortices: an fMRI study of men with alexithymia. Am J Psychiatry. 2002 Jun;159(6):961–7.

22. Lamm C, Batson CD, Decety J. The neural substrate of human empathy: effects of perspective-taking and cognitive appraisal. J Cogn Neurosci. 2007 Jan;19(1):42–58.

Singer T The neuronal basis of empathy and fairness. Novartis Found Symp. 2007;278:20-30.

Seitz RJ, Nickel J, Azari NP. Functional modularity of the medial prefrontal cortex: involvement in human empathy. Neuropsychology. 2006 Nov;20(6): 743–51.

23. Milad MR, Quirk GJ, Pitman RK, Orr SP, Fischl B, Rauch SL. A role for the human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in fear expression. Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Aug 16.

Rudebeck PH, Walton ME, Millette BH, Shirley E, Rushworth MF, Ban-nerman DM. Distinct contributions of frontal areas to emotion and social behaviour in the rat. Eur J Neurosci. 2007 Oct;26(8):2315–26.

24. Etkin A, Wager TD. Functional neuroimaging of anxiety: a meta-analysis of emotional processing in PTSD, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. Am J Psychiatry. 2007 Oct;164(10):1476–88.

25. Knippenberg JM, Maes JH, Kuniecki MJ, Buyse BA, Coenen AM, van Lui-jtelaar G. N150 in amygdalar ERPs in the rat: Is there modulation by anticipatory fear? Physiol Behav. 2007 Aug 29.

Kumari V, ffytche DH, Das M, Wilson GD, Goswami S, Sharma T. Neu-roticism and brain responses to anticipatory fear. Behav Neurosci. 2007 Aug;121(4):643–52.

26. Shim YS, Kim JS, Shon YM, Chung YA, Ahn KJ, Yang DW. A serial study of regional cerebral blood flow deficits in patients with left anterior thalamic infarction: Anatomical and neuropsychological correlates. J Neurol Sci. 2008 Mar 15;266(1–2):84–91.

Schroeter ML, Raczka K, Neumann J, von Cramon DY Neural networks in frontotemporal dementia—a meta-analysis. Neurobiol Aging. 2008 Mar;29(3):418–26.

Sziklas V, Petrides M. Contribution of the anterior thalamic nuclei to conditional learning in rats. Hippocampus. 2007;17(6):456–61.

Edelstyn NM, Hunter B, Ellis SJ. Bilateral dorsolateral thalamic lesions disrupts conscious recollection. Neuropsychologia. 2006;44(6):931–8.

Cheung CC, Lee TM, Yip JT, King KE, Li LS. The differential effects of thalamus and basal ganglia on facial emotion recognition. Brain Cogn. 2006 Aug;61(3):262–8.

Graham DI, Adams JH, Murray LS, Jennett B. Neuropathology of the vegetative state after head injury. Neuropsychol Rehabil. 2005 Jul–Sep;15(3–4):198–213.

Dagenbach D, Kubat-Silman AK, Absher JR. Human verbal working memory impairments associated with thalamic damage. Int J Neurosci. 2001;111(1–2):67–87.

27. Kjaer TW, Bertelsen C, Piccini P, Brooks D, Alving J, Lou HC. Increased dopamine tone during meditation-induced change of consciousness. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 2002 Apr;13(2):255–9.

28. Gianotti LR, Mohr C, Pizzagalli D, Lehmann D, Brugger P. Associative processing and paranormal belief. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2001 Dec;55(6):595–603.

29. Kurup RK, Kurup PA. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and spirituality. Int J Neurosci. 2003 Mar;113(3):383–93.

30. Orme-Johnson D. Evidence that the Transcendental Meditation program prevents or decreases diseases of the nervous system and is specifically beneficial for epilepsy. Med Hypotheses. 2006;67(2):240–6.

Jaseja H. Meditation potentially capable of increasing susceptibility to epilepsy—a follow-up hypothesis. Med Hypotheses. 2006;66(5):925–8.

Solberg EE, Holen A, Ekeberg Ø, Østerud B, Halvorsen R, Sandvik L. The effects of long meditation on plasma melatonin and blood serotonin. Med Sci Monit. 2004 Mar;10(3):CR96–101.

Bujatti M, Riederer P. Serotonin, noradrenaline, dopamine metabolites in Transcendental Meditation-technique. J Neural Transm. 1976;39(3):257–67.

31. Toneatto T, Nguyen L. Does mindfulness meditation improve anxiety and mood symptoms? A review of the controlled research. Can J Psychiatry. 2007 Apr;52(4):260–6.

Finucane A, Mercer SW. An exploratory mixed methods study of the acceptability and effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for patients with active depression and anxiety in primary care. BMC Psychiatry. 2006 Apr 7;6:14. PMID.

Grossman P, Niemann L, Schmidt S, Walach H. Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits. A meta-analysis.J Psychosom Res. 2004 Jul;57(1):35–43.

32. Streeter CC, Jensen JE, Perlmutter RM, Cabral HJ, Tian H, Terhune DB, Ciraulo DA, Renshaw PF. Yoga Asana sessions increase brain GABA levels: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. 2007 May;13(4):419–26.

33. Infante JR, Torres-Avisbal M, Pinel P, Vallejo JA, Peran F, Gonzalez F, Con-treras P, Pacheco C, Roldan A, Latre JM. Catecholamine levels in practitioners of the transcendental meditation technique. Physiol Behav. 2001 Jan;72(1–2):141–6.

34. Between 1969 and 1996 extensive research was conducted on the use of psychedelic drugs and reported in the Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. The overall consensus concluded that fewer and fewer people reported spiritual or psychological insights after 1973, the year that LSD gained popularity as a recreational drug.

35. O'Leary DS, Block RI, Turner BM, Koeppel J, Magnotta VA, Ponto LB, Watkins GL, Hichwa RD, Andreasen NC. Marijuana alters the human cerebellar clock. Neuroreport. 2003 Jun 11;14(8):1145–51.

36. Block RI, O'Leary DS, Hichwa RD, Augustinack JC, Ponto LL, Ghoneim MM, Arndt S, Ehrhardt JC, Hurtig RR, Watkins GL, Hall JA, Nathan PE, Andreasen NC. Cerebellar hypoactivity in frequent marijuana users. Neuroreport. 2000 Mar 20;11(4):749–53.

37. Ghaffar O, Feinstein A. Multiple sclerosis and cannabis. A cognitive and psychiatric study. Neurology. 2008 Feb 13.

D'Souza DC, Braley G, Blaise R, Vendetti M, Oliver S, Pittman B, Ran-ganathan M, Bhakta S, Zimolo Z, Cooper T, Perry E. Effects of haloperidol on the behavioral, subjective, cognitive, motor, and neuroendocrine effects of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in humans. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008 Jan 29.

Fisk JE, Montgomery C. Real-world memory and executive processes in cannabis users and non-users. J Psychopharmacol. 2008 Jan 21.

Senn R, Keren O, Hefetz A, Sarne Y. Long-term cognitive deficits induced by a single, extremely low dose of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC): Behavioral, pharmacological and biochemical studies in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2008 Jan;88(3):230–7.

Solowij N. Cannabis and Cognitive Functioning. Cambridge University Press, 1998.

38. de Sola Llopis S, Miguelez-Pan M, Peña-Casanova J, Poudevida S, Farre M, Pacifici R, Böhm P, Abanades S, García AV, Zuccaro P, de la Torre R. Cognitive performance in recreational ecstasy polydrug users: a two-year follow-up study. J Psychopharmacol. 2008 Jan 21.

Bedi G, Redman J. Ecstasy use and higher-level cognitive functions: weak effects of ecstasy after control for potential confounds. Psychol Med. 2008 Jan 29:1–12.

Schilt T, Win MM, Jager G, Koeter MW, Ramsey NF, Schmand B, van den Brink W. Specific effects of ecstasy and other illicit drugs on cognition in poly-substance users. Psychol Med. 2007 Nov 8;:1–9.

Montgomery C, Fisk JE. Everyday memory deficits in ecstasy-polydrug users. J Psychopharmacol. 2007 Sep;21(7):709–17.

Rodgers J, Buchanan T, Scholey AB, Heffernan TM, Ling J, Parrott AC. Patterns of drug use and the influence of gender on self-reports of memory ability in ecstasy users: a Web-based study. J Psychopharmacol. 2003 Dec;17(4):389–96.

Rodgers J. Cognitive performance amongst recreational users of “ecstasy.” Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2000 Jul;151(1):19–24.

39. Lerner M, Lyvers M. Values and beliefs of psychedelic drug users: a cross-cultural study. J Psychoactive Drugs. 2006 Jun;38(2):143–7.

40. Hartung J, Skorka D. The HIT clinical profile of psychedelic drug users. J Pers Assess. 1980 Jun;44(3):237–45.

41. Vollenweider FX, Leenders KL, Scharfetter C, Maguire P, Stadelmann O, Angst J. Positron emission tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose studies of metabolic hyperfrontality and psychopathology in the psilocybin model of psychosis. Neuropsychopharmacology. 1997 May;16(5):357–72.

42. Griffiths RR, Richards WA, McCann U, Jesse R. Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 Aug;187(3): 268–83.

43. Bonn-Miller MO, Bernstein A, Sachs-Ericsson N, Schmidt NB, Zvolensky MJ. Associations between psychedelic use, abuse, and dependence and lifetime panic attack history in a representative sample. J Anxiety Disord. 2007;21(5):730–41.

44. Newberg A., and Waldman, M. Born to Believe. The Free Press, 2007.

45. Helmut Hanisch: The graphic development of the God picture with children and young people: An empirical comparative investigation with religious and non-religiously educating at the age of 7–16. Stuttgart and Leipzig 1996. http://www.uni-leipzig.de/~rp/vortraege/hanisch01.html.

46. For a comprehensive list of studies relating the health benefits of prayer, meditation, church attendance, and spirituality, see http://www.dukespiritualityandhealth.org/resources/pdfs/Research%20-%20latest%20outside%20Duke.pdf

47. Gillum RF, Ingram DD. Frequency of attendance at religious services, hypertension, and blood pressure: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Psychosom Med. 2006 May–Jun;68(3):382–5.

48. Shermer M. Hope Springs Eternal: Science, the Afterlife & the Meaning of Life. http://www.skeptic.com/reading_room/debates/afterlife.html.

49. Sloan, R. Blind Faith: The Unholy Alliance of Religion and Medicine. St. Martin's Press, 2006.

50. Musick MA, House JS, Williams DR. Attendance at religious services and mortality in a national sample. J Health Soc. 2004;45 (2):198–213.

51. Hill TD, Angel JL, Ellison CG, Angel RJ. Religious attendance and mortality: an 8-year follow-up of older Mexican Americans. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2005 Mar;60(2):S102–9.

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53. Oman D, Kurata JH, Strawbridge WJ, Cohen RD. Religious attendance and cause of death over 31 years. Int J Psychatr Med. 2002;32(1):69–89.

54. Gillum RF. Frequency of attendance at religious services and cigarette smoking in American women and men: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Prev Med. 2005 Aug;41(2):607–13.

55. Whooley MA, Boyd AL, Gardin JM, Williams DR. Religious involvement and cigarette smoking in young adults: the CARDIA study (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study. Arch Intern Med. 2002 Jul 22;162(14):1604–10.

56. Pargament KI, Koenig HG, Tarakeshwar N, Hahn J. Religious struggle as a predictor of mortality among medically ill elderly patients: a 2-year longitudinal study. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2001 Aug 13–27;161(15):1881–5.

57. Koenig HG, Pargament KI, Nielsen J. Religious coping and health status in medically ill hospitalized older adults. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1998 Sep;186(9):513–21.

58. Pargament, K.I. The Psychology of Religion and Coping: Theory, Research, Practice. Guilford Press, 1997.

Koenig HG, Pargament KI, Nielsen J. Religious coping and health status in medically ill hospitalized older adults. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1998;186:513-521.

Fitchett G, Rybarczyk BD, DeMarco GA, Nicholas JJ. The role of religion in medical rehabilitation outcomes: a longitudinal study. Rehab Psychol. 1999;44:1-22.

59. Pargament KI, Koenig HG, Tarakeshwar N, Hahn J. Religious coping methods as predictors of psychological, physical and spiritual outcomes among medically ill elderly patients: a two-year longitudinal study. J Health Psychol. 2004 Nov;9(6):713–30.

60. Creswell JD, Way BM, Eisenberger NI, Lieberman MD. Neural correlates of dispositional mindfulness during affect labeling. Psychosom Med. 2007 Jul–Aug;69(6):560–5.

Pagnoni G, Cekic M. Age effects on gray matter volume and attentional performance in Zen meditation. Neurobiol Aging. 2007 Oct;28(10):1623–7.

Brefczynski-Lewis JA, Lutz A, Schaefer HS, Levinson DB, Davidson RJ. Neural correlates of attentional expertise in long-term meditation practitioners. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jul 3;104(27):11483–8.

Hölzel BK, Ott U, Hempel H, Hackl A, Wolf K, Stark R, Vaitl D. Differential engagement of anterior cingulate and adjacent medial frontal cortex in adept meditators and non-meditators. Neurosci Lett. 2007 Jun 21;421(1): 16–21.

61. Brefczynski-Lewis JA, Lutz A, Schaefer HS, Levinson DB, Davidson RJ. Neural correlates of attentional expertise in long-term meditation practitioners. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jul 3;104(27):11483–8.

62. Goleman, D. Destructive Emotions. Bantam Books, 2003.

63. Slagter HA, Lutz A, Greischar LL, Francis AD, Nieuwenhuis S, Davis JM, Davidson RJ. Mental training affects distribution of limited brain resources. PLoS Biol. 2007 Jun;5(6):e138.

Lutz A, Greischar LL, Rawlings NB, Ricard M, Davidson RJ. Long-term meditators self-induce high-amplitude gamma synchrony during mental practice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Nov 16;101(46):16369–73.

64. Lazar SW, Kerr CE, Wasserman RH, Gray JR, Greve DN, Treadway MT, McGarvey M, Quinn BT, Dusek JA, Benson H, Rauch SL, Moore CI, Fischl B. Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness. Neuroreport. 2005 Nov 28;16(17):1893–7.

CHAPTER 4. WHAT DOES GOD FEEL LIKE? (PAGES 67-82)

1. Ganzel B, Casey BJ, Glover G, Voss HU, Temple E. The aftermath of 9/11: effect of intensity and recency of trauma on outcome. Emotion. 2007 May;7(2):227–38.

Wessa M, Flor H. Posttraumatic stress disorder and trauma memory—a psy-chobiological perspective. Psychosom Med Psychother. 2002;48(1):28–37. German.

2. Yokoyama S, Miyamoto T, Riera J, Kim J, Akitsuki Y, Iwata K, Yoshimoto K, Horie K, Sato S, Kawashima R. Cortical mechanisms involved in the processing of verbs: an fMRI study. J Cogn Neurosci. 2006 Aug;18(8):1304–13.

3. Newport F, Who Believes in God and Who Doesn't? Gallup News Service, June 23, 2006.

4. Larson EJ, Witham L. Scientists Are Still Keeping the Faith. Nature. 1997 April;386:435–36.

5. Gunn H. Web-based Surveys: Changing the Survey Process. First Monday. 2002 Dec;7(12), http://www.firstmonday.org/Issues/issue7_12/gunn/index.html.

6. Nobel prize winner Francis Crick argues that the claustrum is the “orchestra conductor” that brings together unity of consciousness, whereas Nobel prizewinner Eric Kandel argues that the thalamus is key to the processing of a holistic sense of reality. However, the claustrum is heavily interconnected with most of the cortex, with the exception of the thalamus.

Crick FC, Koch C. What is the function of the claustrum? Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2005 Jun 29;360(1458):1271–9.

Kandel, E. In Search of Memory: The Emergence of a New Science of Mind. Norton, 2006.

7. Aldous Huxley, Ken Wilbur, and Huston Smith are three well-known authors who have written extensively on the topic of perennial philosophy. See: Cousineau P. (ed.) The Way Things Are: Conversations with Huston Smith on the Spiritual Life. University of California Press, 2005.

8. Ens C, Bond JB Jr. Death anxiety in adolescents: the contributions of bereavement and religiosity. Omega (Westport). 2007;55(3):169–84.

Al-Sabwah MN, Abdel-Khalek AM. Religiosity and death distress in Arabic college students. Death Stud. 2006 May;30(4):365–75.

Wink P, Scott J. Does religiousness buffer against the fear of death and dying in late adulthood? Findings from a longitudinal study. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2005 Jul;60(4):P207–14.

Roff LL, Butkeviciene R, Klemmack DL. Death anxiety and religiosity among Lithuanian health and social service professionals. Death Stud. 2002 Nov;26(9):731–42.

Suhail K, Akram S. Correlates of death anxiety in Pakistan. Death Stud. 2002 Jan;26(1):39–50.

Fortner BV, Neimeyer RA. Death anxiety in older adults: a quantitative review. Death Stud. 1999 Jul–Aug;23(5):387–411.

9. Waldman M. The Case of Julia: Kundalini or Psychosis? J Transpers Psychol. 1992;24(2).

10. American Psychiatric Association. 1994 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (4th ed.). APA, Washington, DC.

11. James W. The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature. Longman, 1902.

12. Keup J. Understanding the Role of Religion and Spirituality in the UCLA Undergraduate Experience. http://www.sairo.ucla.edu/2005Reports/Religion%20%20Spirituality%20in%20the%20UCLA%20Undergraduate%20Experience%20Oct%202005.pdf See also: http://www.spirituality.ucla.edu.

13. Although 80 to 90 percent of Americans believe in God, and faith is the second most important value in most American's lives (Barna, March 14, 2006), only 30 to 40 percent attend church regularly (Gallup, January 3 and 10, 2006); 43 percent don't attend any religious institution at all (Gallup, October 11, 2005).

14. Barna's Annual Tracking Study Shows Americans Stay Spiritually Active, But Biblical Views Wane. Barna Research Group. May 21, 2007.

15. Islamic Extremism: Common Concern for Muslim and Western Publics. Pew Global Attitudes Project. 2005. http://pewglobal.org/reports/display.php?PageID=809.

A Rising Tide Lifts Mood in the Developing World: Sharp Decline in Support for Suicide Bombing in Muslim Countries. Pew Global Attitudes Project. 2007. http://pewglobal.org/reports/display.php?ReportID=257.

CHAPTER 5. WHAT DOES GOD LOOK LIKE? (PAGES 83-105)

1. Wilson DS. Darwin's Cathedral. University of Chicago Press, 2002.

2. Kensinger EA, Schacter DL. Processing emotional pictures and words: effects of valence and arousal. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2006 Jun;6(2):110–26.

3. Alia-Klein N, Goldstein RZ, Tomasi D, Zhang L, Fagin-Jones S, Telang F, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Volkow ND. What is in a word? No versus yes differentially engage the lateral orbitofrontal cortex. Emotion. 2007 Aug;7(3): 649–59.

4. Solso R. Brain activities in a skilled versus a novice artist: An fMRI study. Leonardo 34.1 (2001) 31–34.

5. Heller D. The Children's God. University of Chicago Press, 1988.

6. Ladd K, McIntosh DN, Spilka B. Children's god concepts: Influences of denomination, age, and gender. International J for the Psychology of Religion. 1998; 8(1): 49–56.

7. Harms E.: The development of religious experience in children. American Journal of Sociology. 1944;(50).

Siegenthaler H.: Die Entwicklung des Gottesbildes bei Kindern und Jugendlichen, in: entwurf, hg. von der Fachgemeinschaft evangelischer Religion-slehrer in Württemberg und vom Fachverband evangelischer Religionslehrer in Baden e. V. 3/1980.

Hanisch H. 1996. [German translation: The graphic development of the God picture with children and young people: An empirical comparative investigation with religious and non-religiously educating at the ages of 7–16]. Stuttgart and Leipzig. See also: Hanisch H. 2002. Children's and Young People's Drawings of God (lecture given at the University of Gloucestershire): http://www.uni-leipzig.de/~rp/vortraege/hanisch01.html.

Ladd K, McIntosh DN, Spilka B. Children's god concepts: Influences of denomination, age, and gender. Int J Psychol Rel. 1998; 8(1):49–56.

8. Szpunar KK, Watson JM, McDermott KB. Neural substrates of envisioning the future. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jan 9;104(2):642–7.

Addis DR, Wong AT, Schacter DL. Remembering the past and imagining the future: common and distinct neural substrates during event construction and elaboration. Neuropsychologia. 2007 Apr 8;45(7):1363–77.

9. Hofer A, Siedentopf CM, Ischebeck A, Rettenbacher MA, Verius M, Felber S, Wolfgang Fleischhacker W. Sex differences in brain activation patterns during processing of positively and negatively valenced emotional words. Psychol Med. 2007 Jan;37(1):109–19.

10. The first fifty words tend to be names of important persons, foods, nouns relating to activities like taking a bath, action words and verbs, and simple directions, like up, down, open, or go. See: Bremner JG, Slater A, Butter-worth G. Infant Development: Recent Advances. Erlbaum, 1997.

11. Ravid D. Semantic development in textual contexts during the school years: noun scale analyses. J Child Lang. 2006 Nov;33(4):791–821.

Ogura T, Dale PS, Yamashita Y, Murase T, Mahieu A. The use of nouns and verbs by Japanese children and their caregivers in book-reading and toy-playing contexts. J Child Lang. 2006 Feb;33(1):1–29.

12. As neuroimaging technology improves, some of the assumptions concerning a child's language acquisition have been called into question. Furthermore, languages from various cultures may be learned and neurologically processed in different ways. See:

Li P, Jin Z, Tan LH. Neural representations of nouns and verbs in Chinese: an fMRI study. Neuroimage. 2004 Apr;21(4):1533–41.

Bassano D. Early development of nouns and verbs in French: exploring the interface between lexicon and grammar. J Child Lang. 2000 Oct;27(3):521–59.

13. Federmeier KD, Segal JB, Lombrozo T, Kutas M. Brain responses to nouns, verbs and class-ambiguous words in context. Brain. 2000 Dec;123 Pt 12:2552–66.

14. Pobric G, Mashal N, Faust M, Lavidor M. The role of the right cerebral hemisphere in processing novel metaphoric expressions: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study. J Cogn Neurosci. 2008 Jan;20(1):170–81.

15. Vinckier F, Naccache L, Papeix C, Forget J, Hahn-Barma V, Dehaene S, Cohen L. “What” and “where” in word reading: ventral coding of written words revealed by parietal atrophy. J Cogn Neurosci. 2006 Dec;18(12):1998–2012.

Sestieri C, Di Matteo R, Ferretti A, Del Gratta C, Caulo M, Tartaro A, Olivetti Belardinelli M, Romani GL. “What” versus “where” in the audiovisual domain: an fMRI study. Neuroimage. 2006 Nov 1;33(2):672–80.

16. Shafritz KM, Gore JC, Marois R. The role of the parietal cortex in visual feature binding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 August 6; 99(16): 10917–10922.

17http://www.religiousscience.org.

18http://www.rsint.org.

19. Fowler, J. Stages of Faith: The Psychology of Human Development. Harper-SanFrancisco, 1981.

20. In 1961, the Unitarian and Universalist denominations consolidated to form Unitarian Universalism. However, Unitarian Universalism does not adhere to traditional Unitarian or Universalist beliefs and now embraces humanistic, interfaith, secular, and nondiscriminatory policies.

21. Benson PL, Donahue MJ, Erickson JA. Adolescence and religion: A review of the literature from 1970 to 1986. Res Soc Sci Study Rel. 1989;1: 153–181.

King V, Elder GH, Whitbeck LB. Religious involvement among rural youth: an ecological and life-course perspective. J Res Adolesc. 1997;7: 431–456.

22. Banschick M. God representations in adolescence. In Finn M, Gartner J, (eds). Object Relations Theory and Religion. New York: Praeger, 1992.

23. Levenson MR, Aldwin CM, D'Mello M, Religious Development from Adolescence to Middle Adulthood. In Handbook of the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, Guilford Press, 2005.

24. Smith C, Denton ML, Faris R, Regnerus M. Mapping American adolescent religious participation. J Sci Study Rel. 2002;13: 175–195.

Markstrom CA. Religious involvement and adolescent psychosocial development. J Adolesc 1999;22(2):205–21.

25. Levenson MR, op cit.

26. The Barna Group. Most Twentysomethings Put Christianity on the Shelf Following Spiritually Active Teen Years. September 11, 2006. http://www.barna.org/FlexPage.aspx?Page=BarnaUpdate&BarnaUpdateID=245.

27. The Barna Group. Barna finds four mega-themes in recent research. December 3, 2007, http://www.barna.org/FlexPage.aspx?Page=BarnaUpdate&BarnaUpdateID=285.

28. Kinnaman D. unChristian: What a New Generation Really Thinks about Christianity … and Why It Matters. Baker Books, 2007.

29. Borg M. The Heart of Christianity. HarperOne, 2003.

30. Harrington GS, Farias D, Davis CH, Buonocore MH. Comparison of the neural basis for imagined writing and drawing. Hum Brain Mapp. 2007 May;28(5):450–9.

31. Taylor KI, Regard M. Language in the right cerebral hemisphere: contributions from reading studies. News Physiol Sci. 2003 Dec;18:257–61.

32. Sabsevitz DS, Medler DA, Seidenberg M, Binder JR. Modulation of the semantic system by word imageability. Neuroimage. 2005 Aug 1;27(1):188–200.

Taylor KI, Regard M. Language in the right cerebral hemisphere: contributions from reading studies. News Physiol Sci. 2003 Dec;18:257–61.

33. Einstein, A. A Symposium, by the Conference on Science, Philosophy and Religion in Their Relation to the Democratic Way of Life. In Science, Philosophy and Religion, 1940. The website http://www.sahajayoga.asso.fr/news _sahaja-yoga_france/documents/Albert%20Einstein%20-%20Contemplating %20the%20cosmos.pdf also contains several other informative essays by Einstein on religion.

34. Kandinsky W. Concerning the Spiritual in Art. Project Gutenberg E Book, 2004.

35. Quiroga RQ, Reddy L, Kreiman G, Koch C, Fried I. Invariant visual representation by single neurons in the human brain. Nature. 2005 Jun 23;435(7045):1102–7.

36. Buber M. The Way of Response (Glatzer, ed.). Schocken, 1971.

37. Wilson D. Beyond Demonic Memes: Why Richard Dawkins Is Wrong About Religion. eSkeptic, July 14, 2007.

38. The Centre for Synaptic Plasticity provides an excellent online overview of neuroplasticity. The center is a joint venture between the Medical Research Council and the University of Bristol, advancing the understanding of synaptic plasticity in normal human functioning, especially during learning and memory and in certain pathological states such as Alzheimer's disease, memory loss, and epilepsy. For an online list of relevant research papers, see www.bris.ac.uk/synaptic/research/res2.html.

39. Chklovskii DB, Mel BW, Svoboda K. Cortical rewiring and information storage. Nature. 2004 Oct 14;431(7010):782–8.

40. Yoshii A, Constantine-Paton M. BDNF induces transport of PSD-95 to den-drites through PI3K-AKT signaling after NMDA receptor activation. Nature Neuroscience. 2007;10, 702. Quotation cited in Medical Science News. 2007 May 20.

41. Frostig RD. Functional organization and plasticity in the adult rat barrel cortex: moving out-of-the-box. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2006;16:1-6.

42. Polley DB, Kvasnak E, Frostig RD. Naturalisitic experience transforms sensory maps in the adult cortex of caged animals. Nature. 2004;429: 67–71.

43. Jacobs B, Scheibel AB. A quantitative dendritic analysis of Wernicke's area in humans. I. Lifespan changes. J Comp Neurol. 1993 Jan 1;327(1):83–96. Allman, J. Evolving Brains. Scientific American Library, 2000.

44. Muotri AR, Marchetto MC, Coufal NG, Gage FH. The necessary junk: new functions for transposable elements. Hum Mol Genet. 2007 Oct 15;16 Spec No. 2:R159–67.

Garcia-Perez JL, et. al. LINE-1 retrotransposition in human embryonic stem cells. Hum Mol Genet. 2007 Jul 1;16(13):1569–77.

Muotri AR, et al. Somatic mosaicism in neuronal precursor cells mediated by L1 retrotransposition. Nature. 2005 Jun 16;435(7044):903–10.

45. Deacon, C. The Symbolic Species: The Co-Evolution of Language and the Brain. Norton, 1998.

CHAPTER 6. DOES GOD HAVE A HEART? (PAGES 106-130)

1. American Piety in the 21st Century: New Insights to the Depth and Complexity of Religion in the U.S. Selected findings from the Baylor Religion Survey. September 2006. Research group: Christopher Bader, Kevin Dougherty, Paul Froese, Byron Johnson, F Carson Mencken, Jerry Z. Park, Rodney Stark. http://www.baylor.edu/content/services/document.php/33304.pdf

2. Zogby International. University Of Rochester And Zogby International Release Global Poll On Religious Beliefs, Practices And Priorities. October 16, 2003, http://www.zogby.com/NEWS/ReadNews.dbm?ID=746.

3. Buber M. I and Thou. Scribner, 1958.

4. Wuthnow R. Sharing the Journey. The Free Press, 1994.

5. Beliefs: General Religious. Barna Group. 2007, 2008, http://www.barna.org/ FlexPage.aspx?Page=Topic&TopicID=2. See also: Barna, G. Index of Leading Spiritual Indicators. Thomas Nelson, 1996.

6. This quote appeared in the New York Times Magazine on November 9, 1930. It also appears in Einstein's book, The World as I See It, Philosophical Library, 1949.

7. For an excellent overview of the history of American religion, see Gaustad, E.S. The Religious History of America. HarperOne, 2004.

8. Atkinson W. Thought Vibration or the Law of Attraction in the Thought World. New Thought Publishing Company, 1906. Essay first published in 1901.

9. Torrey RA (ed.). The Fundamentals: A Testimony to the Truth, 1910–15. Baker Book House, 1994.

10. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Crime in the United States, 2004. See also: FBI, 2006 Hate Crimes Statistics.

11. U.S. Government, 2004. Chart in public domain.

12. BNET Research Center poll: Americans shun conversion goals. Christian Century, May 8, 2002.

13. Borg MJ. The Heart of Christianity. HarperSanFrancisco, 2002.

14http://www.dioceseofnewark.org/jsspong/reform.html. See also: Spong J. Why Christianity Must Change or Die. HarperOne, 1998.

15. A New Generation Expresses Its Skepticism and Frustration with Christianity. Barna Research Group. September 24, 2007, http://www.barna.org/ FlexPage.aspx?Page=BarnaUpdate&BarnaUpdateID=280.

16. Tracking U.S. Religious Preferences Over the Decades: A Gallup Survey. May 24, 2005, http://www.gallup.com/poll/16459/Tracking-US-Religious-Preferences-Over-Decades.aspx.

17. Byrne, R. The Secret. Atria Books/Beyond Words, 2006 (DVD directed by Drew Heriot).

18. Spirituality and the Professoriate: A National Study of Faculty Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behaviors. Higher Education Research Institute, Graduate School of Education and Information Studies, University of California, Los Angeles. Alexander W. Astin, co-principal investigator.

19. Minkkinen M. Early care and education: Our social experiment. J Coll Teaching Learning, 2005;2(7): 1–6.

20. The neurobiology of romantic love involves different parts of the brain than other emotional conditions: areas in the frontal cortex, the anterior cingulate, and many areas within the limbic system. But love is also controlled by our thoughts and the evaluation of rewards or rejection, and by a constantly changing balance of neurochemicals and hormones, including oxytocin, va-sopressin, dopamine, and opioids. See, for instance:

Zeki S. The neurobiology of love. FEBS Lett. 2007 Jun 12;581(14):2575–9.

Fisher HE, Aron A, Brown LL. Romantic love: a mammalian brain system for mate choice. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2006 Dec 29;361(1476): 2173–86.

Romantic love: a mammalian brain system for mate choice. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2006 Dec 29;361(1476):2173–86.

Kendrick KM. The neurobiology of social bonds. J Neuroendocrinol. 2004 Dec;16(12):1007–8.

Bartels A, Zeki S. The neural correlates of maternal and romantic love. Neu-roimage. 2004 Mar;21(3):1155–66.

Marazziti D, Cassano GB. The neurobiology of attraction. J Endocrinol Invest. 2003;26(3 Suppl):58–60.

Bartels A, Zeki S. The neural basis of romantic love. Neuroreport. 2000 Nov 27;11(17):3829–34.

21. Bernier P, Be'dard A, Vinet J, Le'vesque M, Parent P. Newly generated neurons in the amygdala and adjoining cortex of adult primates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. PNAS 2002;99;11464–11469.

22. Allman JM, Hakeem A, Erwin JM, Nimchinsky E, Hof P. The anterior cin-gulate cortex. The evolution of an interface between emotion and cognition. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001 May;935:107–17.

Kasai K, Yamasue H, Gilbertson MW, Shenton ME, Rauch SL, Pitman RK. Evidence for acquired pregenual anterior cingulate gray matter loss from a twin study of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2008 Mar 15;63(6):550–6.

Javadapour A, Malhi GS, Ivanovski B, Chen X, Wen W, Sachdev P. Increased anterior cingulate cortex volume in bipolar I disorder. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2007 Nov;41(11):910–6.

Onoda K, Okamoto Y, Toki S, Ueda K, Shishida K, Kinoshita A, Yoshimura S, Yamashita H, Yamawaki S. Anterior cingulate cortex modulates preparatory activation during certain anticipation of negative picture. Neuropsy-chologia. 2007 Aug 15.

23. Bartolomeo P, Zieren N, Vohn R, Dubois B, Sturm W. Neural correlates of primary and reflective consciousness of spatial orienting. Neuropsychologia. 2007 Jul 19.

24. Saarela MV, Hlushchuk Y, Williams AC, Schürmann M, Kalso E, Hari R. The compassionate brain: humans detect intensity of pain from another's face. Cereb Cortex. 2007 Jan;17(1):230–7.

25. Alexopoulos GS, Gunning-Dixon FM, Latoussakis V, Kanellopoulos D, Murphy CF. Anterior cingulate dysfunction in geriatric depression. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2007 Nov 5.

26. Seeley WW, Allman JM, Carlin DA, Crawford RK, Macedo MN, Greicius MD, Dearmond SJ, Miller BL. Divergent social functioning in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer disease: reciprocal networks and neuronal evolution. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2007 Oct–Dec;21(4):S50–7.

Hof PR, Van Der Gucht E. Structure of the cerebral cortex of the humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae (Cetacea, Mysticeti, Balaenopteridae). Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2006 Nov 27.

27. Gross JJ. Handbook of Emotion Regulation. Guilford Press, 2006.

28. Siegrist J, Menrath I, Stöcker T, Klein M, Kellermann T, Shah NJ, Zilles K, Schneider F. Differential brain activation according to chronic social reward frustration. Neuroreport. 2005 Nov 28;16(17):1899–903.

29. Seeley WW, Allman JM, Carlin DA, Crawford RK, Macedo MN, Greicius MD, Dearmond SJ, Miller BL. Divergent social functioning in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer disease: reciprocal networks and neuronal evolution. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2007 Oct–Dec;21(4):S50–7.

Seeley WW, Carlin DA, Allman JM, Macedo MN, Bush C, Miller BL, Dearmond SJ. Early frontotemporal dementia targets neurons unique to apes and humans. Ann Neurol. 2006 Dec;60(6):660–7.

Allman, J. Evolving Brains. Scientific American Library, 2000.

30. Eisenberger NI, Gable SL, Lieberman MD. Functional magnetic resonance imaging responses relate to differences in real-world social experience. Emotion. 2007 Nov;7(4):745–54.

Rudebeck PH, Walton ME, Millette BH, Shirley E, Rushworth MF, Ban-nerman DM. Distinct contributions of frontal areas to emotion and social behaviour in the rat. Eur J Neurosci. 2007 Oct;26(8):2315–26.

Eisenberger NI, Taylor SE, Gable SL, Hilmert CJ, Lieberman MD. Neural pathways link social support to attenuated neuroendocrine stress responses. Neuroimage. 2007 May 1;35(4):1601–12.

31. This quote, like the previous one cited, first appeared in the New York Times Magazine on November 9, 1930, and also appears in Einstein's book, The World As I See It (Citadel, 2001).

32. Slagter H, Lutz A, Greischar L, Francis A, Nieuwenhuis S, Davis J, Davidson R. Mental Training Affects Distribution of Limited Brain Resources. PLoS Biol 2007, Vol. 5, No. 6. http://biology.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pbio.0050138.

33. Stein J. Just Say Om. Time. Sunday, Jul. 27, 2003.

34. Stukin S. The best you now: Well-being and health—along with a growing appreciation for the age you are now—have come together in an era of unprecedented longevity. Los Angeles Times. July 29, 2007.

35. Halman L, Draulans V. How secular is Europe? Br J Sociol. 2006 Jun;57(2):263–88.

CHAPTER 7. WHAT HAPPENS WHEN GOD GETS MAD? (PAGES 131-146)

1. Davidson RJ, Lewis DA, Alloy LB, Amaral DG, Bush G, Cohen JD, Drevets WC, Farah MJ, Kagan J, McClelland JL, Nolen-Hoeksema S, Peterson BS. Neural and behavioral substrates of mood and mood regulation, Biol Psychiatry, 2002 Sep 15;52(6):478–502.

2. For the most comprehensive overview of anger published to date, see Lerner JS, Tiedens LZ. Portrait of the angry decision maker: How appraisal tendencies shape anger's influence on cognition. J Behavioral Decision Making. 2006:19: 115–137.

Tiedens LZ, Linton S. Judgment under emotional certainty and uncertainty: the effects of specific emotions on information processing. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2001 Dec;81(6):973–88.

Lerner JS, Goldberg JH, Tetlock PE. Sober second thought: the effects of accountability, anger and authoritarianism on attributions of responsibility. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 1998;24(6), 563–74.

3. Maner JK, Kenrick DT, Becker DV, Robertson TE, Hofer B, Neuberg SL, Delton AW, Butner J, Schaller M. Functional projection: how fundamental social motives can bias interpersonal perception. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2005 Jan;88(1):63–78.

4. Hugenberg K, Bodenhausen GV. Facing prejudice: implicit prejudice and the perception of facial threat. Psychol Sci. 2003 Nov;14(6):640–3.

5. Lerner JS, Keltner D. Fear, anger, and risk. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2001 Jul;81(1):146–59.

6. Thomas KS, Nelesen RA, Dimsdale JE. Relationships between hostility, anger expression, and blood pressure dipping in an ethnically diverse sample. Psychosom Med. 2004 May–Jun;66(3):298–304.

Chang PP, Ford DE, Meoni LA, Wang NY, Klag MJ. Anger in young men and subsequent premature cardiovascular disease. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:901-6.

Gallacher JE, Yarnell JW, Sweetnam PM, Elwood PC, Stansfeld SA. Anger and incident heart disease in the caerphilly study. Psychosom Med. 1999 Jul–Aug;61(4):446–53.

Bongard S, al'Absi M, Lovallo WR. Interactive effects of trait hostility and anger expression on cardiovascular reactivity in young men. Int J Psy-chophysiol. 1998 Mar;28(2):181–91.

Shapiro D, Goldstein IB, Jamner LD. Effects of cynical hostility, anger out, anxiety, and defensiveness on ambulatory blood pressure in black and white college students. Psychosom Med. 1996 Jul–Aug;58(4):354–64.

Shapiro D, Goldstein IB, Jamner LD. Effects of anger/hostility, defensive-ness, gender, and family history of hypertension on cardiovascular reactivity. Psychophysiology. 1995 Sep;32(5):425–35.

7. Lerner JS, Tiedens LZ. Portrait of the angry decision maker: How appraisal tendencies shape anger's influence on cognition. J Behavioral Decision Making,. 2006:19: 115–137.

8. Anderson CA, Carnagey NL, Eubanks J. Exposure to violent media: the effects of songs with violent lyrics on aggressive thoughts and feelings. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2003 May;84(5):960–71.

Warm TR. The role of teasing in development and vice versa. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1997 Apr;18(2):97–101.

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Nakic M, Smith BW, Busis S, Vythilingam M, Blair RJ. The impact of affect and frequency on lexical decision: the role of the amygdala and inferior frontal cortex. Neuroimage. 2006 Jul 15;31(4):1752–61.

11. Hamann S, Mao H. Positive and negative emotional verbal stimuli elicit activity in the left amygdala. Neuroreport. 2002 Jan 21;13(1):15–9.

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13. Eldakar OT, Farrell DL, Wilson DS. Selfish punishment: altruism can be maintained by competition among cheaters. J Theor Biol. 2007 Nov 21;249(2):198–205.

Nakamaru M, Iwasa Y. The coevolution of altruism and punishment: role of the selfish punisher. J Theor Biol. 2006 Jun 7;240(3):475–88.

Fowler JH. Altruistic punishment and the origin of cooperation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 May 10;102(19):7047–9.

Fehr E, Rockenbach B. Human altruism: economic, neural, and evolutionary perspectives. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2004 Dec;14(6):784–90.

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Grèzes J, Berthoz S, Passingham RE. Amygdala activation when one is the target of deceit: did he lie to you or to someone else? Neuroimage. 2006 Apr 1;30(2):601–8.

Langleben DD, Loughead JW, Bilker WB, Ruparel K, Childress AR, Busch SI, Gur RC. Telling truth from lie in individual subjects with fast event-related fMRI. Hum Brain Mapp. 2005 Dec;26(4):262–72.

Grèzes J, Frith C, Passingham RE. Brain mechanisms for inferring deceit in the actions of others. J Neurosci. 2004 Jun 16;24(24):5500–5.

15. Lotze M, Veit R, Anders S, Birbaumer N. Evidence for a different role of the ventral and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex for social reactive aggression: An interactive fMRI study. Neuroimage. 2007 Jan 1;34(1):470–8.

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17. The earliest printed version of the “two wolves” tale that I could find dates to 1965 (see Bisagno reference below). However, in one Internet link (http://an-swers.google.com/answers/threadview?id=321024), a sixty-year-old man recalled hearing a version of the story when he attended a Sunday school class in 1958 at a Cherokee Baptist Church in Oklahoma. Missionary traditions often transformed indigenous folktales into Christian parables and teaching stories, so it's quite possible that the “two dogs” metaphor used by Bisagno was rooted in the Plains Indian tradion.

18. Bisagno J. The Power of Positive Praying. Zondervan, 1965.

19. Graham B. The Holy Spirit: Activating God's Power in Your Life. Word Publishing Group, 1978.

20. Sapolsky, R. Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers, Third Edition. New York: Owl Books, 2004.

Goleman D. Destructive Emotions. New York: Bantam, 2003.

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23. Shariff AF, Norenzayan A. God is watching you: priming God concepts increases prosocial behavior in an anonymous economic game. Psychol Sci. 2007 Sep;18(9):803–9.

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25. Mohammed NA, Eapen V, Bener A. Prevalence and correlates of childhood fears in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates. East Mediterr Health J. 2001 May;7(3):422–7.

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27. Storch EA, Storch JB. Organizational, nonorganizational, and intrinsic religiosity and academic dishonesty. Psychol Rep. 2001 Apr;88(2):548–52.

28. Sider D. The Scandal of the Evangelical Conscience. Baker Books, 2005.

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Rilling J, Gutman D, Zeh T, Pagnoni G, Berns G, Kilts C. A neural basis for social cooperation. Neuron. 2002 Jul 18;35(2):395–405.

31. Kaplan JT, Freedman J, Iacoboni M. Us versus them: Political attitudes and party affiliation influence neural response to faces of presidential candidates. Neuropsychologia. 2007 Jan 7;45(1):55–64.

32. Eek D, Gärling T Prosocials prefer equal outcomes to maximizing joint outcomes. Br J Soc Psychol. 2006 Jun;45(Pt 2):321–37.

Joireman J, Duell B. Mother Teresa versus Ebenezer Scrooge: mortality salience leads proselfs to endorse self-transcendent values (unless proselfs are reassured). Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2005 Mar;31(3):307–20.

33. Turner RN, Hewstone M, Voci A. Reducing explicit and implicit outgroup prejudice via direct and extended contact: The mediating role of self-disclosure and intergroup anxiety. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2007 Sep;93(3):369–88.

Henry PJ, Hardin CD. The contact hypothesis revisited: status bias in the reduction of implicit prejudice in the United States and Lebanon. Psychol Sci. 2006 Oct;17(10):862–8.

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Wheeler ME, Fiske ST. Controlling racial prejudice: social-cognitive goals affect amygdala and stereotype activation. Psychol Sci. 2005 Jan;16(1):56–63.

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Ensari N, Miller N. The out-group must not be so bad after all: the effects of disclosure, typicality, and salience on intergroup bias. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2002 Aug;83(2):313–29.

34. Oyamot CM Jr, Borgida E, Fisher EL. Can values moderate the attitudes of right-wing authoritarians? Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2006 Apr;32(4):486–500.

35. Fowler JH, Johnson T, Smirnov O. Human behaviour: Egalitarian motive and altruistic punishment. Nature. 2005 Jan 6;433(7021):1.

36. Dawes CT, Fowler JH, Johnson T, McElreath R, Smirnov O. Egalitarian motives in humans. Nature. 2007 Apr 12;446(7137):794–6.

37. Feather NT. Acceptance and rejection of arguments in relation to attitude strength, critical ability, and intolerance of inconsistency. J Abnor and Soc Psychol. 1964: 69: 127–136.

38. Miller A. (ed.). The Social Psychology of Good and Evil. Guilford Press, 2004.

39. Cohen TR, Montoya RM, Insko CA. Group morality and intergroup relations: cross-cultural and experimental evidence. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2006 Nov;32(11):1559–72.

40. Tajfel H, Flament MC, Billig M, Bundy RP Social categorization and intergroup behavior. Euro J Soc Psychol 1971;1:149-178.

41. Fiske ST. Bias against outgroups. In Miller, The Social Psychology of Good and Evil. Guilford Press, 2004.

42. Wheeler ME, Fiske ST. Controlling racial prejudice: social-cognitive goals affect amygdala and stereotype activation. Psychol Sci. 2005; 16(1):56–63.

Hart AJ, Whalen PJ, Shin LM, McInerney SC, Fischer H, Rauch SL. Differential response in the human amygdala to racial outgroup vs ingroup face stimuli. Neuroreport. 2000; 11(11):2351–5.

43. For a comprehensive analysis of the neural varieties of morality and prejudice, see Chapter 6 in Newberg and Waldman, Born to Believe (The Free Press, 2007).

44. Aronson E. Reducing hostility and building compassion: Lessons from the jigsaw classroom. In Miller, The Social Psychology of Good and Evil. Guilford Press, 2004.

45. Davis JA, et al., General Social Survey, 2000. National Opinion Research Center. See also the Barna Update, “A New Generation of Pastors Places Its Stamp on Ministry,” February 17, 2004.

46. The Fundamentalism Project incorporated hundreds of experts on religion and culture, was conducted under the auspices of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and funded by the John D. and Catherine T MacArthur Foundation. Five encyclopedic volumes were edited by Marty Appleby and published by the University of Chicago Press, volumes 1 through 5, 1991–95. You can read several seminal papers at http://www.illuminos.com/mem/selectPapers/contentsSelectList.html.

47. Hood RW, Hill PC, Williamson WP The Psychology of Religious Fundamentalism. Guilford Press, 2005.

48. Flannelly KJ, Koenig HG, Ellison CG, Galek K, Krause N. Belief in life after death and mental health: findings from a national survey. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2006 Jul;(7):524–9.

Murphy PE, Ciarrocchi JW, Piedmont RL, Cheston S, Peyrot M, Fitchett G. The relation of religious belief and practices, depression, and hopelessness in persons with clinical depression. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2000 Dec;68(6): 1102–6.

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49. Vasegh S, Mohammadi MR. Religiosity, anxiety, and depression among a sample of Iranian medical students. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2007;37(2): 213–27.

50. Hovey JD, Seligman LD. Religious coping, family support, and negative affect in college students. Psychol Rep. 2007 Jun;100(3 Pt 1):787–8.

51. Kalkhoran MA, Karimollahi M. Religiousness and preoperative anxiety: a correlational study. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2007 Jun 29;6:17.

Grzesiak-Feldman M. Conspiracy thinking and state-trait anxiety in young Polish adults. Psychol Rep. 2007 Feb;100(1):199–202.

Altemeyer, B. The Authoritarians. Online publication: University of Manitoba, 2006.

52. Kreindler SA. A dual group processes model of individual differences in prejudice. Pers Soc Psychol Rev. 2005;9(2):90–107.

53. Phelps EA. Human emotion and memory: interactions of the amygdala and hippocampal complex. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2004 Apr;14(2):198–202.

54. Sander D, Grandjean D, Pourtois G, Schwartz S, Seghier ML, Scherer KR, Vuilleumier P. Emotion and attention interactions in social cognition: brain regions involved in processing anger prosody. Neuroimage. 2005 Dec;28(4):848–58.

55. Stein MB, Goldin PR, Sareen J, Zorrilla LT, Brown GG. Increased amygdala activation to angry and contemptuous faces in generalized social phobia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002 Nov;59(11):1027–34.

56. Hariri AR, Tessitore A, Mattay VS, Fera F, Weinberger DR. The amygdala response to emotional stimuli: a comparison of faces and scenes. Neuroimage. 2002 Sep;17(1):317–23.

57. Wild B, Erb M, Bartels M. Are emotions contagious? Evoked emotions while viewing emotionally expressive faces: quality, quantity, time course and gender differences. Psychiatry Res. 2001 Jun 1;102(2):109–24.

58. Kirsh SJ, Mounts JR, Olczak PV. Violent media consumption and the recognition of dynamic facial expressions. J Interpers Violence. 2006 May;21(5): 571–84.

Yukawa S, Yoshida F. The effect of media violence on aggression: Is aggressive behavior mediated by aggressive cognitions and emotions? Shinrigaku Kenkyu. 1999 Jun;70(2):94–103.

59. Fischer P, Greitemeyer T Music and aggression: the impact of sexual-aggressive song lyrics on aggression-related thoughts, emotions, and behavior toward the same and the opposite sex. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2006 Sep;32(9):1165–76.

60. Anderson CA, Carnagey NL, Eubanks J. Exposure to violent media: the effects of songs with violent lyrics on aggressive thoughts and feelings. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2003 May;84(5):960–71.

61. Carnagey NL, Anderson CA. The effects of reward and punishment in violent video games on aggressive affect, cognition, and behavior. Psychol Sci. 2005 Nov;16(11):882–9.

Anderson CA, Bushman BJ. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial 12(5):353–9.

62. Anderson CA. An update on the effects of playing violent video games. J Adolesc. 2004 Feb;27(1):113–22.

63. Kisley MA, Wood S, Burrows CL. Looking at the sunny side of life: age-related change in an event-related potential measure of the negativity bias. Psychol Sci. 2007 Sep;18(9):838–43.

64. Duhachek A, Zhang S, Krishnan S. Anticipated group interaction: coping with valence asymmetries in attitude shift. Journal Of Consumer Research. 2007 Oct;(34).

65. Magnée MJ, Stekelenburg JJ, Kemner C, de Gelder B. Similar facial elec-tromyographic responses to faces, voices, and body expressions. Neurore-port. 2007 Mar 5;18(4):369–72.

66. Tamura R, Kameda T. Are facial expressions contagious in the Japanese? Shinrigaku Kenkyu. 2006 Oct;77(4):377–82.

Ilies R, Wagner DT, Morgeson FP. Explaining affective linkages in teams: individual differences in susceptibility to contagion and individualism-collectivism. J Appl Psychol. 2007 Jul;92(4):1140–8.

Lundqvist LO. Facial EMG reactions to facial expressions: a case of facial emotional contagion? Scand J Psychol. 1995 Jun;36(2):130–41.

67. Moody EJ, McIntosh DN, Mann LJ, Weisser KR. More than mere mimicry? The influence of emotion on rapid facial reactions to faces. Emotion. 2007 May;7(2):447–57.

68. Sonnby-Borgström M. [The facial expression says more than words. Is emotional “contagion” via facial expression the first step toward empathy?] Lakartidningen. 2002 Mar 27;99(13):1438–42.

69. Bond AJ, Verheyden SL, Wingrove J, Curran HV. Angry cognitive bias, trait aggression and impulsivity in substance users. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2004 Jan;171(3):331–9.

70. Wachs K, Cordova JV. Mindful relating: exploring mindfulness and emotion repertoires in intimate relationships. J Marital Fam Ther. 2007 Oct;33(4):464–81.

Carson JW, Carson KM, Gil KM, Baucom DH. Self-expansion as a mediator of relationship improvements in a mindfulness intervention. J Marital Fam Ther. 2007 Oct;33(4):517–28.

Barnes S, Brown KW, Krusemark E, Campbell WK, Rogge RD. The role of mindfulness in romantic relationship satisfaction and responses to relationship stress. J Marital Fam Ther. 2007 Oct;33(4):482–500.

71. Block-Lerner J, Adair C, Plumb JC, Rhatigan DL, Orsillo SM. The case for mindfulness-based approaches in the cultivation of empathy: does nonjudg-mental, present-moment awareness increase capacity for perspective-taking and empathic concern? J Marital Fam Ther. 2007 Oct;33(4):501–16.

72. Lester E. Roberts PS. Learning about World Religions in Public Schools: The Impact on Student Attitudes and Community Acceptance in Modesto, California. First Amendment Center, 2006. You can read and download the entire report by going to http://www.firstamendmentcenter.org/about.aspx?id= 16863.

73. For a comprehensive overview, go to http://www.prisonexp.org, where you can see video footage of the actual experiment.

74. Krakovsky M. (interviewer). Zimbardo Unbound. Stanford Magazine. May/ June 2007.

75. Mancuso S. Tolerance in Terror: Terror Management Theory. Oberlin College, unpublished paper.

76. Greenberg J, Jonas E. Psychological motives and political orientation—the left, the right, and the rigid: comment on Jost et al. Psychol Bull. 2003 May;129(3):376–82.

Jost JT, Glaser J, Kruglanski, AW, Sulloway FJ. Political conservatism as motivated social cognition. Psychol Bull. 2003;129:339-75.

77. Crowson HM, Thoma SJ, Hestevold N. Is political conservatism synonymous with authoritarianism? J Soc Psychol. 2005 Oct;145(5):571–92.

78. Evans J, Heron J, Lewis G, Araya R, Wolke D. Negative self-schemas and the onset of depression in women: longitudinal study. Br J Psychiatry. 2005 Apr;186:302–7.

79. Exline JJ, Yali AM, Sanderson WC. Guilt, discord, and alienation: the role of religious strain in depression and suicidality. J Clin Psychol. 2000 Dec;56(12):1481–96.

CHAPTER 8. EXERCISING YOUR BRAIN (PAGES 149-169)

1. Ohayon MM, Vecchierini MF Normative sleep data, cognitive function and daily living activities in older adults in the community. Sleep. 2005 Aug 1;28(8):981–9.

2. Frauscher B, Gschliesser V, Brandauer E, Ulmer H, Poewe W, Högl B. The relation between abnormal behaviors and REM sleep microstructure in patients with REM sleep behavior disorder. Sleep Med. 2008 Mar 21.

3. Baulk SD, Biggs SN, Reid KJ, van den Heuvel CJ, Dawson D. Chasing the silver bullet: measuring driver fatigue using simple and complex tasks. Accid Anal Prev. 2008 Jan;40(1):396–402.

Jones CB, Dorrian J, Jay SM, Lamond N, Ferguson S, Dawson D. Self-awareness of impairment and the decision to drive after an extended period of wakefulness. Chronobiol Int. 2006;23(6):1253–63.

4. Song S, Howard JH Jr, Howard DV. Sleep does not benefit probabilistic motor sequence learning. J Neurosci. 2007 Nov 14;27(46):12475–83.

Lockley SW, Barger LK, Ayas NT, Rothschild JM, Czeisler CA, Landrigan CP; Harvard Work Hours, Health and Safety Group. Effects of health care provider work hours and sleep deprivation on safety and performance. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2007 Nov;33(11 Suppl):7–18.

Zeitzer JM, Duffy JF, Lockley SW, Dijk DJ, Czeisler CA. Plasma melatonin rhythms in young and older humans during sleep, sleep deprivation, and wake. Sleep. 2007 Nov 1;30(11):1437–43.

Turner TH, Drummond SP, Salamat JS, Brown GG. Effects of 42 hr of total sleep deprivation on component processes of verbal working memory. Neu-ropsychology. 2007 Nov;21(6):787–95.

5. Calhoun PS, Wiley M, Dennis MF, Means MK, Edinger JD, Beckham JC. Objective evidence of sleep disturbance in women with posttraumatic stress disorder. J Trauma Stress. 2007 Dec;20(6):1009–18.

Perez-Chada D, Perez-Lloret S, Videla AJ, Cardinali D, Bergna MA, Fernández-Acquier M, Larrateguy L, Zabert GE, Drake C. Sleep disordered breathing and daytime sleepiness are associated with poor academic performance in teenagers. A study using the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS). Sleep. 2007 Dec 1;30(12):1698–703.

Palermo TM, Toliver-Sokol M, Fonareva I, Koh JL. Objective and subjective assessment of sleep in adolescents with chronic pain compared to healthy adolescents. Clin J Pain. 2007 Nov–Dec;23(9):812–20.

Comella CL. Sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease: an overview. Mov Dis-ord. 2007 Sep;22 Suppl 17:S367–73.

Blackwell T, Yaffe K, Ancoli-Israel S, Schneider JL, Cauley JA, Hillier TA, Fink HA, Stone KL; Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Group. Poor sleep is associated with impaired cognitive function in older women: the study of osteoporotic fractures. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006 Apr;61(4):405–10.

6. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/brain_basics/understanding_sleep.htm.

7. Okun MS, Bowers D, Springer U, Shapira NA, Malone D, Rezai AR, Nut-tin B, Heilman KM, Morecraft RJ, Rasmussen SA, Greenberg BD, Foote KD, Goodman WK. What's in a “smile?” Intra-operative observations of contralateral smiles induced by deep brain stimulation. Neurocase. 2004 Aug;10(4):271–9.

8. Hanh T Being Peace. Parallax Press, 1987.

9. Tamura R, Kameda T Are facial expressions contagious in the Japanese? Shinrigaku Kenkyu. 2006 Oct;77(4):377–82. Japanese.

Wild B, Erb M, Eyb M, Bartels M, Grodd W. Why are smiles contagious? An fMRI study of the interaction between perception of facial affect and facial movements. Psychiatry Res. 2003 May 1;123(1):17–36.

Wild B, Erb M, Bartels M. Are emotions contagious? Evoked emotions while viewing emotionally expressive faces: quality, quantity, time course and gender differences. Psychiatry Res. 2001 Jun 1;102(2):109–24.

10. Oliver C, Horsler K, Berg K, Bellamy G, Dick K, Griffiths E. Genomic imprinting and the expression of affect in Angelman syndrome: what's in the smile? J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2007 Jun;48(6):571–9.

11. Hennenlotter A, Schroeder U, Erhard P, Castrop F, Haslinger B, Stoecker D, Lange KW, Ceballos-Baumann AO. A common neural basis for receptive and expressive communication of pleasant facial affect. Neuroimage. 2005 Jun;26(2):581–91.

12. Okun MS, Bowers D, Springer U, Shapira NA, Malone D, Rezai AR, Nut-tin B, Heilman KM, Morecraft RJ, Rasmussen SA, Greenberg BD, Foote KD, Goodman WK. What's in a “smile?” Intra-operative observations of contralateral smiles induced by deep brain stimulation. Neurocase. 2004 Aug;10(4):271–9.

13. Moody EJ, McIntosh DN, Mann LJ, Weisser KR. More than mere mimicry? The influence of emotion on rapid facial reactions to faces. Emotion. 2007 May;7(2):447–57.

Falkenberg I, Bartels M, Wild B. Keep smiling! Facial reactions to emotional stimuli and their relationship to emotional contagion in patients with schizophrenia. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2008 Feb 23.

O'Doherty J, Winston J, Critchley H, Perrett D, Burt DM, Dolan RJ. Beauty in a smile: the role of medial orbitofrontal cortex in facial attractiveness. Neuropsychologia. 2003;41(2):147–55.

14. Finzi E, Wasserman E. Treatment of depression with botulinum toxin A: a case series. Dermatol Surg. 2006 May;32(5):645–9. This study was highly criticized by Alastair Carruthers, president of the American Society for Der-matologic Surgery, because of the brief follow-up period, small number of participants, lack of a comparison group, and the use of the patient's subjective reports. In other words, it may be a placebo effect brought about by the patient's belief that a prettier face will improve social interactions, thus promising a more optimistic future. On the other hand, any interruption of a behavior associated with negative mood may alter neural circuits that generate that mood.

15. Wild B, Rodden FA, Rapp A, Erb M, Grodd W, Ruch W. Humor and smiling: cortical regions selective for cognitive, affective, and volitional components. Neurology. 2006 Mar 28;66(6):887–93.

16. Bartolo A, Benuzzi F, Nocetti L, Baraldi P, Nichelli P. Humor comprehension and appreciation: an FMRI study. J Cogn Neurosci. 2006 Nov;18(11): 1789–98.

17. Moran JM, Wig GS, Adams RB Jr, Janata P, Kelley WM. Neural correlates of humor detection and appreciation. Neuroimage. 2004 Mar;21(3):1055–60.

Watson KK, Matthews BJ, Allman JM. Brain activation during sight gags and language-dependent humor. Cereb Cortex. 2007 Feb;17(2):314–24.

18. Hayashi T, Tsujii S, Iburi T, Tamanaha T, Yamagami K, Ishibashi R, Hori M, Sakamoto S, Ishii H, Murakami K. Laughter up-regulates the genes related to NK cell activity in diabetes. Biomed Res. 2008 Dec;28(6):281–5.

Hayashi T, Urayama O, Hori M, Sakamoto S, Nasir UM, Iwanaga S, Hayashi K, Suzuki F, Kawai K, Murakami K. Laughter modulates prorenin receptor gene expression in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Psychosom Res. 2007 Jun;62(6):703–6.

Hayashi T, Urayama O, Kawai K, Hayashi K, Iwanaga S, Ohta M, Saito T, Murakami K. Laughter regulates gene expression in patients with type 2 diabetes. Psychother Psychosom. 2006;75(1):62–5. Erratum in: Psychother Psychosom. 2006;75(2):106.

Bennett MP, Zeller JM, Rosenberg L, McCann J. The effect of mirthful laughter on stress and natural killer cell activity. Altern Ther Health Med. 2003 Mar–Apr;9(2):38–45.

Takahashi K, Iwase M, Yamashita K, Tatsumoto Y, Ue H, Kuratsune H, Shimizu A, Takeda M. The elevation of natural killer cell activity induced by laughter in a crossover designed study. Int J Mol Med. 2001 Dec;8(6):645–50.

19. Mitterschiffthaler MT, Fu CH, Dalton JA, Andrew CM, Williams SC. A functional MRI study of happy and sad affective states induced by classical music. Hum Brain Mapp. 2007 Nov;28(11):1150–62.

Blood AJ, Zatorre RJ. Intensely pleasurable responses to music correlate with activity in brain regions implicated in reward and emotion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Sep 25;98(20):11818–23.

20. Gallagher LM, Lagman R, Walsh D, Davis MP, Legrand SB. The clinical effects of music therapy in palliative medicine. Support Care Cancer. 2006 Aug;14(8):859–66.

21. Jacobs R, Harvey AS, Anderson V. Executive function following focal frontal lobe lesions: impact of timing of lesion on outcome. Cortex. 2007 Aug;43(6):792–805.

Counts SE, Nadeem M, Lad SP, Wuu J, Mufson EJ. Differential expression of synaptic proteins in the frontal and temporal cortex of elderly subjects with mild cognitive impairment. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2006 Jun;65(6):592–601.

22. Elston GN. Pyramidal cells of the frontal lobe: all the more spinous to think with. J Neurosci. 2000 Sep 15;20(18):RC95.

23. Hall PA, Fong GT, Epp LJ, Elias LJ. Executive function moderates the intention-behavior link for physical activity and dietary behavior. Psychol Health. 2008;23(3):309–26.

24. Carretti B, Borella E, De Beni R. Does strategic memory training improve the working memory performance of younger and older adults? Exp Psychol. 2007;54(4):311–20.

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O'Hara R, Brooks JO 3rd, Friedman L, Schroder CM, Morgan KS, Kraemer HC. Long-term effects of mnemonic training in community-dwelling older adults. J Psychiatr Res. 2007 Oct;41(7):585–90.

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101. Note: Since it is often inappropriate to conduct isolation experiments on humans, nonhuman experiments from many fields of inquiry are used to demonstrate that similar damage is caused to people who are placed in situations of social isolation.

Ibi D, Takuma K, Koike H, Mizoguchi H, Tsuritani K, Kuwahara Y, Kamei H, Nagai T, Yoneda Y, Nabeshima T, Yamada K. Social isolation rearing-induced impairment of the hippocampal neurogenesis is associated with deficits in spatial memory and emotion-related behaviors in juvenile mice. J Neurochem. 2008 May;105(3):921–32.

Bock J, Murmu RP, Ferdman N, Leshem M, Braun K. Refinement of dendritic and synaptic networks in the rodent anterior cingulate and or-bitofrontal cortex: critical impact of early and late social experience. Dev Neurobiol. 2008 Apr;68(5):685–95.

Fone KC, Porkess MV. Behavioural and neurochemical effects of post-weaning social isolation in rodents-Relevance to developmental neuropsy-chiatric disorders. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2008 Mar 18.

Pibiri F, Nelson M, Guidotti A, Costa E, Pinna G. Decreased corticolimbic allopregnanolone expression during social isolation enhances contextual fear: A model relevant for posttraumatic stress disorder. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Apr 8;105(14):5567–72.

102. Frankl, V. Man's Search for Meaning. Washington Square Press, 1959.

103. See our last book, Born to Believe, for an in-depth look at the placebo effect and the power that beliefs have on our physiological health.

104. Sharot T, Riccardi AM, Raio CM, Phelps EA. Neural mechanisms mediating optimism bias. Nature. 2007 Nov 1;450(7166):102–5.

105http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/positive-thinking/SR00009.

Kung S, Rummans TA, Colligan RC, Clark MM, Sloan JA, Novotny PJ, Huntington JL. Association of optimism-pessimism with quality of life in patients with head and neck and thyroid cancers. Mayo Clin Proc. 2006 Dec;81(12):1545–52.

106. Evans P, Forte D, Jacobs C, Fredhoi C, Aitchison E, Hucklebridge F, Clow A. Cortisol secretory activity in older people in relation to positive and negative well-being. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2007 Sep–Nov;32(8–10):922–30.

Schlotz W, Schulz P, Hellhammer J, Stone AA, Hellhammer DH. Trait anxiety moderates the impact of performance pressure on salivary cortisol in everyday life. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2006 May;31(4):459–72.

Lai JC, Evans PD, Ng SH, Chong AM, Siu OT, Chan CL, Ho SM, Ho RT, Chan P, Chan CC. Optimism, positive affectivity, and salivary cortisol. Br J Health Psychol. 2005 Nov;10(Pt 4):467–84.

107. Treharne GJ, Lyons AC, Booth DA, Kitas GD. Psychological well-being across 1 year with rheumatoid arthritis: coping resources as buffers of perceived stress. Br J Health Psychol. 2007 Sep;12(Pt 3):323–45.

Steptoe A, Marmo M, Wardle J. Positive affect and psychosocial processes related to health. Br J Psychol. 2007 Jun 27.

Martínez-Correa A, Reyes del Paso GA, García-León A, González-Jareño MI. [Relationship between dispositional optimism/pessimism and stress coping strategies] Psicothema. 2006 Feb;18(1):66–72.

Nes LS, Segerstrom SC. Dispositional optimism and coping: a meta-analytic review. Pers Soc Psychol Rev. 2006;10(3):235–51.

Schou I, Ekeberg Ø, Ruland CM. The mediating role of appraisal and coping in the relationship between optimism-pessimism and quality of life. Psy-chooncology. 2005 Sep;14(9):718–27.

108. Brummett BH, Helms MJ, Dahlstrom WG, Siegler IC. Prediction of all-cause mortality by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Optimism-Pessimism Scale scores: study of a college sample during a 40-year follow-up period. Mayo Clin Proc. 2006 Dec;81(12):1541–4.

109http://www.ppc.sas.upenn.edu/aboutus.htm.

110. Gillath O, Bunge SA, Shaver PR, Wendelken C, Mikulincer M. Attachment-style differences in the ability to suppress negative thoughts: exploring the neural correlates. Neuroimage. 2005 Dec;28(4):835–47.

111. Ray RD, Ochsner KN, Cooper JC, Robertson ER, Gabrieli JD, Gross JJ. Individual differences in trait rumination and the neural systems supporting cognitive reappraisal. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2005 Jun;5(2):156–68.

112. Orndorff, RL, et al. Quantum Dot Ex Vivo Labeling of Neuromuscular Synapses. Nano Lett. 2008 Feb 1.

113. Lei Y, Tang H, Yao L, Yu R, Feng M, Zou B. Applications of mesenchymal stem cells labeled with tat Peptide conjugated quantum dots to cell tracking in mouse body. Bioconjug Chem. 2008 Mar–Apr;19(2):421–7.

114. There are, however, a small group of scientists who hope to link quantum properties with consciousness, but at the moment, the research is theoretical. Even if evidence is found, there would be no way of telling if, or how, such properties influence our thoughts, let alone something that exists outside of our bodies and brains. At most, the theories suggest that quantum dynamics might explain the extraordinary shifts in consciousness that happen every second of our waking lives. However, I believe that simpler neuroscientific models can explain the same phenomena we observe when it comes to tracing the pathways of human awareness. For more on this, go to pubmed.gov and read the abstracts of the following:

Basar E, Güntekin B. A breakthrough in neuroscience needs a “Nebulous Cartesian System”: Oscillations, quantum dynamics and chaos in the brain and vegetative system. Int J Psychophysiol. 2007 Apr;64(1):108–22.

Persinger MA, Koren SA. A theory of neurophysics and quantum neuroscience: implications for brain function and the limits of consciousness. Int J Neurosci. 2007 Feb;117(2):157–75.

Bob P. Chaos, brain and divided consciousness. Acta Univ Carol Med Monogr. 2007;153:9-80.

Schwartz JM, Stapp HP, Beauregard M. Quantum physics in neuroscience and psychology: a neurophysical model of mind-brain interaction. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2005 Jun 29;360(1458):1309–27.

Sieb RA. The emergence of consciousness. Med Hypotheses. 2004;63(5): 900–4.

Korn H, Faure P. Is there chaos in the brain? II. Experimental evidence and related models. C R Biol. 2003 Sep;326(9):787–840.

Pastor-Gómez J. Quantum mechanics and brain: a critical review. Rev Neu-rol. 2002 Jul 1–15;35(1):87–94.

John ER. The neurophysics of consciousness. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2002 Jun;39(1):1–28.

115. Attwood J, Attwood C. The Passion Test. Hudson Street Press, 2007.

116. Taylor SE, Lerner JS, Sherman DK, Sage RM, McDowell NK. Are self-enhancing cognitions associated with healthy or unhealthy biological profiles? J Pers Soc Psychol. 2003 Oct;85(4):605–15.

117. Taylor SE, Kemeny ME, Reed GM, Bower JE, Gruenewald TL. Psychological resources, positive illusions, and health. Am Psychol. 2000 Jan;55(1):99–109.

118. Fournier M, De Ridder D, Bensing J. Optimism and adaptation to chronic disease: The role of optimism in relation to self-care options of type 1 diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Br J Health Psychol. 2002 Nov;7(Part 4):409–432.

119. Weinstein ND. Unrealistic optimism about susceptibility to health problems. J Behav Med. 1982 Dec;5(4):441–60.

120. Cohen S, Alper CM, Doyle WJ, Treanor JJ, Turner RB. Positive emotional style predicts resistance to illness after experimental exposure to rhinovirus or influenza a virus. Psychosom Med. 2006 Nov–Dec;68(6):809–15.

121. Dillard AJ, McCaul KD, Klein WM. Unrealistic optimism in smokers: implications for smoking myth endorsement and self-protective motivation. J Health Commun. 2006;11 Suppl 1:93–102.

122. Groot W, van den Brink HM. Optimism, pessimism and the compensating income variation of cardiovascular disease: a two-tiered quality of life stochastic frontier model. Soc Sci Med. 2007 Oct;65(7):1479–89.

123. Weber H, Vollmann M, Renner B. The spirited, the observant, and the disheartened: social concepts of optimism, realism, and pessimism. J Pers. 2007 Feb;75(1):169–97.

124. Sharot T, Riccardi AM, Raio CM, Phelps EA. Neural mechanisms mediating optimism bias. Nature. 2007 Nov 1;450(7166):102–5.

125. van der Velden PG, Kleber RJ, Fournier M, Grievink L, Drogendijk A, Ger-sons BP The association between dispositional optimism and mental health problems among disaster victims and a comparison group: A prospective study. J Affect Disord. 2007 Sep;102(1–3):35–45.

Pinquart M, Fröhlich C, Silbereisen RK. Optimism, pessimism, and change of psychological well-being in cancer patients. Psychol Health Med. 2007 Aug;12(4):421–32.

126. Maruta T, Colligan RC, Malinchoc M, Offord KP. Optimists vs pessimists: survival rate among medical patients over a 30-year period. Mayo Clin Proc. 2000 Feb;75(2):140–3. Erratum in: Mayo Clin Proc 2000 Mar;75(3):318.

Maruta T, Colligan RC, Malinchoc M, Offord KP. Optimism-pessimism assessed in the 1960s and self-reported health status 30 years later. Mayo Clin Proc. 2002 Aug;77(8):748–53.

CHAPTER 9. FINDING SERENITY (PAGES 170-214)

1. Lou HC, Nowak M, Kjaer TW. The mental self. Prog Brain Res. 2005;150: 197–204.

2. Brefczynski-Lewis JA, Lutz A, Schaefer HS, Levinson DB, Davidson RJ. Neural correlates of attentional expertise in long-term meditation practitioners. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jul 3;104(27):11483–8.

3. Musick MA, House JS, Williams DR. Attendance at religious services and mortality in a national sample. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 2004;45 (2):198–213.

4. Hill TD, Angel JL, Ellison CG, Angel RJ. Religious attendance and mortality: an 8-year follow-up of older Mexican Americans. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2005 Mar;60(2):S102–9.

5. Obisesan T, Livingston I, Trulear HD, Gillum F. Frequency of attendance at religious services, cardiovascular disease, metabolic risk factors and dietary intake in Americans: an age-stratified exploratory analysis. Int J Psychiatry Med. 2006;36(4):435–48.

6. Rostosky SS, Danner F, Riggle. (ed.). Is religiosity a protective factor against substance use in young adulthood? Only if you're straight! J Adolesc Health. 2007 May;40(5):440–7. The above longitudinal study contradicted earlier research showing that religion had a moderate buffering effect on the use of alcohol and marijuana. See: Stewart C. The influence of spirituality on substance use of college students. J Drug Educ. 2001;31(4):343–51.

7. Koenig HG, Pargament KI, Nielsen J. Religious coping and health status in medically ill hospitalized older adults. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1998 Sep;186(9): 513–21.

8. Pargament KI, Koenig HG, Tarakeshwar N, Hahn J. Religious struggle as a predictor of mortality among medically ill elderly patients: a 2-year longitudinal study. Arch Intern Med. 2001 Aug 13–27;161(15):1881–5.

9. Ray RD, Wilhelm FH, Gross JJ. All in the mind's eye? Anger rumination and reappraisal. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2008 Jan;94(1):133–45.

McLaughlin KA, Borkovec TD, Sibrava NJ. The effects of worry and rumination on affect states and cognitive activity. Behav Ther. 2007 Mar;38(1): 23–38.

Peled M, Moretti MM. Rumination on anger and sadness in adolescence: fueling of fury and deepening of despair. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2007 Mar;36(1):66–75.

McCullough ME, Orsulak P, Brandon A, Akers L. Rumination, fear, and cortisol: an in vivo study of interpersonal transgressions. Health Psychol. 2007 Jan;26(1):126–32.

Lavender A, Watkins E. Rumination and future thinking in depression. Br J Clin Psychol. 2004 Jun;43(Pt 2):129–42.

10. Ray RD, Ochsner KN, Cooper JC, Robertson ER, Gabrieli JD, Gross JJ. Individual differences in trait rumination and the neural systems supporting cognitive reappraisal. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2005 Jun;5(2):156–68.

11. Jerath R, Edry JW, Barnes VA, Jerath V. Physiology of long pranayamic breathing: neural respiratory elements may provide a mechanism that explains how slow deep breathing shifts the autonomic nervous system. Med Hypotheses. 2006;67(3):566–71.

12. Kjaer TW, Bertelsen C, Piccini P, Brooks D, Alving J, Lou HC. Increased dopamine tone during meditation-induced change of consciousness. Brain Res Cogn Brain Res. 2002 Apr;13(2):255–9.

13. Settergren G, Angdin M, Astudillo R, Gelinder S, Liska J, Lundberg JO, Weitzberg E. Decreased pulmonary vascular resistance during nasal breathing: modulation by endogenous nitric oxide from the paranasal sinuses. Acta Physiol Scand. 1998 Jul;163(3):235–9.

Lundberg JO, Settergren G, Gelinder S, Lundberg JM, Alving K, Weitzberg E. Inhalation of nasally derived nitric oxide modulates pulmonary function in humans. Acta Physiol Scand. 1996 Dec;158(4):343–7.

14. Pinto VL, Brunini TM, Ferraz MR, Okinga A, Mendes-Ribeiro AC. De pression and cardiovascular disease: role of nitric oxide. Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem. 2008 Apr;6(2):142–9.

Workman JL, Trainor BC, Finy MS, Nelson RJ. Inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide reduces anxiety-like responses to pair housing. Behav Brain Res. 2008 Feb 11;187(1):109–15.

Spiacci A Jr, Kanamaru F, Guimarães FS, Oliveira RM. nitric oxide-mediated anxiolytic-like and antidepressant-like effects in animal models of anxiety and depression. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2008 Jan;88(3):247–55.

15. Gallup A, Gallup G. Yawning as a brain cooling mechanism: nasal breathing and forehead cooling diminish the incidence of contagious yawning. Evolutionary Psychology. 2007. 5(1): 92–101. http://www.epjournal.net/filestore/ep0592101.pdf

16. Benson H. Timeless Healing. Scribner, 1996.

17. Bormann JE, Giffor AL, Shively M Smith TL, Rdwien L, Kelly A, et al. Effects of spiritual mantram repetition on HIV outcomes: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 2006;29:359-376.

18. Bormann JE, Becker S, Gershwin M, Kelly A, Pada L, Smith TL, Gifford AL. Relationship of frequent mantram repetition to emotional and spiritual well-being in healthcare workers. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2006 Sep–Oct;37(5):218–24. Bormann JE, Oman D, Kemppainen JK, Becker S, Gershwin M, Kelly A. Mantram repetition for stress management in veterans and employees: a critical incident study. J Adv Nurs. 2006 Mar;53(5):502–12.

Bormann JE, Smith TL, Becker S, Gershwin M, Pada L, Grudzinski AH, Nurmi EA. Efficacy of frequent mantram repetition on stress, quality of life, and spiritual well-being in veterans: a pilot study. J Holist Nurs. 2005 Dec;23(4):395–414.

19. Stevens SE, Hynan MT, Allen M, Braun MM, McCart MR. Are complex psychotherapies more effective than biofeedback, progressive muscle relaxation, or both? A meta-analysis. Psychol Rep. 2007 Feb;100(1):303–24. Kwekkeboom KL, Gretarsdottir E. Systematic review of relaxation interventions for pain. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2006;38(3):269–77.

Nickel C, Kettler C, Muehlbacher M, Lahmann C, Tritt K, Fartacek R, Bachler E, Rother N, Egger C, Rother WK, Loew TH, Nickel MK. Effect of progressive muscle relaxation in adolescent female bronchial asthma patients: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. J Psychosom Res. 2005 Dec;59(6):393–8.

de Paula AA, de Carvalho EC, dos Santos CB. The use of the “progressive muscle relaxation” technique for pain relief in gynecology and obstetrics. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2002 Sep–Oct;10(5):654–9.

Matsumoto M, Smith JC. Progressive muscle relaxation, breathing exercises, and ABC relaxation theory. J Clin Psychol. 2001 Dec;57(12):1551–7.

20. Lolak S, Connors GL, Sheridan MJ, Wise TN. Effects of progressive muscle relaxation training on anxiety and depression in patients enrolled in an out patient pulmonary rehabilitation program. Psychother Psychosom. 2008;77(2):119–25.

Yoo HJ, Ahn SH, Kim SB, Kim WK, Han OS. Efficacy of progressive muscle relaxation training and guided imagery in reducing chemotherapy side effects in patients with breast cancer and in improving their quality of life. Support Care Cancer. 2005 Oct;13(10):826–33.

21. Krystal AD. Treating the health, quality of life, and functional impairments in insomnia. J Clin Sleep Med. 2007 Feb 15;3(1):63–72.

Simeit R, Deck R, Conta-Marx B. Sleep management training for cancer patients with insomnia. Support Care Cancer. 2004 Mar;12(3):176–83.

Waters WF, Hurry MJ, Binks PG, Carney CE, Lajos LE, Fuller KH, Betz B, Johnson J, Anderson T, Tucci JM. Behavioral and hypnotic treatments for insomnia subtypes. Behav Sleep Med. 2003;1(2):81–101.

Means MK, Lichstein KL, Epperson MT, Johnson CT. Relaxation therapy for insomnia: nighttime and day time effects. Behav Res Ther. 2000 Jul;38(7):665–78.

22. Hernández-Ruiz E. Effect of music therapy on the anxiety levels and sleep patterns of abused women in shelters. J Music Ther. 2005 Sum-mer;42(2):140–58.

23. Carrico DJ, Peters KM, Diokno AC. Guided Imagery for Women with Interstitial Cystitis: Results of a Prospective, Randomized Controlled Pilot Study. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Jan 16.

Menzies V, Taylor AG, Bourguignon C. Effects of guided imagery on outcomes of pain, functional status, and self-efficacy in persons diagnosed with fibromyalgia. J Altern Complement Med. 2006 Jan–Feb;12(1):23–30.

Fors EA, Sexton H, Götestam KG. The effect of guided imagery and amitriptyline on daily fibromyalgia pain: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. J Psychiatr Res. 2002 May–Jun;36(3):179–87.

24. León-Pizarro C, Gich I, Barthe E, Rovirosa A, Farrús B, Casas F, Verger E, Biete A, Craven-Bartle J, Sierra J, Arcusa A. A randomized trial of the effect of training in relaxation and guided imagery techniques in improving psychological and quality-of-life indices for gynecologic and breast brachytherapy patients. Psychooncology. 2007 Nov;16(11):971–9.

Sloman R. Relaxation and imagery for anxiety and depression control in community patients with advanced cancer. Cancer Nurs. 2002 Dec;25(6):432–5.

Thompson MB, Coppens NM. The effects of guided imagery on anxiety levels and movement of clients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. Holist Nurs Pract. 1994 Jan;8(2):59–69.

25. Mackenzie A, Frawley GP. Preoperative hypnotherapy in the management of a child with anticipatory nausea and vomiting. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2007 Oct;35(5):784–7.

Omlor G, Kiewitz S, Pietschmann S, Roesler S. Effect of preoperative visualization therapy on postoperative outcome after inguinal hernia surgery and thyroid resection. Zentralbl Chir. 2000;125(4):380–5.

26. Lengacher CA, Bennett MP, Gonzalez L, Gilvary D, Cox CE, Cantor A, Jacobsen PB, Yang C, Djeu J. Immune responses to guided imagery during breast cancer treatment. Biol Res Nurs. 2008 Jan;9(3):205–14.

Gruzelier JH. A review of the impact of hypnosis, relaxation, guided imagery and individual differences on aspects of immunity and health. Stress. 2002 Jun;5(2):147–63.

27. Peres JF, Newberg AB, Mercante JP, Simão M, Albuquerque VE, Peres MJ, Nasello AG. Cerebral blood flow changes during retrieval of traumatic memories before and after psychotherapy: a SPECT study. Psychol Med. 2007 Oct;37(10):1481–91.

28. Sinha R, Lacadie C, Skudlarski P, Wexler BE. Neural circuits underlying emotional distress in humans. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1032:254–7.

29. Weydert JA, Shapiro DE, Acra SA, Monheim CJ, Chambers AS, Ball TM. Evaluation of guided imagery as treatment for recurrent abdominal pain in children: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Pediatr. 2006 Nov 8;6:29.

30. Meyers AW, Whelan JP, Murphy SM. Cognitive behavioral strategies in athletic performance enhancement. Prog Behav Modif. 1996;30:137-64.

Blumenstein B, Bar-Eli M, Tenenbaum G. The augmenting role of biofeed-back: effects of autogenic, imagery and music training on physiological indices and athletic performance. J Sports Sci. 1995 Aug;13(4):343–54.

31. Hudetz JA, Hudetz AG, Reddy DM. Effect of relaxation on working memory and the Bispectral Index of the EEG. Psychol Rep. 2004 Aug;95(1):53–70.

Hudetz JA, Hudetz AG, Klayman J. Relationship between relaxation by guided imagery and performance of working memory. Psychol Rep. 2000 Feb;86(1):15–20.

32. Williams M, Teasdale J, Segal Z, Kabat-Zinn-J. The Mindful Way through Depression. Guilford Press, 2007.

Hayes SC, et al. (eds.). Mindfulness and Acceptance. Guilford Press, 2004.

33. The author of this Christian mystical text is unknown, although it has been attributed to an English cloistered monk living in the fourteenth century. See Evelyn Underwood's adaptation, A Book of Contemplation the Which Is Called The Cloud of Unknowing, in Which a Soul is One with God, edited from a British Museum manuscript and published by John M. Watkins in 1922.

34. Keating T Intimacy With God. Crossroad Publishing Co, 1994.

35. van Uffelen JG, Chinapaw MJ, van Mechelen W, Hopman-Rock M. Walking or vitamin B for cognition in older adults with mild cognitive impairment? A randomized controlled trial. Br J Sports Med. 2008 May;42(5): 344–51.

van Uffelen JG, Chin A Paw MJ, Hopman-Rock M, van Mechelen W. The effect of walking and vitamin B supplementation on quality of life in community-dwelling adults with mild cognitive impairment: a randomized, controlled trial. Qual Life Res. 2007 Sep;16(7):1137–46.

36. Andel R, Crowe M, Pedersen NL, Fratiglioni L, Johansson B, Gatz M. Physical exercise at midlife and risk of dementia three decades later: a populationbased study of Swedish twins. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008 Jan;63(1): 62–6.

Rovio S, Kåreholt I, Helkala EL, Viitanen M, Winblad B, Tuomilehto J, Soininen H, Nissinen A, Kivipelto M. Leisure-time physical activity at midlife and the risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Lancet Neurol. 2005 Nov;4(11):705–11.

37. Ernst E, Canter PH. The Alexander technique: a systematic review of controlled clinical trials.” Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2003 Dec; 10(6):325–29.

Netz Y, Lidor R. Mood alterations in mindful versus aerobic exercise modes. J Psychol. 2003 Sep; 137(5):405–419.

Stallibrass C, Sissons P, Chalmers C. Randomized controlled trial of the Alexander technique for idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Clin Rehabil. 2002 Nov; 16(7):695–708.

Malmgren-Olsson EB, Bränholm IB. A comparison between three physiotherapy approaches with regard to health-related factors in patients with non-specific musculoskeletal disorders. Disabil Rehabil. 2002 Apr 15; 24(6): 308–17.

Johnson SK, Frederick J, Kaufman M, Mountjoy B. A controlled investigation of bodywork in multiple sclerosis. J Altern Complement Med. 1999 Jun; 5(3):237–43.

Laumer U, Bauer M, Fichter M, Milz H. Therapeutic effects of the Feldenkrais method “awareness through movement” in patients with eating disorders. Psychother Psychosom Med Psychol. 1997 May;47(5):170–80.

Stallibrass C. An evaluation of the Alexander technique for the management of disability in Parkinson's disease—a preliminary study. Clin Rehabil. 1997 Feb; 11(1):8–12.

38. Cacciatore TW, Horak FB, Henry SM. Improvement in automatic postural coordination following Alexander technique lessons in a person with low back pain. Phys Ther. 2005 Jun;85(6):565–78.

Dunn PA, Rogers DK. Feldenkrais sensory imagery and forward reach. Percept Mot Skills. 2000 Dec;91(3 Pt 1):755–7.

39. Seurinck R, Vingerhoets G, Vandemaele P, Deblaere K, Achten E. Trial pacing in mental rotation tasks. Neuroimage. 2005 May 1;25(4):1187–96.

Seidler RD, Noll DC. Neuroanatomical correlates of motor acquisition and motor transfer. J Neurophysiol. 2008 Feb 13.

Kiefer M, Sim EJ, Liebich S, Hauk O, Tanaka J. Experience-dependent plasticity of conceptual representations in human sensory-motor areas. J Cogn Neurosci. 2007 Mar;19(3):525–42.

40. Anh-Huong N, Hanh T Walking Meditation. Sounds True, 2006.

41. Spencer RM, Verstynen T, Brett M, Ivry R. Cerebellar activation during discrete and not continuous timed movements: An fMRI study. Neuroimage. 2007 Mar 23.

Bormann JE, Smith TL, Shively M, Dellefield ME, Gifford AL. Self-monitoring of a stress reduction technique using wrist-worn counters. J Healthc Qual. 2007 Jan–Feb;29(1):45–52.

Bernardi L, Sleight P, Bandinelli G, Cencetti S, Fattorini L, Wdowczyc-Szulc J, Lagi A. Effect of rosary prayer and yoga mantras on autonomic cardiovascular rhythms: comparative study. BMJ. 2001 Dec 22–29;323(7327): 1446–9.

Akshoomoff NA, Courchesne E, Townsend J. Attention coordination and anticipatory control. Int Rev Neurobiol. 1997;41:575-98.

42. Perry DW, Zatorre RJ, Petrides M, Alivisatos B, Meyer E, Evans AC. Localization of cerebral activity during simple singing. Neuroreport. 1999 Dec 16;10(18):3979–84.

43. Levine S. Healing into Life and Death. Doubleday, 1987.

44. Dua JK, Swinden ML. Effectiveness of negative-thought-reduction, meditation and placebo training treatment in reducing anger. Scand J Psychol. 1992;33(2):135–46.

45. Dua J, Price I. Effectiveness of training in negative thought reduction and positive thought increment in reducing thought-produced distress. J Genet Psychol. 1993 Mar;154(1):97–109.

46. Goleman D. Destructive Emotions. Bantam, 2003.

47. Guszkowska M. Effects of exercise on anxiety, depression and mood. Psychi-atr Pol. 2004 Jul–Aug;38(4):611–20.

Scully D, Kremer J, Meade MM, Graham R, Dudgeon K. Physical exercise and psychological well being: a critical review. Br J Sports Med. 1998 Jun;32(2):111–20.

Byrne A, Byrne DG. The effect of exercise on depression, anxiety and other mood states: a review. J Psychosom Res. 1993 Sep;37(6):565–74.

Petruzzello SJ, Landers DM, Hatfield BD, Kubitz KA, Salazar W. A meta-analysis on the anxiety-reducing effects of acute and chronic exercise. Outcomes and mechanisms. Sports Med. 1991 Mar;11(3):143–82.

48. Grodnitzky GR, Tafrate RC. Imaginal exposure for anger reduction in adult outpatients: a pilot study. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2000 Sep–Dec;31(3–4):259–79.

49. Maio GR, Thomas G, Fincham FD, Carnelley KB. Unraveling the role of forgiveness in family relationships. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2008 Feb;94(2): 307–19.

50. Levenson MR, Aldwin CM, Yancura L. Positive emotional change: mediating effects of forgiveness and spirituality. Explore (NY). 2006 Nov–Dec;2(6):498–508.

51. Rye MS, Pargament KI. Forgiveness and romantic relationships in college: can it heal the wounded heart? J Clin Psychol. 2002 Apr;58(4):419–41.

52. Worthington EL Jr, Witvliet CV, Pietrini P, Miller AJ. Forgiveness, health, and well-being: a review of evidence for emotional versus decisional forgiveness, dispositional forgivingness, and reduced unforgiveness. J Behav Med. 2007 Aug;30(4):291–302.

Friedberg JP, Suchday S, Shelov DV. The impact of forgiveness on cardiovascular reactivity and recovery. Int J Psychophysiol. 2007 Aug;65(2):87–94.

Lawler KA, Younger JW, Piferi RL, Jobe RL, Edmondson KA, Jones WH. The unique effects of forgiveness on health: an exploration of pathways. J Behav Med. 2005 Apr;28(2):157–67.

Lawler KA, Younger JW, Piferi RL, Billington E, Jobe R, Edmondson K, Jones WH. A change of heart: cardiovascular correlates of forgiveness in response to interpersonal conflict. J Behav Med. 2003 Oct;26(5):373–93.

53. Mullet E, Barros J, Frongia L, Usaï V, Neto F, Shafighi SR. Religious involvement and the forgiving personality. J Pers. 2003 Feb;71(1):1–19.

54. Spiers A. Forgiveness as a secondary prevention strategy for victims of interpersonal crime. Australas Psychiatry. 2004 Sep;12(3):261–3.

55. Harris AH, Luskin F, Norman SB, Standard S, Bruning J, Evans S, Thore-sen CE. Effects of a group forgiveness intervention on forgiveness, perceived stress, and trait-anger. J Clin Psychol. 2006 Jun;62(6):715–33. See also research links at http://www.forgiving.org.

56. Luskin F Data on Effective Forgiveness Methodologies, Stanford Forgiveness Projects—Research Applications. Press release of ongoing research: http://www.forgiving.org/campaign/press/doefm_fredluskin.asp.

57. Ritskes R, Ritskes-Hoitinga M, Stødkilde-Jørgensen H, Bærentsen K, Hart-man T MRI scanning during Zen meditation: The picture of enlightenment? Proceedings of the International conference of the Transnational Network for the study of Physical, Psychological and Spiritual Wellbeing, Sydney, Australia, July 2002.

CHAPTER 10. COMPASSIONATE COMMUNICATION (PAGES 215-240)

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19. We did find one interesting incongruency in our studies. When Compassionate Communication was introduced to a group of community college students who were taking a course in the anthropology of religion, most maintained their interest in outer goals and pursuits. Getting better grades, completing school, and finding a career were the most commonly cited desires, whereas qualities like happiness, contentment, or peace were rarely mentioned. When they were, the person was usually female. Overall, the measurement of intimacy only slightly improved, and the desire of some students to openly dialogue with strangers declined. Several things might account for the difference from the religious groups we've studied. First, age: younger people have less experience with communication and intimacy, and thus may not be able to improve much with strangers. Second, college students are less focused on issues of intimacy usually associated with long-term relationships and marriage. They're in class because they want to graduate. In contrast, the adults at our workshops are there because they are explicitly interested in the experiments we conduct. Third, the day we “tested” the students, the air-conditioning wasn't working. The room was 97 degrees, certainly not the ideal environment in which to practice meditation.

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