The Folly of Fools: The Logic of Deceit and Self-Deception in Human Life - Robert Trivers (2011)



Parent/offspring relations: Trivers 1974; reciprocal altruism: Trivers 1971.

Sex differences: Trivers 1972; sex ratio: Trivers and Willard 1973, Trivers and Hare 1976.

Within our genomes: Burt and Trivers 2006.

Stick insects: Brock 1999; at least fifty million years: Wedman et al 2007.

10 Behavioral cues to human deception: DePaolo et al 2003, Vrij 2008; accuracy of detection: Bond and DePaolo 2006; suppression versus faking : Craig et al 1991, Larochette et al 2006; cognitive load a critical variable:Vrij 2004, Vrij et al 2006.

11 By no means always a delay prior to lying: Morgan et al 2009; pitch of voice: DePaolo and Kashy 2003, Vrij 2008; displacement activities: Troisi 2002; nervousness as a weak factor: Vrij 2004, 2008.

12 Cognitive load and blurting out: Wegner 2009; common verbal features: Newman et al 2003.

13 Lies are detected 20 percent of the time: DePaolo et al 1996; see also DePaolo et al 1998.

14 Ignorance and confidence: Ehrlinger et al 2008, Kruger and Dunning 1999.

15 “Beneffectance,” active voice, man and telephone pole: Greenwald 1980; BMW owners: Johansson-Stenman and Martinsson 2006.

16 Self-inflation effect, high school students, academics: Greenwald 1980; general review: Alicke and Sedikides 2009, Guenther and Alicke 2010; morphing faces: Epley and Whitchurch 2008.

17 Japan and China: Alicke and Sedikides 2009, Kobayashi and Greenwald 2003; area of the brain for self-inflation: Kwan et al 2007; narcissists high in dominance and power: Campbell et al 2007; overconfident, over-bet, and persistent in their delusions: Campbell 2004.

18 Contrast two sets of college students: Fein and Spencer 1997.

19 “Us” paired with nonsense syllables: Perdue et al 1990; generalize bad to out-group, good to in-group: Maas et al 1989; smiles imputed to in-group members: Beaupre and Hess 2003; smile intensity predicts longevity : Abel and Kruger 2010.

20 Monkeys: Mahajan et al 2011.

21 Power prime: Galinksy et al 2006; Churchill: Mukerjee 2010.

22 Moral hypocrisy: Batson et al 1999; under cognitive load, moral bias toward self vanishes: Valdesolo and DeStano 2008; predictable and unpredictable shocks in rats: Weiss 1970; effects of perceived control in humans: Lykken et al 1972.

23 Illusion of control: Langer and Roth 1975; in stockbrokers: Fenton-O’C-reavy et al 2003; illusory pattern recognition: Whitson and Galinksy 2008.

25 Victim/perpetrator: Baumeister et al 1990.

28 Self-deception and inefficient mental systems include misapprehension of reality: Peterson et al 2002; failure to respond to error: Peterson et al 2003.


30 Frequency-dependent selection in butterflies: Sheppard 1959; for matched pictures of the butterfly models and mimics: Owen 1971.

31 Brood parasites in birds: Davies 2000; almost everything in this section can be found there.

32 Individual species specialized to lay eggs: Gibbs et al 2000; advantageous to count eggs: Lyon 2003; single cuckoo’s begging call mimicking entire brood: Davies et al 1998; hawk cuckoo in Japan: Tanaka and Ubeda 2005, Tanaka et al 2005.

33 Importance of recognition errors in reed warblers: Davies et al 1996, Brooke et al 1998.

34 “Mafia-like” Soler et al 1995, Hoover and Robinson 2007; cultural transmission: Davies and Welbergen 2009.

35 Ants: Barbero et al 2009; ant mimics: Maderspracher and Stensmyr 2011.

37 Monkey and ape brains: Byrne and Corp 2004.

38 Mimicry in general: Wickler 1968; fireflies: El-Hani et al 2010, Lloyd 1986; orchids: Jersakova et al 2006; deceptive orchids more outbred: Cozzolino and Widmer 2005.

39 Bluegill sunfish: Dominey 1980, Gross 1982; blister beetle: Saul-Gershenz and Millar 2006.

40 In mixed-species flocks: Greig-Smith 1978; see also use by drongos to steal food from meerkats, Flower 2010; to separate warring siblings: Spellerberg 1971, and more generally, Wiebe and Bartolotti 2000; as a paternity guard: Moller 1990; antelopes: Bro-Jorgensen and Pangle 2010; each skin-color cell of an octopus: Hanlon et al 2007.

41 Adjusting its color to each new surface: Barbosa et al 2007; mimic flounders: Hanlon and Conroy 2008; randomly displaying variant phenotypes: Hanlon et al 1999; squid female mimic: Hanlon et al 2005; bird distraction displays: Sordahl 1986.

42 Crakes: source unknown; fake butterfly eggs: Gilbert 1982; pronghorn mother: Byers and Byers 1983.

44 Wasp status badges: Tibbetts and Dale 2004; key perceptual factor: Tibbetts and Izzo 2010; sparrow status badges: Rohwer 1977, Rohwer and Rohwer 1978, Rohwer and Ewald 1981, Moller and Swaddle 1987.

46 Ravens adjust behavior to context and competitors: Bugnyar and Heinrich 2006; cachers and raiders: Bugnyar and Kotrschal 2002; see around an obstacle: Bugnyar et al 2004; jays: Dally et al 2004, 2006; gray squirrels:Leaver et al 2007; chimps hiding erections: de Waal 1982.

47 Mantis shrimps: Steger and Caldwell 1983, Caldwell 1986, Adams and Caldwell 1990; fiddler crabs: Lailvaux et al 2009.

48 Hide objects behind back: de Waal 1982; throw object: de Waal 1986; cooperation modeled as prisoner’s dilemma: Axelrod and Hamilton 1981; more recent work reviewed: Trivers 2005.

49 I am most grateful to Karl Sigmund for suggesting this entire page.


54 Neurophysiology of action: Libet 2004; we also have an illusion of conscious will, one we actively work to maintain: Wegner 2002.

55 A novel experiment: Soon et al 2008.

56 Flip side: Libet 2004, Wegner 2002; thought suppression in the lab: Anderson et al 2004.

57 Ironic effects of thought suppression: Wegner 1989, 2009, Wegner et al 2004.

58 Neural inhibition of deception area: Karim et al 2009.

59 Brains of pathological liars: Yang et al 2007; jugglers: Scholz et al 2009; unconscious voice recognition experiments: Gur and Sackeim 1979.

61 Unconscious facial recognition: Bobes et al 2004; voice recognition in birds: Margoliash and Konishi 1985.

62 Anosognosia: Ramachandran 2009.

63 Response time to threatening words: Nardone et al 2008; dominance reversal in birds: reviewed in Trivers 1985.

64 IAT: Greenwald et al 1998; improvements in methodology: Greenwald et al 2003; general IAT effects: Greenwald et al 2009.

65 IAT for racial preferences: Nosek et al 2002; effects of racial prime on academic performance: Steele and Aronson 1995; effects of racial bias on executive control of the biased: Richeson and Shelton 2003.

66 False confessions: Kassin 2005, Kassin and Gudjonsson 2005; disassociation under torture: Ray et al 2006; high disassociators and interference on Stroop: Freyd et al 1998.

67 False memories of child abuse: McNally 2003, Clancy 2009.

71 Placebo effects in general: Benedetti 2009, Price et al 2008; rubbing is good: Saradeth et al 1994; so are sham devices: Kaptchuk et al 2006; homeopathic effects are placebo effects: Shang et al 2005.

72 Color of pills: de Craen et al 1996; angina surgery: Cobb et al 1959; arthroscopic surgery: Moseley et al 1996.

73 Placebo and pain: Wager et al 2004, Benedetti 2009; I thank Anders Moller for the quote from unpublished work; meta-analysis of placebo and depression: Fournier et al 2010.

74 Auto-stimulatory effects on female sexuality: Palace 1995; caffeine and cyclists: Beedie et al 2006; placebo effect out of a placebo effect: Kaptchuk et al 2010.

75 Placebo and suggestibility: Benedetti 2009; hypnosis and Stroop test: Raz et al 2002; Stroop test: Stroop 1935; immune benefits of hypnosis: Gruzeller 2002.


77 Hamilton’s rule: Hamilton 1964.

78 Self-deception regarding parental investment: Eibach and Mock 2011

79 Paternal grandmothers: Fox et al 2010.

80 Parent/offspring conflict: Trivers 1974, Trivers 1985.

82 High disassociators and interference on Stroop: Freyd et al 1998; early discovery of imprinted genes: Haig and Westoby 1989.

83 Conflict between Igf2 and Igf2r: Haig and Graham 1991; evidence for Haig’s rule: Haig 2004, Burt and Trivers 2006; chimeric mice: Keverne et al 1996.

84 Selves-deception: Burt and Trivers 2006; imprinting and genes in the brain: Gregg et al 2010; paternal genes for maternal Li et al 1999, Curley et al 2004; incest: Haig 1999.

86 I am indebted to David Haig for the notion that imprinting becomes less important with increasing adult age.

87 Children’s reaction to a new half-sibling: Schlomer et al 2010.

88 Variety of children’s deception: Reddy 2007.

89 How often children lie: Wilson et al 2003; white lies: Talwar et al 2007; temper tantrums in chimps and pelicans: reviewed in Trivers 1985; fetal deception during pregnancy: Haig 1993.

90 Intelligence and deception in children: Lewis 1993.

91 Smiling at victim and deception in children: Talwar et al 2007; dominance and deception: Keating and Heitman 1994.


96 Investment and genes: Trivers 1972; asexual species small, frequent extinction: Bell 1982.

97 Bluegill sunfish single-siders: Gross et al 2007.

99 Human female and male choice: Thornhill and Gangestad 2008.

100 Attribution of relatedness: Daly and Wilson 1982.

101 Creating artificial parental resemblance: Platek et al 2004; male sexual jealousy: Daly et al 1982.

103 Duck re-raped by mate: Barash 1977; women and men respond to infidelity: Daly et al 1982; women are more attractive at the time of ovulation: Thornhill and Gangestad 2008; derogate the looks of other women more: Fisher 2004; in several clubs in Vienna: Grammer et al 2004.

104 Preferences shift at ovulation to signs of genetic quality: Thornhill and Gangestad 2008; lap dancers: Miller et al 2007; genetic matching lowers female sexual interest: Garver-Apgar et al 2006; women’s sense of smell more acute: Yousem et al 1999; especially at ovulation: Thornhill et al 2003.

105 Women are better at reading facial expressions: Williams and Mattingley 2006; women’s brains tend to act more symmetrically: Kovalev et al 2003; men deceive themselves about women’s sexual interest: Haselton 2003.

106 Two sexes introduced together for ten minutes: Grammer et al 2000; male denial of homosexual tendencies: Adams et al 1996; for a possible alternative view of the latter, Meier et al 2006.

108 People have a bias toward seeing improvement: Karney and Coombs 2000; both spouses reported steady improvement: Frye and Karney 2004; self-justification as assassin of marriage: Tavris and Aronson 2007.

111 Elin Woods: National Enquirer April 2010, National Enquirer December 2009, Vecsey 2010.


115 Parasites arrayed against immune systems: for an excellent general review of the two-sided interaction, Schmidt-Hempel 2011.

116 The immune system sends many cellular types: Murphy et al 2008; immune system as sixth sense: Blalock and Smith 2007.

117 Immune system is expensive: Murphy et al 2008.

118 Metabolic cost of fever and immune response: Lochmiller and Deerenberg 2000, Baracos et al 1987.

119 Sickness Dantzer and Kelley 2007.

120 Sleep beneficial for immune function: Cohen et al 2009, Bryant et al 2004; different species of mammals: Preston et al 2009.

121 The lowest testosterone levels: Gray and Campbell 2009, Burnham et al 2003, Muller et al 2009; males with higher testosterone are more likely to become infected: Muhlenbein et al 2006, Muhlenbein 2006, Muhlenbein 2008.

122 Degree of fat-free muscle mass: Lassek and Gaulin 2009; stress: Segerstrom and Miller 2004; arithmetic: Sokoloff et al 1955; brain’s resting energy cost remains virtually constant: Raichle and Gusnard 2002, Clarke and Sokoloff 1999.

123 Brain is the most genetically active tissue: Hsiao et al 2001.

124 Brightly colored males chosen for their parasite-resistant genes: Hamilton and Zuk 1982; honeybee associative learning: Mallon et al 2003; bird brain size and immunity: Moller et al 2005.

125 River otters and nematode worms, Scherr and Bowman 2009; series of experiments writing about trauma: Pennebaker 1997, Petrie et al 1998; for effects on HIV: Petrie et al 2004.

126 A recent review of about 150 studies: Frattaroli 2006; in New World Amerindian religions; as one psychologist drily notes: Pennebaker 1997.

127 Emotion words and pronouns: Ramirez-Esparza and Pennebaker 2006; undisclosed trauma and sexual trauma: Pennebaker 2011; suicide support groups: Pennebaker and O’Heeron 1984; chance of reemployment: Spera et al 1994.

128 Expressive group therapy: Belanoff et al 2004; deny HIV-positive statu.s: Strachan et al 2007; higher survival of HIV-positive men who are out of the closet: Cole et al 1996a (study corrected for unsafe sex).

129 HIV-positive women: Eisenberger et al 2003; hide your heterosexual identity: Sullivan, 2010.

130 Better health for HIV-negative men out of closet: Cole et al 1996b; rejection-sensitive men: Cole et al 1997; direct experimental tests: Rosenkrantz et al 2003; response to vaccines: Marsland et al 2006, Cohen et al 2006; in general: Marsland et al 2007.

131 I am grateful to Srinivas Narayanan for help producing the first and third paragraphs; effects on older people: Pennebaker 1997.

132 Monkey music: Snowdon and Tele 2009; Musak, jazz, and noise: Charnetski and Brennan 1998; injecting cancer cells into mice: Nunez et al 2002; Bach’s music: le Roux et al 2007; playing music appears to work even better than listening to it: Kuhn 2002.

133 The original experiment on positivity: Mather and Carstenson 2003; results are true among Asians: Kwon et al 2009; positive remembered better: Charles et al 2003; amygdala: Mather et al 2004.

134 Older people preferentially look at: Isaacowitz et al 2008; until at exactly sixty: Nosek et al 2002.

135 Old people cranky: Henry et al 2009.

136 Immune response and survival in birds: Moller and Saino 2004, Hanssen et al 2004; optimism: Segerstrom et al 1998, Segerstrom and Miller 2004; a recent study: Segerstrom 2010.


139 The psychology of self-deception: covered in von Hippell and Trivers 2011, Hallinan 2009, and Tavris and Aronson 2007.

141 Testing a strip: Ditto and Lopez 2002; listening to a tape describing the dangers of smoking; avoid taking HIV tests: Dawson et al 2006; chosen for a prospective date: Wilson et al 2004.

142 Capital B or the number 13: Balcetis and Dunning 2006; children draw coins larger: Bruner and Goodman 1947; thirst primed, gardening made fun: Veltkamp et al 2008; capital punishment: Lord et al 1979.

143 More easily remember positive information: D’Argembeau et al 2008, Green et al 2008; telling others: Coman et al 2009, Cuc et al 2007; differential rehearsal and biased memory: Gonsalves et al 2004, Gonsalves and Paller 2000; biased memory of skills: Conway and Ross 1984; men and women both remember: Tavris and Aronson 2007.

144 Memory continually re-created: Loftus 1996; health information distorted: Croyle et al 2006; inventive memory: Mark Twain, numerous times.

145 The illusion of improvement: Ross and Wilson 2002, Wilson and Ross 2001; biased reporting and argumentation: Mercier and Sperber 2011; deterministic view and cheating: Vohs and Schooler 2008; “unintentional” cheating: von Hippell et al 2005.

146 Sit next to the handicapped: Snyder et al 1979; predicting future feelings: Gilbert 2006.

148 Sounds that are coming toward us: Neuhoff 1998, 2001; general rules that work well in most situations: Kahneman and Tversky 1971; Haselton and Nettle 2006; in the words of one psychologist: Wegner 2009.

150 A coauthor decides that an article is not fraudulent: Chapter 12 in Trivers et al 2009.

151 Beetle facing backwards, Oreodera glauca; fish: Wickler 1968; for an excellent review of cognitive dissonance and self-justification, covering much of the material here, see Tavris and Aronson 2007.

154 Two experts: Tavris and Aronson 2007.

155 Cognitive dissonance in monkeys and young children: Egan et al 2007, Egan et al 2010.


158 Stock trading by amateurs: Barber and Odean 2001; overconfidence and trading volume: Glaser and Weber, 2007.

159 Overconfidence in currency markets: Oberlechner and Osler 2008; arithmetic contests: Vandegrift and Yavas 2009; thrill seeking and overtrading in Finnish men: Grinblatt and Keloharju 2008.

160 Agent versus object metaphors: Morris et al 2007.

161 Metaphor is a key part of language: Pinker 2007, Thibodeau and Boroditsky 2011; invert meaning: Hochschild, 2004; euphemism treadmill: Pinker 1994.

162 Concepts are in charge, not words; you relax when euphemism treadmill stops: Pinker 1994.

163 Switch from “sex” to “gender”: Haig 2004b; the “awful” German language :; see also Boroditsky et al 2003.

164 Name-letter effect: Nuttin 1985, 1987.

165 Young Japanese women: Kitayama and Karasawa 1997; letters that are rarely encountered: Nuttin 1987; alleged widespread important effects: Pelham et al 2002; would create a spurious correlation: Simonsohn 2011.

166 Name-letter effect on academic performance: Nelson and Simmons 2007; aspects of early parental style: DeHart et al 2006.

167 Daily events can affect one’s name-letter bias: DeHart and Pelham 2007; deceiving down: Hartung 1988.

168 Face-ism is lower in African Americans: Zuckerman and Kieffer 1994.

169 Face-ism and the two sexes: Archer et al 1983; men shown in relatively intellectual professions: Matthews 2007; politicians’ self-presentations: Konrath and Schwartz 2007.

170 George W. Bush’s head: Calogero and Mullen 2008.

171 Anti-spam: Stone 2006.

173 Self-deception and humor: Lynch 2010, Lynch and Trivers 2011; tickling a rat will produce laughter-like sounds: Panksepp and Burgdorf 2003; chimpanzees will pant-laugh: Matsusaka 2004.

174 Split personalities: Hilgard 1977.

176 Bernie Madoff: Henriques 2010.

177 A book on gullibility: Greenspan 2009.

178 You’re experiencing the ride: New York Times.

181 Classic lie detector test (accuracy overstated): Reid and Inbau 1977; neurophysiological lie detectors: Harris 2010, Abe et al 2007, Nunez et al 2005, Kozel et al 2005.


184 For the French counterpart of the NTSB with less exacting standards: Traufetter 2010; Air Florida Flight 90: Trivers and Newton 1982.

187 More accidents occur when the pilot is flying: NTSB 1994.

188 Korea Airlines: Gladwell 2008; nurses and surgeons: Pronovost and Vohr 2010.

189 Gol Flight 1907: Langewiesche 2009.

191 Eldar takes command: flot_Flight _593.

192 Pilot error said to cause 80 percent of accidents: F. Kennedy Jr. crash: Vulliamy 1999.

193 Kirksville, Missouri, crash: Wald 2006.

194 The current FAA rules: Goo 2006; Delta and forty-eight hours rest: Negroni 2009.

195 Long history of alarming behavior under icing conditions: Engelberg and Bryant 1995.

198 Buffalo crash: Freeman and Wilber 2009.

199 Air Transport Association opposing safety improvements: Hall 2005.

200 Bush administration dropped the ball: Lichtblau 2005, Ridgeway 2004.

201 Feynman concluded: Feynman 1988; see also Vaughan 1996.

202 Example of how not to do statistics: Kitchens 1998.

203 Evidence presented to invite rebuttal: Tufte 1997.

205 Columbia disaster: Langewiesche 2003, Sanger 2003.

206 Low-level engineers alarmed: Glanz and Schwartz 2003.

208 Safety office a fraud: Sanger 2003; round table in the conference room: Schwartz 2005; self-criticism in organizations: Wildavsky 1972.

209 EgyptAir : Langewiesche 2001;

212 Saved by lack of self-deception: Wilson 2009.


218 Slaughter and dispossession of an entire people: Stannard 1992.

219 Columbus in Hispaniola: Stannard 1992.

221 Deliberate infection via smallpox blankets: from great leaders: Diamond 2006.

222 Frequent US wars against nearby countries: Loewen 2007.

223 United States alone now spends almost as much on warfare as rest of world: Norton and Taylor 2009.

224 US history textbooks: Loewen 2007.

226 Civil War: Faust 2008; later history of African Americans was in some ways more dreadful: Blackmon 2008.

227 Rewriting of Japanese history: Rose 2006, Masalski 2001.

228 Cromwell: Siochru 2008.

229 Deletion of all references to the role of the Japanese Imperial Army in Okinawa: Oshini 2007.

230 Genocide against Armenians: Fisk 2005; elementary-school students forced to watch film: Rainsford 2009.

231 Genocide is presumably never pretty: Fisk 2005.

233 Even by 1920: McCarthy 1990; Zionist project set from the beginning: Flapan 1987.

234 “Could also affect the history of the future”: Peretz 1984; From Time Immemorial: Peters 1984; for a detailed unraveling of the hoax: Finkelstein 2003; denial of Palestinian history built into curricula: for 1948, Chomsky and Pappe 2010.

235 Founding of the state of Israel: Flapan 1987.

236 All the land, part of which their distant ancestors may once have occupied: El-Haj 2001; Arabs reject 1928 assembly: Porath 1974; Eban 1973.

237 War of 1947–1948: Flapan 1987; secret agreement with Abdullah of Transjordan: Shlaim 1988.

238 Ethnic cleansing: Morris 1987, Pappe 2006; mal-genetics: Finkelstein 2005.

239 Compensation for property stolen by Nazis: Finkelstein 2003.

241 US is the elephant in the room: Chomsky 1983; Christian Zionism: Collins 2007.

242 In 1891, four hundred people: Mead 2008, Oren 2007; Harry Truman and Israel: Radosh and Radosh 2009.

243 Rumsfeld and Bush: Draper 2009; for a raving US Christian Zionist, see Hagee 2006.

244 With full bells and whistles: see organisms described by Dwyer 2011 and Finkelstein 2005; the missing “the”: Fisk 2008.

245 The truth about Israel’s theft of Arab land and water: Zertal and Eldar 2007; what can be said about Israel in Israel: Carey and Shainin 2002.


247 Four main causes: Wrangham 1999.

248 Napoleon’s invasion of Russia: Lieven 2010.

249 Chimpanzee raiding: Wrangham and Peterson, 1996, Wrangham 2006; recently, remarkable evidence: Mitani et al 2010.

250 14 percent of human mortality: Bowles 2009; a percentage that thankfully has declined steadily: Pinker 2011.

252 Self-deception encourages warfare: Tuchman 1984.

253 Swimming: Starek and Keating 1991.

254 Men less likely to read facial expressions correctly: Williams and Mattingley 2006.

255 Men less likely to remember emotional information: Bloise and Johnson 2007, Canli et al 2002; in experiments less compassionate: Singer et al 2006, but see Vol et al 2008.

256 Home-field advantage in sports: Moskowitz and Wertheim 2011; boost in testosterone on home field: Neave 2003; human holocaust such as World War I: Johnson 2004; for self-deception and coping by the soldiers on the front, see Watson 2006.

258 Avocadoes and tomatoes, Noam Chomsky numerous times; a blunder into a catastrophe: two books give most of the details cited, Ricks 2006, Packer 2005.

259 An ambitious five-year plan: Wesley Clark, democracynow.org

260 Deliberative versus instrumental phase: Fujita et al 2007.

261 The decision had to be sold to the larger country: Rich 2006; “could there be 100 percent certainty?”: Lelyveld 2011.

263 Contrast with World War II is instructive: Fallow 2004; working groups walled off from decision-makers: Fallow 2004.

264 Identical forces were at work in the UK: Price 2010.

269 As shown conclusively later, ; second Qana massacre

270 Israeli commentators: Milne 2008; talking heads on US television: Governor Corzine, George Will, Governor Sanford, ex-Governor Romney, Senator McConnell.

271 Savagery continued for seventeen days: Finkelstein 2010; someone forgot to tell the soldiers: Macintyre 2009, Breaking the Silence 2009; for historical background and logic of the Gaza front see Shlaim 2009.

272 Sold under patently false pretenses: Siegman 2009.

274 Congo rapes: Peterman et al 2011.


278 Religion is a viral meme: Dawkins 2006, Dennett 2006; one such proponent of the meme-centered view: Dennett 2007.

280 Religion expected to increase group cooperation: Norenzayan and Shariff 2008; pair of eyes on computer screen: Burnham and Hare 2007; God prime: Shariff and Norenzayan 2007; fear of God may reduce cost of selfish Johnson 2009.

281 Religiosity and higher false opinions of self: Trimble 1997; religious sects outlast secular: Sosis and Alcorta 2003; more costly requirements better: Sosis and Bressler 2003.

283 Male God and anti-female see Ruether 2009.

285 Religion and health: Lee and Newberg 2005.

286 Church attendance predicts later healthy Gillings et al 1996.

288 Less ACC firing and religious belief: Inzlicht et al 2009; parasites and religious diversity: Fincher and Thornhill 2008a.

289 Linguistic diversity: Fincher and Thornhill 2008b.

290 High-parasite-load societies appear to be more xenophobic: Fincher et al 2008, Thornhill et al 2009, Schaller and Murray 2008, Faulkener et al 2004; the mere sight of someone else’s disease symptoms increases immune response of perceiver: Schaller et al 2010.

292 Christianity’s change after Constantin: Wright 2009.

293 Islam provides a nice example: Wright 2009.

295 Biases in between-group transfers and Jewish in-group bias: see Shahak 1994.

299 Effects of intercessory prayer: Benson et al 2006.

300 Support for suicide attacks: Ginges et al 2009.


306 Gravity bends light: shown by Arthur Eddington in 1919; ant ratios of investment: Trivers and Hare 1976; recent work reviewed: West 2009.

308 Langur male infanticide: reviewed in Trivers 1985; DNA evidence: Borries et al 1999.

309 Aggression good for species: Lorenz 1966.

311 Market forces will naturally constrain the cost of deception: for an account of recent resurrections of this fallacy, see Krugman and Wells 2011 and Madrick 2011; see also Krugman 2009.

312 Trait evolved to fit the laboratory: see relevant chapters in Hammerstein 2003; for a review of the fallacy, Trivers 2005.

313 Infatuation with beautiful mathematics: Krugman 2009.

318 “Wolf Man”: Schatzman 1973; for the malignant cultural phenomenon that Freudianism was in the US: Torrey 1992.

319 Freud’s quote: Rosenzweig, 1997; Feynman’s 1964 lecture given to Cornell students:


323 David Haig’s genes do not care about him.

331 Mindful meditation: Davidson et al 2003.

335 Japanese nuclear safety: Onishi 2011.

336 Soap or mouthwash: Lee and Schwarz 2010.

336 Business conference calls: Larcker and Zakolyukina 2010; experiment run on undergraduates: Lu and Chang 2011.