Notes - What the F: What Swearing Reveals About Our Language, Our Brains, and Ourselves - Benjamin K. Bergen

What the F: What Swearing Reveals About Our Language, Our Brains, and Ourselves - Benjamin K. Bergen (2016)

Notes

Introduction

1. Lussier, C. (June 27, 2015).

2. E.g., Jay, T. (1999).

3. Pinker, S. (2007).

Chapter 1: Holy, Fucking, Shit, Nigger

1. Stephens, R., Atkins, J., and Kingston, A. (2009).

2. Napoli, D. J., and Hoeksema, J. (2009).

3. Jay, T. (1999).

4. Hughes, G. (1998).

5. Federal Communications Commission (n.d.).

6. Broadcasting Standards Authority (2010).

7. Millwood-Hargrave, A. (2000).

8. Thanks, Katherine Tse and Alexsandra McMahan!

9. Janschewitz, K. (2008). See also its conceptual predecessor: Jay, T. (1992).

10. Pang, C. (2007).

11. Nechepurenko, I. (May 5, 2015).

12. Voutilainen, E. (2008).

13. Hughes, G. (2006).

14. McGrath, P., and Phillips, E. (2008).

15. Frazer, J. (1922).

16. Mohr, M. (2013).

17. Bonnefous, B. (September 15, 2014).

18. Lefton, B. (August 29, 2014).

19. Bergen, B. K. (2012).

Chapter 2: What Makes a Four-Letter Word?

1. Lewis, M. P., Simons, G. F., and Fennig, C. D. (2009).

2. Gabelentz, G. v. d. (1891).

3. Thibodeau, P. H., Bromberg, C., Hernandez, R., and Wilson, Z. (2014).

4. OED Online, “Glost.”

5. Bergen, B. K. (2004).

6. Velten, H. D. V. (1943).

Chapter 3: One Finger Is Worth a Thousand Words

1. Nida, E. A. (1949).

2. Rebouças, C. B. D. A., Pagliuca, L. M. F., and Almeida, P. C. D. (2007).

3. Alaska Shorthand Reporters Association (2015).

4. Malcolm, A. (April 17, 2008).

5. Songbass (November 3, 2008).

6. Wafflesouls (August 8, 2012).

7. Lebra, T. S. (1976).

8. Cooperrider, K., and Núñez, R. (2012).

9. Chandler, J., and Schwarz, N. (2009).

10. Center for Information Dominance: Center for Language, Regional Expertise, and Culture (2010).

11. Snopes (October 11, 2014).

12. Aristophanes (1968) and Nasaw, D. (February 6, 2012).

13. Robbins, I. P. (2008).

14. Laertius, D. (1925).

15. Marsh, P., Morris, D., and Collett, P. (1980).

16. Robbins, I. P. (2008).

17. Farmer, J. S. (1890).

18. Pennington, J. (July 27, 2014).

19. Axtell, R. (1998).

20. Nasaw, D. (February 6, 2012).

21. Nasaw, D. (February 6, 2012).

22. Matsumoto, D., and Hwang, H. S. (2012).

23. Link, M. (July 26, 2010).

24. Marsh, P., Morris, D., and Collett, P. (1980).

25. Brentari, D. (2011).

26. Liddell, S. K. (1980).

27. Mirus, G., Fisher, J., and Napoli, D. J. (2012).

28. Mirus, G., Fisher, J., and Napoli, D. J. (2012), 1005.

29. Mirus, G., Fisher, J., and Napoli, D. J. (2012), 1007.

30. Mirus, G., Fisher, J., and Napoli, D. J. (2012), 1011.

31. Taub, S. F. (2001).

32. Frishberg, N. (1975).

33. Mitchell, R. E., Young, T. A., Bachleda, B., and Karchmer, M. A. (2006).

34. Lewis, M. P., Simons, G. F., and Fennig, C. D. (2009).

35. Baker-Shenk, C. L., Baker, C., and Padden, C. (1979).

36. Bellugi, U., and Fischer, S. (1972); Bellugi, U., Fischer, S., and Newkirk, D. (1979).

37. Napoli, D. J., Fisher, J., and Mirus, G. (2013).

38. Deuchar, M. (2013).

39. Lieberth, A. K., and Gamble, M. E. B. (1991); Baus, C., Carreiras, M., and Emmorey, K. (2013).

40. Xu, J., Gannon, P. J., Emmorey, K., Smith, J. F., and Braun, A. R. (2009).

Chapter 4: The Holy Priest with the Vulgar Tongue

1. Bogousslavsky, J., Hennerici, M. G., Bäzner, H., and Bassetti, C. (Eds.) (2010).

2. Lecours, A. R., Nespoulous, J. L., and Pioger, D. (1987).

3. Lordat, J. (1843).

4. Translation by Lecours, A. R., Nespoulous, J. L., and Pioger, D. (1987).

5. Liechty, J. A., and Heinzekehr, J. B. (2007).

6. Here’s an exception: Jay, T. (1999).

7. Finger, S. (2001).

8. Raichle, M. E., and Gusnard, D. A. (2002).

9. Friederici, A. D. (2011).

10. Gazzaniga, M. S. (2004).

11. Van Lancker, D., and Cummings, J. L. (1999).

12. Lancker, D. V., and Nicklay, C. K. (1992).

13. Jay, T. (1999).

14. Kosslyn, S. M., and Miller, G. W. (2013).

15. Knecht, S., Drager, B., Deppe, M., Bobe, L., Lohmann, H., Floel, A., Ringelstein, E.-B., and Henningsen, H. (2000).

16. Graves, R., and Landis, T. (1990).

17. Code, C. (1996).

18. Smith, A. (1966).

19. Speedie, L. J., Wertman, E., Ta’ir, J., and Heilman, K. M. (1993).

20. Chakravarthy, V. S., Joseph, D., and Bapi, R. S. (2010).

21. Peterson, B., Riddle, M. A., Cohen, D. J., Katz, L. D., Smith, J. C., Hardin, M. T., and Leckman, J. F. (1993); Singer, H. S., Reiss, A. L., Brown, J. E., Aylward, E. H., Shih, B., Chee, E., Harris, E. L., Reader, M. J., Chase, G. A., Bryan, R. N., and Denckla, M. B. (1993).

22. Jankovic, J., and Rohaidy, H. (1987).

23. Friedman, S. (1980).

24. Van Lancker, D., and Cummings, J. L. (1999).

25. Robinson, B. W. (1972); Myers, R. E. (1976); Pinker, S. (2007); Jay, T. (1999).

26. Robinson, B. W. (1967); Jurgens, U., and Ploog, D. (1970).

27. Jay, T. (1999); Pinker, S. (2007).

28. Jackson, J. H. (1974/1958), cited by Jay, T. (1999).

Chapter 5: The Day the Pope Dropped the C-Bomb

1. Dicker, R. (March 3, 2014).

2. Chappell, B. (March 3, 2014).

3. Pisa, N. (March 3, 2014).

4. Erard, M. (2008).

5. Miller, N., Maruyama, G., Beaber, R. J., and Valone, K. (1976).

6. Fromkin, V. (1980).

7. Nooteboom, S. G. (1995).

8. Chappell, B. (March 3, 2014).

9. Fromkin, V. A. (Ed.) (1984).

10. Freud, S. (1966 [1901]).

11. Huffington Post Staff (May 10, 2010).

12. Schoeneman, D. (April 26, 2004).

13. Motley, M. T., and Baars, B. J. (1979).

14. Pincott, J. (March 13, 2012).

15. Mahl, G. F. (1987); Baars, B. J. (Ed.) (1992).

16. Poulisse, N. (1999).

17. Motley, M. T., Camden, C. T., and Baars, B. J. (1981).

18. McGinnies, E. (1949).

19. Horvath, F. (1978).

20. Harris, C. L., Aycicegi, A., and Gleason, J. B. (2003).

21. Motley, M. T., Camden, C. T., and Baars, B. J. (1981).

22. Severens, E., Janssens, I., Kühn, S., Brass, M., and Hartsuiker, R. J. (2011).

23. Kutas, M., and Federmeier, K. D. (2011).

24. Severens, E., Janssens, I., Kühn, S., Brass, M., and Hartsuiker, R. J. (2011).

25. Severens, E., Kühn, S., Hartsuiker, R. J., and Brass, M. (2012).

26. Aron, A. R., Robbins, T. W., and Poldrack, R. A. (2014).

27. Siegrist, M. (1995).

28. LaBar, K. S., and Phelps, E. A. (1998).

29. Mackay, D.G., Shafto, M., Taylor, J.K., Marian, D.E., Abrams, L., and Dyer, J.R. (2004).

30. MacKay, D. G., and Ahmetzanov, M. V. (2005).

31. Schriefers, H., Meyer, A. S., and Levelt, W. J. (1990).

32. Dhooge, E., and Hartsuiker, R. J. (2011).

Chapter 6: Fucking Grammar

1. Carlin, G. (1990).

2. Shad, U. P. (1992).

3. Postal, P. (2004).

4. Horn, L. R. (1997).

5. Quang, P. D. (1971 [1992]).

6. Hoeksema, J., and Napoli, D. J. (2008).

7. Hoeksema, J., and Napoli, D. J. (2008).

8. Daintrey, L. (1885), cited in Hoeksema, J., and Napoli, D. J. (2008).

9. Goldberg, A. E. (1995).

Chapter 7: How Cock Lost Its Feathers

1. Liuzza, R. M. (1994).

2. OED Online, “Cock.”

3. OED Online, “Dick.”

4. Social Security Administration (n.d.).

5. Lass, R. (1995).

6. Lass, R. (1995).

7. Medievalists.net (September 10, 2015).

8. OED Online, “Clock.”

9. Partridge, E., and Beale, P. (1984).

10. OED Online, “Bitch.”

11. Altmann, E. G., Pierrehumbert, J. B., and Motter, A. E. (2011).

12. Eisenstein, J., O’Connor, B., Smith, N. A., and Xing, E. P. (2014).

13. Munro, P. (Ed.) (1993).

14. Cheadle, W. (2010).

15. Figure from Eisenstein, J., O’Connor, B., Smith, N. A., and Xing, E. P. (2014).

16. Lass, R. (1995).

17. Holt, R., and Baker, N. (2001).

18. von Fleischhacker, R. (1894 [1400]).

19. Coşkun, R. (December 5, 2013).

20. Klepousniotou, E. (2002).

21. Williams, J. N. (1992).

22. Winslow, A. G. (1900 [1772]).

23. OED Online, “Motherfucker.”

24. Franklyn, J. (Ed.) (2013).

25. Oxford Dictionaries (June 22, 2011).

Chapter 8: Little Samoan Potty Mouths

1. Telegraph Staff (January 4, 2010).

2. Ochs, E. (1982).

3. Aubrey, A. (March 27, 2008).

4. Aubrey, A. (March 27, 2008).

5. Davis, B. L., and MacNeilage, P. F. (1995).

6. Kern, S., and Davis, B. L. (2009).

7. Lenneberg, E. H., Rebelsky, F. G., and Nichols, I. A. (1965).

8. Speech and Language Pathology Department of the Center for Communication at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (June 2, 2011).

9. Lee, S. A. S., Davis, B., and MacNeilage, P. (2010).

10. Lenneberg, E. H., Rebelsky, F. G., and Nichols, I. A. (1965).

11. Oller, D. K., and Eilers, R. E. (April 1988).

12. Petitto, L. A., and Marentette, P. F. (1991).

13. Lee, S. A. S., Davis, B., and MacNeilage, P. (2010).

14. Davis, B. L., and MacNeilage, P. F. (1995).

15. Hunkin, G. A. (2009).

16. Trask, L. (2004).

17. Murdock, G. P. (1959).

18. Jakobson, R. (1962).

19. Ochs, E. (1982).

20. Ochs, E. (1982), 19.

Chapter 9: Fragile Little Minds

1. Bologna, C. (August 15, 2014).

2. City of North Augusta, South Carolina (October, 2010).

3. Huffington Post (n.d.).

4. Rivenburg, R. (February 28, 2007).

5. Srisavasdi, R. (March 1, 2007).

6. American Academy of Pediatrics (October 17, 2011).

7. Gilani, N. (October 17, 2011).

8. Shepherd, R. (October 18, 2011).

9. Welsh, J. (October 17, 2011).

10. Coyne, S. M., Stockdale, L. A., Nelson, D. A., and Fraser, A. (2011).

11. Coyne, S. M., Stockdale, L. A., Nelson, D. A., and Fraser, A. (2011).

12. Griffiths, M. D., and Shuckford, G. L. J. (1989).

13. Coyne, S. M., Stockdale, L. A., Nelson, D. A., and Fraser, A. (2011).

14. Buchanan, T. W., Etzel, J. A., Adolphs, R., and Tranel, D. (2006).

15. Shea, S. A. (1996).

16. Lin, I. M., and Peper, E. (2009).

17. Peltonen, K., Ellonen, N., Larsen, H. B., and Helweg-Larsen, K. (2010).

18. Choi, S., and Gopnik, A. (1995).

19. American National Corpus (n.d.).

20. Goodman, J. C., Dale, P. S., and Li, P. (2008).

21. Roy, B. C., Frank, M. C., and Roy, D. (2009).

22. Schwartz, R., and Terrell, B. (1983).

23. Jay, K. L., and Jay, T. B. (2013).

24. Karen Dobkins reminded me of this demonstration.

25. Zile, A., and Stephens, R. (2014).

26. Nisbett, R. E., and Wilson, T. D. (1977).

27. Thorndike, E. L. (1920).

28. Verhulst, B., Lodge, M., and Lavine, H. (2010).

29. Leuthesser, L., Kohli, C. S., and Harich, K. R. (1995).

Chapter 10: The $100,000 Word

1. Bresnahan, M. (April 13, 2011).

2. Malec, B., and Nessif, B. (May 2, 2013).

3. Maske, M. (July 29, 2014).

4. Loy, J. W., and Elvogue, J. F. (1970).

5. Kain, D. J. (2008).

6. Byers, W., and Hammer, C. (1997).

7. Janschewitz, K. (2008).

8. Hughes, G. (1998).

9. Johnson, C. (October 14, 1904).

10. Yung, J., Chang, G. H., and Lai, H. M. (Eds.) (2006).

11. Fritz Pollard Alliance (April 13, 2014).

12. Fasoli, F., Maass, A., and Carnaghi, A. (2014).

13. Fasoli, F., Paladina, M. P., Carnaghi, A., Jetten, J., Bastian, B., and Bain, P. (in press).

14. Fasoli, F., Paladina, M. P., Carnaghi, A., Jetten, J., Bastian, B., and Bain, P. (in press).

15. Carnaghi, A., and Maass, A. (2007).

16. Carnaghi, A., and Maass, A. (2007).

17. Poteat, V. P., and Espelage, D. L. (2007).

18. Steele, C. M. (2010).

19. Shih, M., Ambady, N., Richeson, J. A., Fujita, K., and Gray, H. M. (2002).

20. Fritz Pollard Alliance (November 21, 2013).

21. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (July 9, 2007).

22. 2PacDonKilluminati (April 23, 2010).

23. Galinsky, A. D., Wang, C. S., Whitson, J. A., Anicich, E. M., Hugenberg, K., and Bodenhausen, G. V. (2013).

24. Jones, T. W., and Hall, C. S. (March 2015).

25. Spears, A. K. (1998).

26. Spears, A. K. (1998).

27. Goodwin, M. H. (2002).

28. Highkin, S. (November 14, 2013).

29. Chalabi, M. (April 28, 2014).

30. Smith, M. (March 3, 2014).

Chapter 11: The Paradox of Profanity

1. O’Connor, J. (2006).

2. Jay, K., and Jay, T. (ms.).

3. Jay, T. B., King, K., and Duncan, T. (2006).

4. Nalkur, P. G., Jamieson, P. E., and Romer, D. (2010).

5. Gentile, D. A. (2008).

6. Ivory, J. D., Williams, D., Martins, N., and Consalvo, M. (2009).

7. Federal Communications Commission (n.d.).

8. FCC v. Pacifica Foundation, 438 U.S. 726 (1978).

9. Jay, T. (2009a).

10. Kaye, B. K., and Sapolsky, B. S. (2004).

11. Wachal, R. S. (2002).

12. Nye, J., Ferreira, F., Husband, E. M., and Lyon, J. M. (2012).

13. Kremar, M., and Sohn, S. (2004).

14. Guardian (July 2, 1999).

15. TVTropes (n.d.).

16. Zeitzen, M. (2008).

17. Albrecht, H.-J., and Sieber, U. (2007).

18. Joint Monitoring Programme (2014).

19. Holm, B. R., Rest, J. R., and Seewald, W. (2004).

20. Gallup (n.d.).

21. Stephens, R., Atkins, J., and Kingston, A. (2009).

22. Jay, T. (2009b).

23. Jay, T. B., King, K., and Duncan, D. (2006).

24. Selnow, G. W. (1985).

25. Dooling, R. (September 6, 1996).

26. Warner, J. (April 16, 2009).

27. Graumann, C. F. (1995).

28. Quote Investigator (October 15, 2011).

29. Carlin, G. (1990).