Notes - How We Decide - Jonah Lehrer

How We Decide - Jonah Lehrer (2009)



[>] "We never want pilots": Jeff Roberts, telephone interview with the author, July 12, 2007.


[>] "It was a ten-second": Pierce, Moving the Chains, 11.
"Our vision wasn't": Ibid., 92.

[>] Vince Young, the star quarterback: Dougherty and Wyatt, "Will Wonderlic Cause."

[>] "I don't know": Tom Brady, New England Patriots press conference, September 11, 2006.

[>] "He is of an": Plato, Phaedrus, 44.

[>] "If the better": Ibid.
"I am dragged along": Ovid, Metamorphoses, book VII, 249.

[>] "American experiment would": Jefferson, The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, 8:124.
"One might compare": Freud, New Introductory Lectures, 245.

[>] "The events of": Freud, Civilization and Its Discontents, 14.

[>] "Cognitive psychologists subscribed": Marvin Minsky, telephone interview with the author, April 27, 2007.

14 "Elliot emerged as": Damasio, Descartes' Error, 43.
"He was always": Ibid., 44.

[>] "I suggested two": Ibid., 193.

[>] "Many of these": Herb Stein, telephone interview with the author, October 15, 2007.

[>] But people can't: Gordon, ed., Your Brain on Cubs, chapter 3.
For instance, a study: Muller et al., "World-Class Cricket Batsmen," 2162-86.

[>] "The facts of": James, Principles of Psychology, 389.


[>] "It was ours": Klein, Sources of Power, 36-38; Finlan, The Royal Navy, 147-147.

[>] In 1954: Olds and Milner, "Positive Reinforcement," 419-419.

[>] The monkey felt: Schultz et al., "Predictive Reward Signal"; Hollerman and Schultz, "Dopamine Neurons."

[>] This fast cellular: P. Gaspar et al., "Catecholamine Innervation."

[>] Researchers at Oxford: Kennerley, "Optimal Decision-Making."
If the monkey: Hayden and Platt, "Fool Me Once."

[>] Because they have: Klein et al., "Genetically Determined Differences."

[>] "You're probably": Zweig, Your Money and Your Brain, 69.
Instead, human emotions: Cohen et al., "Reinforcement Learning."

[>] The roots of schizophrenia: Juckel et al., "Dysfunction of Ventral Striatal"; Dolan et al., "Dopaminergic Modulation."
Most antipsychotic medications: Adams and Moghaddam, "Corticolimbic Dopamine Neurotransmission."

[>] Tesauro set out: Montague, Why Choose This Book?, 93-100.

[>] "Anytime you've got": Read Montague, interview with the author, May 7, 2007.

[>] They use their: Ito, "Performance Monitoring."

[>] The subject's feelings figured: Bechara et al., "Deciding Advantageously."
By playing the: Oya et al., "Electrophysiological Correlates."

[>] The investments that: Betsch et al., "Different Principles."

[>] "He wanted the": Bill Robertie, telephone interview with the author, October 10, 2007.

[>] "a person who": Mackay, A Dictionary of Scientific Quotations, 35.

[>] The other students: Cimpian et al., "Subtle Linguistic Cues"; Bronson, "How Not to Talk"; Mangels et al., "Why Do Beliefs."


[>] "I lost control": Ann Klinestiver, telephone interview with the author, July 10, 2007.

[>] "You can feel": Ibid., July 21, 2007.

[>] Since slot machines: Cooper, "Sit and Spin."

[>] According to Wolfram: Wolfram Schultz, telephone interview with the author, August 14, 2007.

[>] There was absolutely: Gilovich, Vallone, and Tversky, "The Hot Hand."

[>] "We made it": Mlodinow, Drunkard's Walk, 175.
"So he makes": Gilovich, How We Know, 17.

[>] Fama looked at: Fama, "Random Walks."
One of Montague's: Lohrenz et al., "Neural Signature."

[>] The investor who does: Zweig, Your Money and Your Brain, 226.

[>] Take Nondumiso Sainsbury: Deal or No Deal, NBC, air date September 18, 2006.

[>] An exhaustive analysis: Post et al., "Deal or No Deal?"

[>] This mental defect: Kahneman and Tversky, "Prospect Theory."

[>] "confused about the": T. MaCurdy and J. Shoven, "Accumulating Pension Wealth with Stocks and Bonds," working paper, Stanford University, cited in Benartzi and Thaler, "Myopic Loss Aversion."

[>] Markowitz was so: Zweig, Your Money and Your Brain, 4.
Loss aversion also: Odean, "Are Investors Reluctant."

[>] Consider this experiment: Shiv et al., "Investment Behavior."

[>] "Every day, I see": Herman Palmer, telephone interview with the author, October 19, 2007, and personal interview with the author, Bronx, NY, January 11, 2008.

[>] They no longer: Prelec and Simester, "Always Leave Home Without It."

[>] In fact, subprime: Brooks and Simon, "Subprime Debacle."

[>] Jonathan Cohen, a neuroscientist: McClure et al., "Separate Neural Systems."

[>] This also helps: Wilson and Daly, "Do Pretty Women."
"Our emotional brain": Bradt, "Brain Takes Itself On."
Lawrence Ausubel, an economist: Ausubel, "Adverse Selection."

[>] "Our emotions are like": George Loewenstein, telephone interview with the author, March 10, 2007.
Shlomo Benartzi and Richard Thaler: Benartzi and Thaler, "Save More Tomorrow."


[>] "It sounds like": Maclean, Young Men and Fire, 35.

[>] "To hell with": Ibid., 95.

[>] Although the people: Weltman, "Perceptual Narrowing."
"It just seemed": Maclean, Young Men and Fire, 100.

[>] Pressed tight against: Schoenemann, "Prefrontal White Matter."
But he still: Wynn and Coolidge, "The Expert Neandertal Mind."

[>] Consider the case: Heilman, Matter of Mind, 81.

[>] "You see this": Kenneth Heilman, interview with the author, June 28, 2007.

[>] When neuroscientists used: De Martino et al., "Frames, Biases."

[>] "Anyone can become": Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, 48.
The CBS method: Napoli, Audience Economics, 41.

[>] "Quantitative data": Brian Graden, interview on Frontline.
"The shows weren't": Television executive (who asked to remain anonymous), telephone interview, November 12, 2007.

[>] Mischel's results were: Shoda, Mischel, and Peake, "Predicting Adolescent Cognitive."

[>] In November 2007: Shaw et al., "Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder."

[>] A recent study: Galvan et al., "Earlier Development of the Accumbens."

[>] The most important: MacDonald et al., "Dissociating the Role."

[>] "No other brain": Earl Miller, interview with the author, April 1, 2008.

[>] In 2007, in a paper: Buschman and Miller, "Top-Down versus Bottom-Up."
The end result: Wood and Grafman, "Human Prefrontal Cortex."

[>] Less than 20 percent: Fleck and Weisberg, "The Use of Verbal Protocols."
The subject repeats: Davidson and Sternberg, eds., Psychology of Problem Solving, 151.
Instead of trying: Colvin et al., "The Effects of Frontal Lobe Lesions."

[>] The first brain: Kounios et al., "The Prepared Mind."
"You're getting rid": Mark Jung-Beeman, interview with the author, February 15, 2008.

[>] He'd flown this: Captain Al Haynes, interview with the author, January 21, 2008.

[>] "It was an": Dennis Fitch, interview, Seconds from Disaster, National Geographic Channel.

127 "The performance was": http:IIamelia.db.erau.eduIreportsIntsbIaarI AAR90-90.pdf.

[>] By analyzing the: as cited in Homer-Dixon, The Ingenuity Gap, 18-20.

[>] According to Predmore: Predmore, "Dynamics of Group Performance"; Helmreich, "Managing Human Error in Aviation."

[>] For instance, studies: Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 359
Scientists refer to: Sandkuhler and Bhattacharya, "Deconstructing Insight."

[>] Numerous studies have: Colom et al., "Working Memory."


[>] "It caught me": Fleming, The Inner Voice, 100.

[>] "I had been": Ibid., 80.

[>] By concentrating on: Beilock and Carr, "On the Fragility"; Beilock et al., "When Paying Attention."

[>] Choking is merely: Gucciardi and Dimmock, "Choking under Pressure."
Claude Steele, a professor: Steele and Aronson, "Stereotype Threat"; Steele, "Thin Ice."

[>] "What you tend": Gladwell, "The Art of Failure."

[>] A few years: Wilson and Schooler, "Thinking Too Much."

[>] So Wilson came: Wilson et al., "Introspecting About Reasons."

[>] As Ap Dijksterhuis: Dijksterhuis et al., "The Rational Unconscious."

[>] Because people expected: Wager et al., "Placebo-Induced Changes.
"Look, for example: Shiv, Carmon, and Ariely, "Placebo Effects of Marketing Actions."

[>] "We have these": Baba Shiv, telephone interview with the author, February 20, 2008.
Researchers at Caltech: Plassmann et al., "Marketing Actions."

[>] "We don't realize": Antonio Rangel, telephone interview with the author, February 20, 2008.

[>] "There seems to": Miller, "The Magical Number Seven."
Consider this experiment: Shiv and Fedorikhin, "Heart and Mind."

[>] A bad mood: Gailliot et al., "Self-Control Relies on Glucose."

[>] But just as: Geier, Rozin, and Doros, "Unit Bias."
The group with: Wansink, Mindless Eating.
Richard Thaler, an: Thaler, The Winner's Curse, 107-22.

[>] As Thaler notes: Bennett, "When Shove Comes to Push."

156 A few years: Ariely, Loewenstein, and Prelec, "Coherent Arbitrariness"; "Tom Sawyer and the Construction of Value."

[>] "You know you're": Dan Ariely, interview with the author, May 29, 2008.

[>] While the extra: Grove et al., "Clinical versus Mechanical Prediction."

[>] Back pain is: Lehrer, "Psychology of Back Pain."

[>] In a 1994 study: Jensen et al., "Magnetic Resonance Imaging."

[>] "A lot of": Sean Mackey, interview with the author, June 1, 2007.
A large study: Jarvik et al., "Rapid Magnetic Resonance Imaging."

[>] They wanted to: Deyo, Nachemson, and Mirza, "Spinal-Fusion Surgery."
"What's going on": John Sarno, interview with the author, June 1, 2007.


[>] Sadism was entertaining: Sullivan and Maiken, Killer Clown.

[>] "[Gacy] appears to have": Wilkinson, "Conversations with a Killer."

[>] The acts of: Levenson, Carstensen, and Gottman, "The Influence of Age and Gender."
"You know when": James Blair, telephone interview with the author, April 4, 2007.

[>] The emotional areas: Deeley et al., "Facial Emotion Processing."
The main problem: Blair, Mitchell, and Blair, The Psychopath.
Brain-imaging studies: Berthoz et al., "Affective Response."

[>] "Moral judgment is": Haidt, Happiness Hypothesis, 22.

[>] Consider this moral: Haidt, "The Emotional Dog."

[>] "What happens in": Sommers, "Jonathan Haidt." 176 Consider this elegant: Greene et al., "An fMRI Investigation."

[>] "Our primate ancestors": Joshua Greene, telephone interview with the author, June 25, 2007.

[>] "It is fear": Marshall, Men Against Fire, 78.
"At the most": Ibid., 79.
"What is being": Grossman, On Combat, 254.

[>] However, the researchers: Oosterbeek, Sloof, and van de Kuilen, "Differences in Ultimatum Game Experiments"; Henrich et al., Foundations of Human Sociality."

[>] "Seen through the": Frank, Passions Within Reason, ix.
"As we have": Smith, Theory of Moral Sentiments, 3-4.
The reason a proposer: Sanfey et al., "The Neural Basis."

183 Because they intensely: Tankersley, Stowe, and Huettel, "Altruism Is Associated."

[>] When they chose: Moll et al., "Human Fronto-mesolimbic Networks."

[>] It now appears: Dapretto et al., "Understanding Emotions."
"They allow us": Blakeslee, "Cells That Read Minds."

[>] A face generated: Schultz et al., "The Role of the Fusiform Face Area."

[>] Instead of giving: Hoffman, McCabe, and Smith, "Social Distance and Other-Regarding Behavior."
"The experience of": Keltner, "Power Paradox."
Paul Slovic, a: Small, Loewenstein, and Slovic, "Sympathy and Callousness."

[>] "If monkeys have": Blum, Love at Goon Park, 231.

[>] One Canadian couple: Stout, The Sociopath Next Door, 132.

[>] When neuroscientists imaged: Chugani et al., "Local Brain Functional Activity."
The orphans also: Parker et al., "The Impact of Early Institutional Rearing."
Finally, the neglected: Carter, "The Chemistry of Child Neglect."
In the early 1980s: George and Main, "Social Interactions"; Main and George, "Responses of Abused and Disadvantaged Toddlers."

[>] They were simply: Taylor et al., "Neural Bases of Regulatory Deficits."

[>] Consider this poignant: Masserman, Wechkin, and Terris, "Altruistic Behavior in Rhesus Monkeys."


[>] "There were a": Ralph Jimenez, at Monitor editors' interview with the author, March 25, 2008.

[>] "I was still": Felice Belman, ibid.
"The candidates are": Mike Pride, ibid.

[>] "The point is": Antoine Bechara, interview, Radio Lab, May 12, 2008.

[>] Consider this clever: Knutson et al., "Neural Predictors."

[>] In fact, researchers: Inman, McAlister, and Hoyer, "Promotion Signal."

[>] Although it was: Green, Palmquist, and Schickler, Partisan Hearts, 2.
Drew Westen, a: Westen et al., "The Neural Basis of Motivated Reasoning."

[>] "Essentially, it appears": Westen, The Political Brain, 17.

206 "Voters think that": Achen and Bartels, "It Feels Like We're Thinking."
Let's look at: Brock and Balloun, "Behavioral Receptivity."

[>] In 1984, the: Tetlock, Expert Political Judgment.

[>] "The dominant danger": Ibid., 23.

[>] "Oh, that's easy": Gazzaniga, The Social Brain, 72.
During the last: Rabinovich, The Yom Kippur War.

[>] He persuasively argued: Black and Morris, Israel's Secret Wars, 280-99; Raviv and Melman, Every Spy a Prince, 110-25.

[>] "The need for": Bar-Joseph and Kruglanski, "Intelligence Failure"; Bar-Joseph, The Watchman Fell Asleep.

[>] He intentionally filled: Goodwin, Team of Rivals, 126.


[>] "You get so wired": Michael Binger, interviews with the author, May 12, 2007; July 1, 2007; September 22, 2007.

[>] To answer these: Dijksterhuis et al., "On Making the Right Choice."

[>] "Imagine being at": Dijksterhuis and van Olden, "On the Benefits of Thinking Unconsciously."
"The moral of": Dijksterhuis, "Breakthrough Ideas."

[>] The hardest calls: Dijksterhuis and Nordgren, "A Theory of Unconscious Thought,"
That's why the: Klein, "In the Digital Age."

[>] A few years: Lo and Repin, "The Psychophysiology of Real-Time Financial Risk Processing."

[>] "One of the": See

[>] "We need to cultivate": Tetlock, Expert Political Judgment, 24.


[>] But then, starting: Baker et al., "Pilot Error in Air Carrier Mishaps."

[>] "The old way": Jeff Roberts, telephone interview with the author, July 12, 2007.

[>] "For most of": Al Haynes, interview with the author, January 21, 2008.