The World's Most Dangerous Place: Inside the Outlaw State of Somalia - James Fergusson (2013)

Notes and Sources


1According to Reuters, whose source was ‘a Western diplomat’, quoted by Jerome Starkey in The Times, 11 September 2011

2The Times, 8 October 2011

3ICM/Guardian, 10 August 2012

4Martin Fletcher, The Times, 6 August 2012

Chapter 1 An African Stalingrad: The war against al-Shabaab

1‘The Family House’ in the Swiss-based European Graduate School’s Transition magazine, no. 99, 2008, pp6–15

Chapter 2 At the Bancroft Hotel: America’s proxy war


2See, for instance, Prof. Chester Crocker of Georgetown University, Foreign Affairs Magazine, vol. 73, no. 3, 1995, often reprinted, e.g. at Operation Restore Hope is often described as the first American troop deployment in Africa since the Barbary Wars of the early 1800s


4,5 Jeffrey Gettleman, New York Times, 10 August 2011, ‘US Relies on Contractors in Somalia Conflict’

6Josh Kron, Associated Press, 12 July 2010; BBC, 12 July 2010

7UPDF Brigadier Paul Lokech interviewed by Andrew M. Mwenda in the Kampala Independent, 25 August 2012

8Tony Doyle, BBC News Africa, 26 June 2012

9Gerald Hanley, Warriors – Life and Death among the Somalis, Hamish Hamilton 1971

Chapter 3 The field hospital: What bombs and bullets do to people, 20 September 2011

2Richard Burton, First Footsteps in East Africa, 1856

3Harald Swayne, Seventeen Trips through Somaliland and a Visit to Abyssinia, preface to the 3rd ed., Rowland Ward Ltd 1903

4A declassified Memorandum of Conversation that took place between Acting Foreign Minister H.A. Kassim and Secretary of State Kissinger on 8 October 1976; PA/HO Department of State EO12958, as amended 4 May 2006

Chapter 4 Aden’s story

1, May 2011



6Xan Rice, Guardian, 20 October 2010

7John Lee Anderson, New Yorker, 14 December 2009

8For more detail on the Aweys story see:


Chapter 5 The failure of Somali politics

1Alex Athure, Daily Nation (Kenya), 9 July 2012

2Suna Times, 11 September 2011

Chapter 6 What makes al-Shabaab tick?

1Telephone interview published in Getting Somalia Wrong? Faith, War and Hope in a Shattered State by Mary Harper, Zed Books 2012



4David Barret, Sunday Telegraph, 7 July 2012

5Nelly Lahoud, CTC Sentinel, February 2012, vol. 5, issue 2


7CIA World Factbook 2012

8Hanley, Warriors, op. cit.

9Reported by Mary Harper, Getting Somalia Wrong?, p91

10Daily Mail, 15 May 2011

11For an introduction to this topic, see the excellent collection of essays Suicide Bombers: The Psychological, Religious and Other Imperatives, IOS Press, Nato Science for Peace and Security Series, E: Human and Societal Dynamics, vol. 41, edited by Mary Sharpe

12Harper, Getting Somalia Wrong?, op. cit.

Chapter 7 The Famine


2Author interview with Abdirizaq Mohedin, the Minister for Water Resources, citing the 2010 Assessment Report by the Somali NGO Green Hope

3SomaliaReport, 27 July 2011





8, 5 August 2011

9UN Monitoring Group report, March 2010

10Daily Nation, (Kenya) quoted by UPI, 26 July 2011

11, 4 October 2011

Chapter 8 In the court of King Farole

1CIA World Factbook 2012

2The Economics of Piracy, Geopolicity (consultancy), 24 April 2011

3Burton, First Footsteps in East Africa, op. cit.

4Hanley, Warriors, op. cit.

5I.M. Lewis, A Pastoral Democracy, OUP 1961, p12

6International Chamber of Commerce, International Maritime Bureau

7Holly Watt, Telegraph Magazine, 7 April 2012

8Myanmar Times, 11 November 2011

Chapter 9 Galkacyo: Pirateville

1Hanley, Warriors, op. cit.

2,3Somali Customary Law and Traditional Economy – Cross-sectional, pastoral, frankincense, and marine norms, Puntland Development and Research Centre, Garowe 2003

5Allie Shah, Star Tribune, 4 November 2011

6David Cameron speech at Witney, Oxfordshire, 15 August 2011

7Jay Bahadur, Deadly Waters – Inside the Hidden World of Somalia’s Pirates, Profile Books 2011, p100

8The Times, 28 March 2011

9Sucaad Mire, ‘Women Flock to Pirates with Money’, SomaliaReport, 24 September 2011

10Jamestown Foundation, ‘Was the Battle for Galkacyo a Clan Dispute or a Victory for Puntland Over al-Shabaab?’, Terrorism Monitor, vol. 9, issue 35, 15 September 2011

11FCO Communiqué, 23 February 2012

12SomaliaReport, 31 March 2012

Chapter 10 Hargeisa Nights

1Eric Lafforgue,, 2 May 2012

2Capt Malcolm McNeill, DSO, & Lt A.C.H. Dixon, In Pursuit of the ‘Mad’ Mullah: Service and Sport in the Somali Protectorate, C. Arthur Pearson Ltd 1902, republished by Kessinger

3Mark Tran, Guardian, 4 January 2012; CIA World Factbook 2012

4Monty Munford, The Kernel, 18 May 2012


6‘Hostages to Peace’: Threats to Human Rights and Democracy in Somaliland, Human Rights Watch, July 2009


Chapter 11 How to start a border war

1Jeffrey Bartholet, ‘It’s a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World’, Newsweek, 22 October 2009

2Abridged version of translation by B.W. Andrzejewski, Somali Poetry: An Introduction (Oxford Library of African Literature), Clarendon 1964

3Douglas Jardine, The Mad Mullah of Somaliland, Herbert Jenkins Ltd, 1923

4Bartholet, Newsweek, 22 October 2009, op. cit.

5Akiva J. Lorenz, ‘Analyzing the USS Cole Bombing’,, 27 December 2007

6Translator’s introduction to Ignorance is the Enemy of Love by Faarax M.J. Cawl, Zed Books 1982

7The noted poet Hadraawi, quoted by Jeffrey Bartholet, op. cit.

8 and

9Peter Bridges, Safirka: An American Envoy, Kent State University Press 2000

10Jardine, The Mad Mullah of Somaliland, op. cit.


Chapter 12 The Somali youth time-bomb


2House of Commons Home Affairs Committee, Roots of violent radicalisation, Nineteenth Report of Session 2010–12, vol. 1, HC1446, 6 February 2012

3Also reported by the Sun in August 2011:

4Joseph Rowntree Foundation, Young People and Territoriality in British Cities, October 2008

5Jason Lewis, Daily Telegraph, 13 August 2011

6Ministry of Justice statistics quoted by Alan Travis, Guardian, 24 October 2011



9New York Times, 5 October 2011

10Pew Research Centre; Sean Rayment and Colin Freeman, Sunday Telegraph, 18 February 2012

11Richard Norton-Taylor, Guardian, 7 February 2012

12House of Commons Home Affairs Committee, Roots of violent radicalisation, op. cit.

Chapter 13 The missing of Minneapolis


2Opening statement to the Third Committee on Homeland Security, US Congress, 27 July 2011

3Andrea Elliott, New York Times, 11 July 2009

4Osman Dagane, speaker of the All-Somali Community of Minnesota

5Andrea Elliott, op. cit.

6For more details see Laura Yuen, MPR, 15 April 2009

7For more details see:

8Richard Meryhew, Allie Shah and James Walsh, ‘The Making of a Minneapolis Suicide Bomber’, Star Tribune, 6 May 2009


10For more detail see:

11Mark Tran, Guardian, 4 January 2012, op. cit.

12For more detail see:


14Jim Adams, Star Tribune, and Jason Ryan, ABC News, 31 October 2011

Chapter 14 ‘Clanism is a disease like AIDS’

1Haight-Ashbury Free Medical Clinic, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, vol. 41, 2009

2Somali militants target addicts in UK’s ‘khat cafés’, CNN, 23 February 2012

3See, for instance, Home Office Research Report no. 44, ‘Perceptions of the social harms associated with khat use’

4Burton, First Footsteps, op. cit.

5Robert Young Pelton, SomaliaReport, 8 May 2011

6Ian Black, Guardian, 26 February 2010; Mohammed Jamjoom and Gena Somra, CNN, 2 December 2010

7,8Mark Lancaster MP, Hansard, 11 January 2012

9Prof Abdulahi A. Osman, Cultural Diversity and the Somali Conflict: Myth or Reality?, African Studies Institute, University of Georgia 2007

10Hanley, Warriors, op. cit.

11David St George, Camden New Journal, 13 May 2004

12Robert Verkaik, ‘How MI5 blackmails British Muslims: “Work for us or we will say you are a terrorist”’, Independent, 21 May 2009

13FCO, 15 November 2011

14London Evening Standard, 15 November 2010; and see:

15The Sun, 23 November 2010 and 14 April 2011

16Quoted in the Puntland Development Research Centre’s booklet, Somali Customary Law and Traditional Economy, 2003

17Jeffrey Gettleman, New York Times, 5 October 2011

Chapter 15 Operation Linda Nchi: The end for al-Shabaab?

1See for updates of Dadaab’s fluctuating population

2Daily Nation, 21 June 2012/ (Kenya)

3Daily Nation, 30 May 2011 (Kenya)

4Knight Frank Prime International Residential Index, March 2012

5Rashid Abdi, Daily Nation (Kenya), 25 June 2012

6,7Standard (Kenya), 26 June 2012

8UK High Commission, Nairobi;

9, 1 July 2012

10, 3 September 2012

11Daily Nation (Kenya), 29 August 2012