The World's Most Dangerous Place: Inside the Outlaw State of Somalia - James Fergusson (2013)

Notes and Sources

Introduction

1According to Reuters, whose source was ‘a Western diplomat’, quoted by Jerome Starkey in The Times, 11 September 2011

2The Times, 8 October 2011

3ICM/Guardian, 10 August 2012

4Martin Fletcher, The Times, 6 August 2012

Chapter 1 An African Stalingrad: The war against al-Shabaab

1‘The Family House’ in the Swiss-based European Graduate School’s Transition magazine, no. 99, 2008, pp6–15

Chapter 2 At the Bancroft Hotel: America’s proxy war

1http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-11246394

2See, for instance, Prof. Chester Crocker of Georgetown University, Foreign Affairs Magazine, vol. 73, no. 3, 1995, often reprinted, e.g. at www.pbs.org. Operation Restore Hope is often described as the first American troop deployment in Africa since the Barbary Wars of the early 1800s

3http://www.state.gov/p/af/rls/rm/2010/138314.htm

4,5 Jeffrey Gettleman, New York Times, 10 August 2011, ‘US Relies on Contractors in Somalia Conflict’

6Josh Kron, Associated Press, 12 July 2010; BBC, 12 July 2010

7UPDF Brigadier Paul Lokech interviewed by Andrew M. Mwenda in the Kampala Independent, 25 August 2012

8Tony Doyle, BBC News Africa, 26 June 2012

9Gerald Hanley, Warriors – Life and Death among the Somalis, Hamish Hamilton 1971

Chapter 3 The field hospital: What bombs and bullets do to people

1www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14985549, 20 September 2011

2Richard Burton, First Footsteps in East Africa, 1856

3Harald Swayne, Seventeen Trips through Somaliland and a Visit to Abyssinia, preface to the 3rd ed., Rowland Ward Ltd 1903

4A declassified Memorandum of Conversation that took place between Acting Foreign Minister H.A. Kassim and Secretary of State Kissinger on 8 October 1976; PA/HO Department of State EO12958, as amended 4 May 2006

Chapter 4 Aden’s story

1http://www.sunatimes.com/view.php?id=564, May 2011

2,3,4http://www.finalcall.com/artman/publish/World_News_3/article_2716.shtml

5http://www.b.dk/danmark/en-terrorist-fra-roedovre

6Xan Rice, Guardian, 20 October 2010

7John Lee Anderson, New Yorker, 14 December 2009

8For more detail on the Aweys story see: http://ashaacira.wordpress.com/taariikhda-shiikh-uweys-axmad-oo-looyaqaano-sheekh-aweys-al-qaadirioo-somalida-intabada-diinta-gaarisiiyo-illaa-iyo-south-afrika/

9http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportID=91267

Chapter 5 The failure of Somali politics

1Alex Athure, Daily Nation (Kenya), 9 July 2012

2Suna Times, 11 September 2011

Chapter 6 What makes al-Shabaab tick?

1Telephone interview published in Getting Somalia Wrong? Faith, War and Hope in a Shattered State by Mary Harper, Zed Books 2012

2http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-16920643

3http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2010/sep/17/mi5-chief-somaliaterro-threat

4David Barret, Sunday Telegraph, 7 July 2012

5Nelly Lahoud, CTC Sentinel, February 2012, vol. 5, issue 2

6http://www.somaliareport.com/index.php/post/976/Fazulrsquos_Last_Moments

7CIA World Factbook 2012

8Hanley, Warriors, op. cit.

9Reported by Mary Harper, Getting Somalia Wrong?, p91

10Daily Mail, 15 May 2011

11For an introduction to this topic, see the excellent collection of essays Suicide Bombers: The Psychological, Religious and Other Imperatives, IOS Press, Nato Science for Peace and Security Series, E: Human and Societal Dynamics, vol. 41, edited by Mary Sharpe

12Harper, Getting Somalia Wrong?, op. cit.

Chapter 7 The Famine

1http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/world/2011-07/22/c_131003043.htm

2Author interview with Abdirizaq Mohedin, the Minister for Water Resources, citing the 2010 Assessment Report by the Somali NGO Green Hope

3SomaliaReport, 27 July 2011

4http://socialitelife.com/angelina-jolie-honored-by-unhcr-says-refugees-made-her-a-better-mother-photos-10-2011

5http://www.wfp.org/videos/50cent-somalia-never-seen-anything-like-this

6http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/aug/01/liz-jones-somalia-famine

7http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/2011/jul/20/un-declares-famine-somalia

8http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14422427, 5 August 2011

9UN Monitoring Group report, March 2010

10Daily Nation, (Kenya) quoted by UPI, 26 July 2011

11http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15166107?OCID=fbwin, 4 October 2011

Chapter 8 In the court of King Farole

1CIA World Factbook 2012

2The Economics of Piracy, Geopolicity (consultancy), 24 April 2011

3Burton, First Footsteps in East Africa, op. cit.

4Hanley, Warriors, op. cit.

5I.M. Lewis, A Pastoral Democracy, OUP 1961, p12

6International Chamber of Commerce, International Maritime Bureau

7Holly Watt, Telegraph Magazine, 7 April 2012

8Myanmar Times, 11 November 2011

Chapter 9 Galkacyo: Pirateville

1Hanley, Warriors, op. cit.

2,3Somali Customary Law and Traditional Economy – Cross-sectional, pastoral, frankincense, and marine norms, Puntland Development and Research Centre, Garowe 2003

4the-numbers.com/movies

5Allie Shah, Star Tribune, 4 November 2011

6David Cameron speech at Witney, Oxfordshire, 15 August 2011

7Jay Bahadur, Deadly Waters – Inside the Hidden World of Somalia’s Pirates, Profile Books 2011, p100

8The Times, 28 March 2011

9Sucaad Mire, ‘Women Flock to Pirates with Money’, SomaliaReport, 24 September 2011

10Jamestown Foundation, ‘Was the Battle for Galkacyo a Clan Dispute or a Victory for Puntland Over al-Shabaab?’, Terrorism Monitor, vol. 9, issue 35, 15 September 2011

11FCO Communiqué, 23 February 2012

12SomaliaReport, 31 March 2012

Chapter 10 Hargeisa Nights

1Eric Lafforgue, medeshivalley.com, 2 May 2012

2Capt Malcolm McNeill, DSO, & Lt A.C.H. Dixon, In Pursuit of the ‘Mad’ Mullah: Service and Sport in the Somali Protectorate, C. Arthur Pearson Ltd 1902, republished by Kessinger

3Mark Tran, Guardian, 4 January 2012; CIA World Factbook 2012

4Monty Munford, The Kernel, 18 May 2012

5http://www.alunmichael.com/news/general-news/news.aspx?p=102554

6‘Hostages to Peace’: Threats to Human Rights and Democracy in Somaliland, Human Rights Watch, July 2009

7http://en.rsf.org/somalia-in-past-week-in-somaliland-25-16-01-2012,41685.html

Chapter 11 How to start a border war

1Jeffrey Bartholet, ‘It’s a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World’, Newsweek, 22 October 2009

2Abridged version of translation by B.W. Andrzejewski, Somali Poetry: An Introduction (Oxford Library of African Literature), Clarendon 1964

3Douglas Jardine, The Mad Mullah of Somaliland, Herbert Jenkins Ltd, 1923

4Bartholet, Newsweek, 22 October 2009, op. cit.

5Akiva J. Lorenz, ‘Analyzing the USS Cole Bombing’, MaritimeTerrorism.com, 27 December 2007

6Translator’s introduction to Ignorance is the Enemy of Love by Faarax M.J. Cawl, Zed Books 1982

7The noted poet Hadraawi, quoted by Jeffrey Bartholet, op. cit.

8http://www.qi.com/talk/viewtopic.php?t=7064&view=previous&sid=e65ee32112ce2a70f5a70914fc064485 and http://itre.cis.upenn.edu/~myl/languagelog/archives/000457.html

9Peter Bridges, Safirka: An American Envoy, Kent State University Press 2000

10Jardine, The Mad Mullah of Somaliland, op. cit.

11http://www.somaliareport.com/index.php/post/3202/Somaliland_Arrest_Journalists_In_Las-Anod

Chapter 12 The Somali youth time-bomb

1http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-16296849

2House of Commons Home Affairs Committee, Roots of violent radicalisation, Nineteenth Report of Session 2010–12, vol. 1, HC1446, 6 February 2012

3Also reported by the Sun in August 2011: http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/news/3782328/A-third-of-youth-prisoners-are-foreign.html

4Joseph Rowntree Foundation, Young People and Territoriality in British Cities, October 2008

5Jason Lewis, Daily Telegraph, 13 August 2011

6Ministry of Justice statistics quoted by Alan Travis, Guardian, 24 October 2011

7http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-london-13566526

8http://www.spittoon.org/archives/10654

9New York Times, 5 October 2011

10Pew Research Centre; Sean Rayment and Colin Freeman, Sunday Telegraph, 18 February 2012

11Richard Norton-Taylor, Guardian, 7 February 2012

12House of Commons Home Affairs Committee, Roots of violent radicalisation, op. cit.

Chapter 13 The missing of Minneapolis

1http://www.fbi.gov/minneapolis/press-releases/2011/minneapolis-man-pleads-guilty-to-terrorism-offense

2Opening statement to the Third Committee on Homeland Security, US Congress, 27 July 2011

3Andrea Elliott, New York Times, 11 July 2009

4Osman Dagane, speaker of the All-Somali Community of Minnesota

5Andrea Elliott, op. cit.

6For more details see Laura Yuen, MPR, 15 April 2009 http://minnesota.publicradio.org/display/web/2009/04/14/friends_of_the_missing/

7For more details see: http://www.nefafoundation.org/newsite/file/US_v_AminaFarahAli_dojprguilty.pdf

8Richard Meryhew, Allie Shah and James Walsh, ‘The Making of a Minneapolis Suicide Bomber’, Star Tribune, 6 May 2009

9http://www.kfai.org/somalicommunitylink

10For more detail see: http://pjmedia.com/blog/minneapolis-imam-decries-the-hell-of-living-in-america/

11Mark Tran, Guardian, 4 January 2012, op. cit.

12For more detail see: http://www.npr.org/2011/09/07/140234451/under-suspicion-at-the-mall-of-america

13http://www.startribune.com/local/minneapolis/128663938.html

14Jim Adams, Star Tribune, and Jason Ryan, ABC News, 31 October 2011

Chapter 14 ‘Clanism is a disease like AIDS’

1Haight-Ashbury Free Medical Clinic, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, vol. 41, 2009

2Somali militants target addicts in UK’s ‘khat cafés’, CNN, 23 February 2012

3See, for instance, Home Office Research Report no. 44, ‘Perceptions of the social harms associated with khat use’

4Burton, First Footsteps, op. cit.

5Robert Young Pelton, SomaliaReport, 8 May 2011

6Ian Black, Guardian, 26 February 2010; Mohammed Jamjoom and Gena Somra, CNN, 2 December 2010

7,8Mark Lancaster MP, Hansard, 11 January 2012

9Prof Abdulahi A. Osman, Cultural Diversity and the Somali Conflict: Myth or Reality?, African Studies Institute, University of Georgia 2007

10Hanley, Warriors, op. cit.

11David St George, Camden New Journal, 13 May 2004

12Robert Verkaik, ‘How MI5 blackmails British Muslims: “Work for us or we will say you are a terrorist”’, Independent, 21 May 2009

13FCO, 15 November 2011

14London Evening Standard, 15 November 2010; and see: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eFsIaUj1NPo

15The Sun, 23 November 2010 and 14 April 2011

16Quoted in the Puntland Development Research Centre’s booklet, Somali Customary Law and Traditional Economy, 2003

17Jeffrey Gettleman, New York Times, 5 October 2011

Chapter 15 Operation Linda Nchi: The end for al-Shabaab?

1See data.unher.org for updates of Dadaab’s fluctuating population

2Daily Nation, 21 June 2012/Sabahi.com (Kenya)

3Daily Nation, 30 May 2011 (Kenya)

4Knight Frank Prime International Residential Index, March 2012

5Rashid Abdi, Daily Nation (Kenya), 25 June 2012

6,7Standard (Kenya), 26 June 2012

8UK High Commission, Nairobi; Allafrica.com

9http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-18662975/, 1 July 2012

10http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-19466828, 3 September 2012

11Daily Nation (Kenya), 29 August 2012