Another Day in the Death of America: A Chronicle of Ten Short Lives - Gary Younge (2016)



1. Elisha Fieldstadt, “Deadly Storm System Moves East, Threatens Holiday Travel,” NBC News,

2. John Cornyn, Twitter, November 23, 2013,

3. See “Key Gun Violence Statistics,” Brady Center to Prevent Gun Violence, (accessed March 9, 2016). The Brady Center obtains its data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

4. “Protect Children Not Guns 2013,” Children’s Defense Fund, July 24, 2013,

5. Adam B. Schiff, New York Times, November 23, 2013, A1; also found online at

6. “Protect Children Not Guns 2013,” Children’s Defense Fund, 33.

7. See

8. Nate Silver, “Black Americans Are Killed at 12 Times the Rate of People in Other Developed Countries,” FiveThirtyEight, June 18, 2015,

9. Chris Kyle with William Doyle, American Gun: A History of the U.S. in Ten Firearms (New York: HarperCollins, 2013), 255.

10. Quoted in Amanda Terkel, “Joe Manchin Ready for Gun Control Action: ‘Everything Should Be on the Table,’” Huffington Post, December 17, 2012,


1. “Child Shot by Teenage Brother Dies,” CBS Dallas–Fort Worth, November 25, 2013,

2. See and “Key Gun Violence Statistics,” Brady Center to Prevent Gun Violence, (accessed March 9, 2016). The Brady Center obtains its data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


1. “Quick Facts, Grove City, Ohio,” United States Census Bureau, (accessed April 17, 2016).

2. “Dan Thornton,” BoxRec,

3. “Suspect Killed After Shooting 9-Year-Old, Ex-Girlfriend & Officer,” WBNS-10TV, November 22, 2013,

4. Douglas Kellner, Guys and Guns Amok: Domestic Terrorism and School Shootings from the Oklahoma City Bombing to the Virginia Tech Massacre (Boulder, CO: Paradigm, 2008), 14.

5. Ibid., 14.

6. “Grove City, OH Crime and Crime Rate,”, (accessed March 9, 2016).

7. Lisa Evans, “Mapping Murder Throughout the World,” Guardian, October 10, 2011,

8. Kristyn Hartman, “Shooting Survivor Shares Her Story from Pain to Recovery,” WBNS-10TV, July 24, 2014,

9. “Ohio Police Kill Man After Shooting of Woman, Child,” Herald Dispatch, November 22, 2013,

10. Associated Press, “Ohio Boy Shot by Mom’s Ex-Lover Still in Critical Condition,” the News-Herald, November 23, 2013,

11. H. Range Hutson, et al., “Suicide by Cop,” Annals of Emergency Medicine 6, vol. 32 (December 1998): 665–669,

12. Harriet Sarnoff Schiff, The Bereaved Parent (New York: Penguin Books, 1978), 2.

13. Ibid., 25.

14. Ibid., 23.

15. Alan Ball and Christian Taylor, “Life’s Too Short,” Six Feet Under, season 1, episode 9, directed by Jeremy Podeswa, aired July 29, 2001,,


1. Three Fountains West website, (accessed March 2, 2016).

2. For more information, see, US Area boundary, data, graphs, tools and services. Census Tract 3103.06, Marion County, Indiana, (accessed May 13, 2016). And see US Census Bureau, Explanation of Race and Hispanic Origin Categories, (accessed May 13, 2016).

3. Chris Kyle with William Doyle, American Gun: A History of the U.S. in Ten Firearms (New York: HarperCollins, 2013), 259.

4. James Welch, “The Ethos of the Gun,” in Gun Violence and Public Life, eds. Ben Agger and Timothy W. Luke (Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers, 2014), 153.

5. Michael Waldman, The Second Amendment: A Biography (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2014), 171.

6. Quoted in Joan Biskupic, “Guns: A Second (Amendment) Look,” Washington Post, May 10, 1995,

7. Samantha Lachman, “Wayne LaPierre Warns Fellow Gun Rights Supporters of ‘Knockout Gamers,’ ‘Haters,’” Huffington Post, April 25, 2014,

8. Wayne LaPierre, “CPAC: Wayne LaPierre’s Speech,” Daily Caller, March 6, 2014,

9. Aaron Blake, “Bloomberg Launches New $50 Million Gun Control Effort,” Washington Post, April 16, 2014,

10. “Mass Shootings, 2013,” Gun Violence Archive, (accessed April 12, 2016).

11. Shannon Van Sant, “China School Knife Attack Leaves 23 Injured,” CBS News, December 14, 2012,

12. “In Memoriam, Emmett Till,” Life magazine, October 3, 1955.

13. Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness (New York: The New Press, 2012), 71.

14. Ibid.

15. Amos Brown III, “Black Graduation Rates Fall in State, Many Indy Districts,” Indianapolis Recorder, February 28, 2013,

16. Kenneth J. Mills-Tucker obituary, IndyStar, November 29, 2013,

17. “Keeping Youth Connected: Focus on Indianapolis,” CLASP, August 2011,

18. Tanzina Vega, “Shooting Spurs Hashtag Effort on Stereotypes,” New York Times, August 13, 2014,

19. Jessica Durando, “Users Ask Which Photo Media Would Use #IfThey GunnedMeDown,” USA Today, August 12, 2014,

20. Rebecca Bennett and Russ McQuaid, “Teen Found Shot to Death in Parking Garage of JW Marriott,” Fox59, July 21, 2013,

21. See

22. Quoted in Ruth-Arlene W. Howe, “A Wake-Up Call for American Society or Have ‘The Chickens Just Come Home to Roost?’: Essay Review of Charles Patrick Ewing’s When Children Kill: The Dynamics of Juvenile Homicide, Digital Commons @ Boston College Law School, January 1, 1992,


1. Jill Leovy, Ghettoside: Investigating a Homicide Epidemic (London: The Bodley Head, 2015), 29.

2. “Quarterly Homicide Team Report for October–December 2014,” District Attorney R. Andrew Murray’s office, January 13, 2015,

3. “Turning Point Academy,” website of the Charlotte-Mecklenberg Schools, (accessed March 11, 2016).

4. Chuck McShane, “1993: Charlotte’s Deadliest Year,” Charlotte Magazine, November 21, 2013,

5. Tim Murphy, “Black Parents Need to Get It Together, Says Former Tea Party Congressman Sued over Child Support,” Mother Jones, August 28, 2013,

6. Joanna Rothkopf, “Bill O’Reilly: Black People Should Wear ‘Don’t Get Pregnant at 14’ T-Shirts,” Salon, December 18, 2014,

7. “Meet the Press Transcript: November 23, 2014,” NBC News,

8. Leovy, Ghettoside, xix.

9. Alexia Cooper and Erica L. Smith, “Homicide Trends in the United States, 1980–2008,” U.S. Department of Justice, November 2011,,13.

10. Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness (New York: The New Press, 2012), 100.

11. “Homicide Rates Among Persons Aged 10–24 Years: United States, 1981–2010,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, July 12, 2013,

12. Anders Kelto, “The U.S. Is a World Leader in Gun Deaths,” NPR, December 7, 2015,

13. Bill Cosby and Alvin F. Poussaint, Come On, People: On the Path from Victims to Victors (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 2007), 60, 73, 86, 87, 111, 137.

14. Tom Brokaw, The Greatest Generation (New York: Random House, 1998).

15. “Dr. Bill Cosby Speaks,” Rutgers University website, (accessed March 10, 2016).

16. Ibid.

17. Ibid.

18. Michael E. Dyson, Is Bill Cosby Right? Or Has the Black Middle Class Lost Its Mind? (New York: Basic Civitas Books, 2005), x.

19. Ibid., 172.

20. “Crime in North Carolina—1999 Annual Summary, Report of 1999 Uniform Crime Reporting Data,” North Carolina Department of Justice, shows Charlotte-Mecklenburg’s crime figures in 1999, when the city had a population of 520,829, see (accessed May 13, 2016). “Year to Date Summary,” Charlotte Police Department, December 2013, shows the city had grown to a population of 792,862, see May 13, 2016). General downward trajectory of crime from 2002 to 2014 is shown here at “Crime Rate in Charlotte, NC,”, see (accessed May 13, 2016).

21. Ibid.

22. “Teen Pregnancy Mecklenburg County, 1995–2008,” Mecklenburg County Health Department, Epidemiology Program, December 2009, shows the pregnancy rate for 15–19 year olds in Mecklenburg county was 74.4 per 1,000 in 1999, see–2008.pdf (accessed May 13, 2016). “2013 North Carolina Adolescent Pregnancies Ages 15–19,” Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Campaign of North Carolina, shows the pregnancy rate for 15–19 year olds in Mecklenburg County was 33.3 per 1,000 in 2013, see–19_NC.pdf (accessed May 13, 2016).

23. “2007 NC Resident African American Teen Pregnancies: Ages 15–19,” Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Campaign of North Carolina, shows the pregnancy rate for African Americans was 84.8, see (accessed May 13, 2016). “2012 North Carolina Adolescent Pregnancies by Race/Ethnicity and County,” APPC of North Carolina, shows that by 2012 the figure was down to 51.8, see–19_by_race.pdf (accessed May 13, 2016).

24. See Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research, Quick Tables, “List of Available Quick Tables for the National Survey on Drug Use and Health,” 2011, at–0001_all.

25. Jo Jones and William D. Mosher, “Fathers’ Involvement with Their Children: United States, 2006–2010,” National Health Statistics Reports, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, December 2013,

26. Alexander, New Jim Crow, 93.

27. Joseph E. Stiglitz, The Price of Inequality: How Today’s Divided Society Endangers Our Future (London: Allen Lane, 2012), 17.

28. “Number of Interracial Couples in U.S. Reaches All-Time High,” CNN, April 25, 2012,

29. Hope Yen, “A Census First: Black Voter Turnout Passes Whites,” NBC News, May 8, 2013,

30. “Unemployment Rates by Race and Ethnicity, 2010,” Bureau of Labor Statistics, October 5, 2011,; “Poverty Rate by Race/Ethnicity, 2014,” The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, April 12, 2016). Bruce Drake, “Incarceration Gap Widens Between Whites and Blacks,” Pew Research Center, September 6, 2013,

31. Michael A. Fletcher, “Fifty Years After March on Washington, Economic Gap Between Blacks, Whites Persists,” Washington Post, August 27, 2013,–0e66–11e3–8cddbcdc09410972_story.html?wprss=rss_business&tid=pp_widget.

32. Ian Millhiser, “American Schools Are More Segregated Now Than They Were in 1968, and The Supreme Court Doesn’t Care,” Think Progress, August 13, 2015,

33. Michael Harrington, The Other America: Poverty in the United States (New York: Scribner, 2012), 14.

34. See

35. Matt O’Brien, “Poor Kids Who Do Everything Right Don’t Do Better Than Rich Kids Who Do Everything Wrong,” Washington Post, October 18, 2014,

36. Leovy, Ghettoside, 243.


1. Joe Rodriguez, “San Jose: Teen Slain on Streets Named for Kids’ Tales,” San Jose Mercury News, November 24, 2013,

2. Ibid.

3. Ibid.

4. Malcolm W. Klein and Cheryl L. Maxson, Street Gang Patterns and Policies (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010), 81.

5. Amy Nilson, “Thanksgiving Marks Violent Crime on San Jose,” Crime Voice, December 3, 2013,

6. Rodriguez, “San Jose: Teen Slain on Streets Named for Kids’ Tales.”

7. Robert Salonga, “San Jose: Police Seeking Tips in Deadly Weekend Shooting,” San Jose Mercury News, November 27, 2013,

8. “Official Crime Statistics,” Table 3, San Jose Police Department website, (accessed April 4, 2016); Dan Ivers, “Newark Had Nation’s Third Highest Murder Rate in 2013, FBI Says,”, November 17, 2014,; “Crime in the United States, 2013,” Table 8 (Ohio), FBI website, (accessed April 4, 2016).

9. “City of San Jose,” Bay Area Census, (accessed March 11, 2016).

10. “San Jose Named Safest Big City,” Silicon Valley Business Journal, January 30, 2002,

11. “Official Crime Statistics,” San Jose Police Department website, Table 3 (property crime and violent crime combined), (accessed May 13, 2016). Compare to national statistics for 2012: “FBI Releases 2012 Crime Statistics,” FBI website, September 16, 2013, (accessed May 13, 2016). Mike Rosenberg, “San Jose Crime Rate Surpasses U.S. average,” San Jose Mercury News, December 16 2013,

12. Robert Salonga, “San Jose: Suspects Identified in City’s Latest Shooting Deaths,” San Jose Mercury News, December 4, 2013,

13. See


1. There were 17.3 people per square kilometer in 2010: Wikipedia, s.v. “Sanilac County, Michigan,”,_Michigan (accessed April 4, 2016). Compare to Finland, 17.98 per square kilometer in 2014: “Population Density (People per Sq Km) in Finland,” Trading Economics, (accessed April 4, 2016).

2. “Quick Facts, Sanilac County, Michigan,” United States Census Bureau, (accessed April 4, 2016). Compare to demographics of Norway: Wikipedia, s.v. “Demographics of Norway,” (accessed April 13, 2016).

3. Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, “Michigan Food and Agricultural Systems Profiles,” State of Michigan website, (accessed April 4, 2016), and

4. Kate McGill, The Beginnings of Marlette.

5. Ibid.

6. George Monbiot, “Rewilding Our Children,” website of George Monbiot, April 16, 2012,

7. McGill, The Beginnings of Marlette.

8. “2 in Airboat Report Being Targeted by Duck Hunter,” WNEM, November 5, 2013,

9. The Associated Press, “Teen Shoots Self in Foot While Hunting in Michigan,” Monroe News, November 29, 2013,

10. “Boy, 12, Accidentally Shot in Hand,” Sanilac County News, March 19, 2014,–03–19/News/Boy_12_accidentally_shot_in_hand.html.

11. Brad Devereaux, “Update: Marlette Elementary Student Shot, Killed at Sleepover Identified,” Michigan Live, December 2, 2013,

12. Devereaux, “Update.”

13. G. A. Jackman et al., “Seeing Is Believing: What Do Boys Do When They Find a Real Gun?” Pediatrics 107 (2001): 1247,

14. Michael Luo and Mike McIntire, “Children and Guns: The Hidden Toll,” New York Times, September 29, 2013,

15. Luo and McIntire, “Children and Guns.”

16. “Gun Homicides and Gun Ownership by Country,” Washington Post, December 17, 2012,

17. Linda L. Dahlberg et al., “Guns in the Home and Risk of a Violent Death in the Home: Findings from a National Study,” American Journal of Epidemiology 160, no. 10 (2004): 929–936,; Andrew Seamen, “Gun Access Tied to Greater Suicide, Murder Risk: Study,” Reuters, January 20, 2014,

18. Michael Luo, “NRA Stymies Firearms Research, Scientists Say,” New York Times, January 26, 2011,

19. Sam Stein, “The Congressman Who Restricted Gun Violence Research Has Regrets,” Huffington Post, October 6, 2015,

20. Ibid.

21. Luo, “NRA Stymies Firearms Research.”

22. Vivek Murthy, Twitter, October 16, 2012,

23. Zoë Carpenter, “Why the NRA Is Blocking Obama’s Surgeon General Nominee,” The Nation, March 18, 2014,

24. Mark A. Schuster et al., “Firearm Storage Patterns in US Homes with Children,” American Journal of Public Health 90, no. 4 (2000): 589–594, reprinted on RAND Corporation website,

25. F. Baxley and M. Miller, “Parental Misperceptions About Children and Firearms,” Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 160, no. 5 (May 2006): 542–547.

26. Catherine A. Okoro et al., “Prevalence of Household Firearms and Firearm-Storage Practices in the 50 States and the District of Columbia: Findings from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2002,” Pediatrics 116, no. 3 (September 2005),

27. U.S. Secret Service and U.S. Department of Education, The Final Report and Findings of the Safe School Initiative: Implications for the Prevention of School Attacks in the United States, July 2004,, 27.

28. Peter Cummings et al., “State Gun Safe Storage Laws and Child Mortality Due to Firearms,” Journal of the American Medical Association 278: 1084–1086.

29. David C. Grossman et al., “Gun Storage Practices and Risk of Youth Suicide and Unintentional Firearm Injuries,” Journal of the American Medical Association 293 (2005): 707, 711–713.

30. Everytown for Gun Safety and Moms Demand Action for Gun Sense in America, “Innocents Lost: A Year of Unintentional Child Gun Deaths,” Everytown for Gun Safety website, June 2014,, 12.

31. A. L. Kellerman, “Injuries and Deaths Due to Firearms in the Home,” Journal of Trauma, Injury, Infection and Critical Care 45, no. 2 (August 1998): 263–267.

32. “‘Someone Has to Answer for It’: Sheriff Seeks Charges Against Resident Where Boy Was Killed,” The County Press, December 11, 2013,

33. Eric Levine, “Dad, Son Charged in Fatal Shooting,” Sanilac County News, February 19, 2014,

34. Brad Devereaux, “Michigan Boy, 12, Gets ‘Intensive’ Probation in Shooting Death of 11-Year-Old Friend at Sleepover,” Michigan Live, May 7, 2014,

35. Brad Devereaux, “Father of 12-Year-Old Michigan Boy Who Killed Friend at Sleepover Gets Year in Jail,” Michigan Live, June 20, 2014,

36. “Father, Son Sued in Fatal Shooting,” Sanilac County News, May 27, 2015,

37. Quoted in Stephen P. Teret and Patti L. Culross, “Product-Oriented Approaches to Reducing Youth Gun Violence,” The Future of Children 12, no. 2 (2002): 119–131, quote on page 123,

38. “The Smith & Wesson Sellout,” NRA-ILA, March 20, 2000,

39. Michael S. Rosenwald, “‘We Need the iPhone of Guns’: Will Smart Guns Transform the Gun Industry?,” Washington Post, February 17, 2014,

40. Dan Roberts et al., “Tearful Obama Tightens Gun Control and Tells Inactive Congress: ‘We Can’t Wait,” Guardian, January 5, 2016,

41. Joel Rose, “A New Jersey Law That’s Kept Smart Guns off Shelves Nationwide,” NPR, June 24, 2015,

42. Rosenwald, “‘We Need the iPhone of Guns.’”

43. Ibid.

44. “Poll Finds Americans Skeptical of So-Called Smart Guns,” NRAILA, November 15, 2013,

45. Jeremy W. Peters, “‘Smart’ Firearm Draws Wrath of the Gun Lobby,” New York Times, April 28, 2014,

46. Michael S. Rosenwald, “Threats Against Maryland Gun Dealer Raise Doubts About Future of Smart Guns,” Washington Post, May 2, 2015,

47. U.S. General Accounting Office, Accidental Shootings: Many Deaths and Injuries Caused by Firearms Could Be Prevented, March 1991,, 4.


1. Monica Rhor, “Immigrants from Around the World Are Transforming Houston,” Houston Chronicle, March 5, 2015,

2. John Berger, A Seventh Man: Migrant Workers in Europe (New York: Viking Press, 1975).

3. Probinso2013, “From Swingersville to the Gulfton Ghetto, A Brief History,” Disposition Disposal (blog), June 8, 2013,

4. Ryan Pintado-Vertner, “The War on Youth,” Colorlines, December 10, 1999,

5. Foti Kallergis, Twitter, November 24, 2013,


1. Valerie Boyd, Wrapped in Rainbows: The Life of Zora Neale Hurston (New York: Scribner, 2003), 65.

2. Quoted in Nancy Gibbs, “An American Tragedy: The Aftermath of Katrina,” Time, September 4, 2005,

3. Jens Manuel Krogstad, “Gun Homicides Steady After Decline in ‘90s; Suicide Rate Edges Up,” Pew Research Center, October 21, 2015, Also see

4. Chris Kirk and Dan Kois, “How Many People Have Been Killed by Guns Since Newtown?” Slate, September 16, 2013,

5. Dan Kois, “A Year of Gun Deaths,” Slate, December 12, 2013,

6. Joe Nocera, “And in Last Week’s Gun News,” New York Times, January 29, 2013,

7. Adam Weinstein, “The Times Killed Its Gun Report After the Writer Asked for a Raise,” Gawker, June 20, 2014,

8. Joe Nocera, “The Last Gun Report,” New York Times, June 10, 2014,

9. Melissa Repko, “Teen Fatally Shot when Walking Down Street in Southeast Dallas,” Dallas Morning News, November 24, 2013,

10. “Dallas Teen Killed by Random Gunfire,” Fox 4, (story removed from site).

11. Susan D. Moeller, Compassion Fatigue: How the Media Sell Disease, Famine, War, and Death (New York: Routledge, 1999), or see

12. Stanley Cohen, States of Denial: Knowing About Atrocities and Suffering (Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 2013), 194.

13. Walter Lippmann, Public Opinion, 11, or see

14. Table: “Average and Median Amounts of Net Compensation,” Social Security Administration, (accessed April 13, 2016).

15. For 2013 personal income of $28,031, see

16. Lars Willnat and David H. Weaver, The American Journalist in the Digital Age (Bloomington, IN: School of Journalism, Indiana University, 2014),

17. Quoted in Michael E. Young, “Dallas Morning News Wins Pulitzer for Editorial Writing,” The Dallas Morning News, April 13, 2010,

18. Jesmyn Ward, Men We Reaped: A Memoir (New York: Bloomsbury, 2013), 237.

19. Quoted in Harvey J. Graff, The Dallas Myth: The Making and Unmaking of an American City (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2008), 17.

20. “JFK Death Not Associated with Dallas,” The Southeast Missourian, November 20, 1988,,2700778&hl=en.

21. Molly Ivins, Molly Ivins Can’t Say That, Can She? (New York: Random House, 1991), 37.

22. Douglas S. Massey and Nancy A. Denton, American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993), 75.

23. Quoted in Graff, The Dallas Myth, 19.

24. Ibid., 127.

25. “Quick Facts, Dallas, Texas,” United States Census Bureau, (accessed March 2, 2016).

26. Sam Howe Verhovek, “Dallas Is First Big Texas City to Elect a Black to Be Mayor,” New York Times, May 8, 1995,

27. Graff, The Dallas Myth, 169.

28. Jason DeParle et al., “Older, Suburban and Struggling, ‘Near Poor’ Startle the Census,” New York Times, November 19, 2011,

29. Hope Yen, “4 in 5 US Adults Face Near-Poverty, No Work for at Least Parts of Their Lives,” Business Insider, July 28, 2013,–7.

30. Ibid.

31. Joseph E. Stiglitz, The Price of Inequality: How Today’s Divided Society Endangers Our Future (London: Allen Lane, 2012), 10.

32. “Census Tract 116.01, Dallas County, Texas,” Table: Data,, (accessed April 13, 2016).


1. Brandy Zadrozny, “The Year in Murder: 2013 Marks a Historic Low for Many Cities,” The Daily Beast, January 1, 2014,

2. Gary Younge, “Gun Violence in Chicago: A Struggle for Answers in Obama’s Hometown,” Guardian, February 12, 2013,

3. “Crime in the United States 2012,” Table 8, Federal Bureau of Investigation, (accessed May 13, 2016). Compared to “Crime in the United States 2011,” Table 8, Federal Bureau of Investigation, (accessed May 13, 2016).

4. Matt Pearce, “10 Dead, 43 Wounded in Chicago’s Bloody Holiday Weekend,” Los Angeles Times, May 29, 2012,

5. See, “Operation Enduring Freedom, Coalition Military Fatalities by Year,” (accessed May 13, 2016). Compared to “Uniform Crime Reports,” Federal Bureau of Investigation, UCR Publications, Crime in the United States, (accessed May 13, 2016).

6. Peter Nickeas, “Fourth Sibling from Same Chicago Family Killed by Gun Violence,” Chicago Tribune, January 27, 2013,

7. Monica Davey, “In a Soaring Homicide Rate, a Divide in Chicago,” New York Times, January 3, 2013,

8. Douglas S. Massey and Nancy A. Denton, American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993), 9.

9. Sean Stillmaker, “Chicago Still the Most Segregated U.S. City,” Chicagoist, October 31, 2010,

10. Lolly Bowean and Jeremy Gorner, “Spike in Violence Takes Its Toll on Residents in Chicago’s Troubled Neighborhoods,” Chicago Tribune, July 1, 2012,–07–01/news/ct-met-chicago-violence-0701-20120701_1_homicides-last-year-neighborhoods-shootings.

11. Isabel Wilkerson, The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America’s Great Migration (New York: Vintage, 2010), 395.

12. Ibid., 396.

13. Barack Obama, Dreams from My Father: A Story of Race and Inheritance (New York: Three Rivers Press, 2004), 249.

14. “Mapping America: Every City, Every Block,” tract 4603, New York Times,

15. Ibid.

16. Ibid.

17. Obama, Dreams from My Father, 157.

18. Erica Demarest, “Slain South Chicago Teen Wanted to ‘Get His Life Straightened Out’: Family,” DNAinfo, November 24, 2013,

19. Ibid.

20. “National Youth Gang Survey Analysis,” National Gang Center, (accessed March 5, 2016).

21. Ibid.

22. H. R. Hutson et al., “The Epidemic of Gang-Related Homicides in Los Angeles County from 1979 Through 1994,” The Journal of the American Medical Association 274, no. 13 (1995): 1031–1036.

23. Malcolm W. Klein, The American Street Gang: Its Nature, Prevalence, and Control (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010), 81.

24. Deborah Prothrow-Stith with Michaele Weissman, Deadly Consequences: How Violence Is Destroying Our Teenage Population and a Plan to Begin Solving the Problem (New York: HarperPerennial, 1993), 106.

25. James Baldwin, The Evidence of Things Not Seen (New York: Owl Books, 1995), 8.

26. Michael Lansu, “Deandre Ellis Shot Dead at West Englewood Barbershop,” Homicide Watch Chicago: A Chicago Sun-Times Publication, September 27, 2014,

27. Prothrow-Stith and Weissman, Deadly Consequences, 24.

28. Scott Olsen, “One Dead, Seven Shot During Violent Weekend in Chicago,” Getty Images, November 25, 2013,

29. Sudhir A. Venkatesh, Gang Leader for a Day: A Rogue Sociologist Takes to the Streets (New York: Penguin Books, 2008), 29.

30. Jonathan Tilove, “Where Have All the Men Gone? Black Gender Gap is Widening,” Seattle Times, May 5, 2005,

31. “Census Tract 4603.02, Cook County, Illinois,” Table: Data,, (accessed April 13, 2016).

32. Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness (New York: The New Press, 2012), 189.


1. Nicholas Lemann, The Promised Land: The Great Black Migration and How It Changed America (London: PaperMac, 1992), 50.

2. Quoted in Brad Tuttle, How Newark Became Newark: The Rise, Fall, and Rebirth of an American City (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2011), 65.

3. Ibid., 8.

4. “New Jersey Resident Population by Municipality: 1930–1990,” New Jersey Department of Labor and Workforce Development, (accessed April 4, 2016).

5. Steve Strunsky, “Newark Teen Shooting Victim Recalled as ‘Good Dude’ Who Tried to Shield Girlfriend from Gunfire,”, November 24, 2013,

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid.

8. Ibid.

9. All quoted in Tuttle, How Newark Became Newark, 9.

10. Ibid., 208.

11. Ronald Smothers, “Newark’s Ex-Mayor Admits Tax Evasion and Avoids Prison,” New York Times, November 1, 2002,

12. Tuttle, How Newark Became Newark, 225.

13. Ibid., 266.

14. Ibid.

15. Strunsky, “Newark Teen Shooting Victim Recalled as ‘Good Dude.’”

16. Dale Russakoff, “Schooled,” New Yorker, May 19, 2014,

17. Tuttle, How Newark Became Newark, 162.

18. Kevin J. Mumford, Newark: A History of Race, Rights, and Riots in America (New York: New York University Press, 2007), 125.

19. Kerner Commission, “Report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders,” reproduced by the Eisenhower Foundation, (accessed March 2, 2016).

20. Lawrence Mishel et al., “Wage Stagnation in Nine Charts,” Economic Policy Institute, January 6, 2015,

21. Michael Greenstone and Adam Looney, “The Uncomfortable Truth About American Wages,” New York Times, October 22, 2012,

22. William J. Wilson, When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor (New York: Vintage, 1997), 26.

23. Ibid., 27.

24. Thomas J. Sugrue, The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2005), 123.

25. Wilson, When Work Disappears, 31.

26. John R. Logan and Brian J. Stults, “The Persistence of Segregation in the Metropolis: New Findings from the 2010 Census,” US 2010 Project, March 24, 2011,

27. Joshua Wilwohl, “Report: Newarkers Among New Jersey’s Poorest,” Newark Patch, November 7, 2011,

28. Douglas S. Massey and Nancy A. Denton, American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993), 126.

29. Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner, Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything (New York: HarperCollins, 2005), 99.

30. Delbert S. Elliott, “Youth Violence: An Overview” (paper presented at the Aspen Institute’s Children’s Policy Forum “Children and Violence Conference,” February 18–21, 1994),


1. Daniel J. Siegel, Brainstorm: The Power and Purpose of the Teenage Brain (New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher, 2013), 67.

2. Ibid., 69.

3. Ibid., 108.

4. Barbara Natterson-Horowitz and Kathryn Bowers, Zoobiquity: What Animals Can Teach Us About Health and the Science of Healing (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2012), 285.

5. Anthony Burgess, A Clockwork Orange (London: Penguin, 1992).

6. “George W. Bush: Out of His Father’s Shadow,” BBC News, November 8, 2000,

7. “Cameron Student Photo Is Banned,” BBC News, March 2, 2007,

8. “Justin Bieber Pleads Guilty to Careless Driving in Deal,” BBC News, August 13, 2014,

9. Michelle Alexander, The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness (New York: The New Press, 2012), 2.

10. Alexis De Tocqueville, Democracy in America, Harper Perennial edition (New York: Harper and Row, 1988), 232.

11. Jeffrey Toobin, “This Is My Jail,” New Yorker, April 14, 2014,

12. German Lopez, “Police Are Much Less Likely to Solve Homicides When the Victims Are Black,” Vox, June 11, 2015,

13. Quoted in Jill Leovy, Ghettoside: A True Story of Murder in America (London: The Bodley Head, 2015), xvii.

14. Ibid., xvii.

15. Frank Newport, “Gallup Review: Black and White Attitudes Toward Police,” Gallup, August 20, 2014,

16. Leovy, Ghettoside, xvii.


1. Gary Younge, “Tighter Gun Control Won’t Stop the Violence on Its Own,” Guardian, May 4, 2014,

2. “Portraits of the Hundreds of Children Killed by Guns Since Newtown,” Mother Jones, December 10, 2013,