The Animal Manifesto: Six Reasons for Expanding Our Compassion Footprint - Marc Bekoff (2010)
As much as possible, I have included websites for popular media and scholarly articles used during the research for this book. Quotes and references to books listed in the Resources section usually do not have a separate source note here.
Page 3, polls show that just as green awareness is blossoming across the planet: For 2006 Lake Research Partners poll, see Best Friends News Release, June 21, 2006, “In first annual Kindness Index,”http://www.bestfriends.org/ aboutus/pdfs/061906%20Kindness%2oIndex.pdf. The 2008 Gallup Environmental Poll is from the 2008 Deloitte publication, “Crossing the Green Divide,”http://www.deloitte.com/dtt/cda/doc/content/us_es_
Page 5, Eight Belles broke her front ankles while running during the 134th Kentucky Derby: Joe Drape, “At Kentucky Derby, Joy and Agony of Display,” New York Times, May 4, 2008, http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/05/04/sports/HORSE.php. For more, see Lynn Reardon, Beyond the Homestretch.
Page 8, when President Barack Obama nominated Harvard University law professor Cass Sunstein: Jonathan Stein, “Is Obama’s Regulatory Czar a ‘Radical Animal Rights Activist’?” Mother Jones, January 28, 2009, http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2009/02/0bamas-regulatory-czar-radical-animal-rights-activist.
Page 13, I learned that the number of mountain gorillas: For more on these stories, see Mark Kinver, “DR Congo Gorilla Numbers Up 12.5%,” BBC News, January 27, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/science/nature/7852953.stm; “Emperor Penguins Face Extinction,” BBC News, January 26, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/science/nature/7851276.stm; “Global Warming Is ‘Irreversible,’ “BBC News, January 27, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/science/nature/7852628.stm.
Page 13, the first wildlife migration corridor through the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem: “Ancient Pronghorn Path Becomes First US Wildlife Migration Corridor,” Environment News Service, June 17, 2008, http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/jun2008/2008-06-17-091.asp.
Page 13, a study of primates that found that 303 species: Lewis Smith, “Review of Primates Finds 303 Species Threatened,” The Australian, August 5, 2008, http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,25197,24131596-2703,00.html.
Page 13, imperiled right whales seem to be recovering: For more on these stories, see Cornelia Dean, “The Fall and Rise of the Right Whale,” New York Times, March 16, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/17/science/I7whal.html?_r=1&sq=fall%20rise%20right%20whale&st=cse&scp=1&pagewanted=all; VITA Animal Rights Center Press Release, “Russian Authorities Have Fully Banned the Hunt for Baby Harp Seals,” March 18, 2009, http://www.vita.org.ru/english/news.htm; Cornelia Dean, “One-third of US Bird Species Endangered, Study Finds,” New York Times, March 19, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/20/science/earth/2obird.html?scp=1&sq=one%20third%20bird&st=cse; Nora Schultz, “Africa’s First Bird Extinction Likely Within Four Years,” New Scientist, March 20, 2009, http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn16817-africas-first-bird-extinction-likely-within-four-years.html.
Page 14, sheep living on the remote island of Hirta off the coast of Scotland: Michael Marshall, “Incredible Shrinking Sheep Blamed on Climate Change,” New Scientist, July 2, 2009, http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn17407-incredible-shrinking-sheep-blamed-on-climate-change.html.
Page 14, three times as many polar bears are in a fasting state: For these polar bear stories, see Kate Ravilious, “More Polar Bears Going Hungry,” New Scientist, January 1, 2009, http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20126882.700-more-polar-bears-going-hungry.html; Felicity Barringer, “10 Polar Bears Are Seen Swimming in Open Water,” New York Times, August 22, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/23/science/23bears.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=10%20polar%20bears&st=cse&oref=slogin; Allegra Stratton, “Polar Bear Shot Dead After 200-Mile Swim,” The Guardian, June 5, 2008, http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2008/jun/05/animalwelfare.animalbehaviour.
Page 14, As author Richard Nelson writes about polar bears: “I looked toward her”: excerpt from Steven Kazlowski, The Last Polar Bear (Seattle: Mountaineers Books, 2008), appeared in Sierra Club newsletter, January/February 2008, http://www.sierraclub.org/sierra/200801/chilling.asp.
Page 15, a May 2007 issue of Newsweek contained an essay about the emotional lives of elephants: Hennie Lötter, “Deserving of Respect,” Newsweek, May 7, 2007, http://www.newsweek.com/id/35114.
Page 15, Wildlife biologists. . .described unique changes in the behavior of Tenino: Jay Mallonée, Timber: A Perfect Life (Whitehall, MT: New Perceptions Press, 2007).
Page 15, the New York Times even published obituaries for two famous animals: Benedict Carey, “Washoe, A Chimp of Many Words, Dies at 42,” New York Times, November 1, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/01/science/01chimp.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=washoe&st=cse&oref=slogin; Benedict Carey, “Brainy Parrot Dies, Emotive to the End,” New York Times, September 11, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/11/science/nparrot.html?scp=2&sq=ALEX+PARROT&st=nyt.
Page 16, in October 2008, the New York Times Magazine published a major piece of investigative journalism about the plight of farm animals: Maggie Jones, “Barnyard Strategist,” New York Times, October 24, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/26/magazine/26animal-t.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=pacelle&st=cse&oref=slogin; “Standing, Stretching, Turning Around,” editorial, New York Times, October 8, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/09/opinion/09thu3.html?_r=2&th&emc=th&oref=slogin&oref=slogin.
Page 19, As teacher and writer Todd Nelson has pointed out: Todd Nelson, “Our Civility Footprint or — Walk This Way,” Teachers.net Gazette, March 1, 2008, http://teachers.net/gazette/MAR08/nels0n. For the Animal Welfare Institute’s “Compassion Index,” see http://www.compassionindex.org.
Page 20, Amirtharaj Christy Williams, a biologist with the World Wildlife Fund’s Asian elephant and rhino program: Amirtharaj Christy Williams, “Where Should the Elephants Go?” BBC News, January 14, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/science/nature/7828251.stm.
REASON 1: All Animals Share the Earth and We Must Coexist
Page 27: Truth be told, the obliteration of animal dignity happens more than daily: UPI, “USDA Report Allegedly Shows Abuse,” December 4, 2008, http://www.upi.com/Science_News/2008/12/04/USDA_report_allegedly_shows_abuse/
Page 29, Noah Williams, a second-grade activist in Connecticut, wrote: Jampa Williams and Noah Williams, “Is An Animal A Thing? Or a Being?” Hartford Courant, November 11, 2007, http://connecticutforanimals.blogspot.com/2007/11/hartford-courant-op-ed-7-yo-ct-ar_12.html.
Page 30, Dominick LaCapra claims this is now the “century of the animal”: Dominick LaCapra’s claim was related to me by Walter Putnam after a lecture I gave at the University of New Mexico, February 6, 2008. In an email on February 9, 2008, Professor LaCapra gave me permission to quote him directly.
Page 31, City University of New York psychologist William Crain reports: William Crain, “Animal Feelings: Learning Not to Care and Not to Know,” Green Money Journal, Fall 2009, http://www.greenmoneyjournal.com/article.mpl?newsletterid=46&articleid=64O.
Page 31, as has happened with similar bequests, Ms. Helmsley’s wishes were overturned: Stephanie Strom, “Not All of Helmsley’s Trust Has to Go to Dogs,” New York Times, February 25, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/26/nyregion/26helmsley.html?scp=1&sq=unti&st=cse.
Page 32, 27 percent of pet owners buy birthday gifts: “Pampered Pets,” Daily Camera, June 16, 2008, http://www.dailycamera.com/news/2008/jun/16/pampered-pets; Paul Sheehan, “It’s a Dog’s Life — Without One,” Sydney Morning Herald, September 3, 2007, http://www.smh.com.au/newsopinion/its-a-dogs-life—without-one/2007/09/02/1188671796072.html.
Page 32, While racehorses often suffer abuse, they can also be extremely well cared for: For the story of Barbaro, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barbaro; for the story of Molly, see http://www.snopes.com/photos/animals/molly.asp, and http://www.greatpetnet.com/443/molly-the-fantastic-pony.
Page 36, the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) killed a male bear: “Sad End for Bear with Jar on Head,” BBC News, July 31, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/americas/7534325.stm.
Page 38, In February 2009 a chimpanzee named Travis, who had lived in a human home: Andy Newman and Anahad O’Connor, “Woman Mauled by Chimp Is Still in Critical Condition,” New York Times, February 17, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/18/nyregi0n/18chimp.html.
Page 40, Wisconsin lawmakers moved to lower the legal hunting age from twelve years of age to ten: Ryan J. Foley, “Wisconsin Moves to Lower Hunting Age to 10,” Associated Press, June 18, 2009, http://www.startribune.com/sports/outdoors/48543522.html.
Page 41, As one employee of Wildlife Services was quoted as saying, “No one wants you”: Men’s Journal, January 2008, Page 49.
Page 41, In the fiscal year 2007, people working for Wildlife Services killed 2.4 million animals: Jeff Barnard, “Agency Makes It Tough to Keep Tabs on Animal Kills,” AG Weekly, July 31, 2008, http://www.agweekly.com/articles/2008/07/31/news/ag_news/news31.txt.
Page 42, In 2008, Wildlife Services killed nearly five million wild animals and pets: “Wildlife Services Exterminates 125% More Animals in 2008,” WildEarth Guardians Press Release, June 17, 2009, http://www.wildearthguardians.org/library/paper.asp?nMode=i&nLibraryID=765.
Page 42, In Wyoming alone during the fiscalyear 2007, Wildlife Services gunned down: “Coyote Killing Jumps in State,” Casper StarTribune, August 1, 2008, http://casperstartribune.net/articles/2008/08/01/news/wyoming/
90bcecfdeb42c30f8725749800030485.txt; for the Alaska wolves, see Rodger Schlickeisen, “14 Wolf Pups Executed in Alaska,” News Blaze, August 1, 2008, http://newsblaze.com/st0ry/20080801080734ts0p.nb/t0pst0ry.html.
Page 42, Wildlife Services had twenty-four accidents with seven fatalities between 1989 and 2006: For the crash report, see the Sinapu blog, http://sinapu.wordpress.com/programs/protect-wildlife/the-air-war/aircraft-crashes/.
Page 45, birds in different locations are known to mimic ambulance sirens: For the details here, see Dawn Stover, “Not So Silent Spring,” Conservation Magazine 10 (Jan-Mar 2009), http://www.conservationmagazine.org/articles/vioni/not-so-silent-spring; Mark Kinver, “City Birds Sing for Silent Nights,” BBC News, April 25, 2007, http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/science/nature/6591649.stm; Mark Kinver, “Light Pollution Forms ‘Eco-Traps,’ “BBC News, January 16, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/science/nature/7821298.stm.
Page 45, As noted in the New York Times, “Most disturbing was the majority’s “: “Sonar Over Whales,” New York Times, October 19, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/19/opinion/19iht-edwhales.1.17959146.html.
Page 46, In February 2006, the Food and Agriculture Organization and in 1990, about 42 million marine mammals and sea birds were caught in drift nets: Marc Bekoff, “Ethics and Marine Mammals.” In Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, 2nd ed., edited by W. Perrin, B. Würsig, and H. Thewissen, 396 —402 (San Diego: Academic Press, 2008).
Page 47, local changes in climate are responsible for an increase in tiger attacks: “Climate Change Is Driving Increase in Tiger Attacks,” New Scientist, October 21, 2008, http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn15000.
Page 47, The migration patterns of Pacific brants, a sea goose, are changing: Mark Kinver, “Warming Arctic ‘Halts Migration,’” BBC News, September 17, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/science/nature/8257299.stm.
Page 47, recent studies have found that polar bears are getting smaller: Victoria Gill, “ ‘Stress’ Is Shrinking Polar Bears,” BBC News, August 25, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/science/nature/8214673.stm.
Page 47, biologist William Laurance argues that other less charismatic species: William Laurance, “Move Over, Polar Bear,” New Scientist, January 7, 2009, http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20126904.300-m0ve-0ver-polar-bear.html.
Page 49, John Hadidian, author of Wild Neighbors: The Humane Approach to Living with Wildlife: Joyce Wadler, “There Are Other Ways,” New York Times, June 5, 2008, http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9805EFD81E3FF936A35755C0A96E9C8B63&scp=1&sq=hadidian&st=cse.
Page 49, Indeed, recent studies of mountain lions living around Thousand Oaks, California: Rachel McGrath, “Mountain Lions Are Learning to Live with Developments,” Ventura County Star, January 20, 2009, http://www.venturacountystar.com/news/2009/jan/2o/mountain-lions-are-learning-to-live-with.
REASON 2: Animals Think and Feel
Page 55, In a 2008 essay in the New York Times, James Vlahos wrote about “pillpopping pets”: James Vlahos, “Pill-Popping Pets,” New York Times Magazine, July 13, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/13/magazine/13pets-t.html.
Page 56, Birds are quickly being recognized as equal to mammals: For these details, see Virginia Morell, “Minds of Their Own,” National Geographic, March 2008, http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2008/03/animal-minds/virginia-morell-text; Brandon Keim, “Clever Critters: 8 Best Non-Human Tool Users,” Wired Science, January 16, 2009, http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/01/animaltools; Ed Yong, “The Evolutionary Story of the ‘Language Gene,’” New Scientist, August 13, 2008, http://www.newscientist.com/channel/being-human/mg19926691.800-the-evolutionary-story-of-the-language-gene.html.
Page 57, Consider, for instance, the ability of cormorants to count: Erling Hoh, “Flying Fishes of Wucheng,” Natural History, October 1998, http://find-articles.com/p/articles/mi_m1134/is_n8_v107/ai_21191222/pg_4?tag=artBody;coli.
Page 58, “Queen’s University says new research it conducted shows crabs”: “Crabs ‘Sense and Remember Pain,’” BBC News, March 27, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/northern_ireland/7966807.stm.
Page 58, “A South American river dolphin uses branches, weeds and lumps of clay”: Richard Black, “Dolphin Woos with Wood and Grass,” BBC News, March 26, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/science/nature/7313385.stm.
Page 59, “Degus are highly social, intelligent rodents”: Sandra Blakeslee, “What a Rodent Can Do With a Rake in Its Paw,” New York Times, March 26, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/26/science/26r0dentw.html.
Page 59, “Recent research shows that cuttlefish can do things”: Michael Brooks, “The Secret Language of Cuttlefish,” New Scientist, April 26, 2008, http://www.newscientist.com/channel/life/mg9826531.000-the-secret-language-of-cuttlefish.html.
Page 59, “A wild dolphin is apparently teaching other members”: Richard Black, “Wild Dolphins Tail-walk on Water,” BBC News, August 19, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/science/nature/7570097.stm.
Page 60, “A 15-year-old South Australian school student has busted the myth “: “Schoolboy Explodes Goldfish Memory Myth,” The Age, February 18, 2008, http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2008/02/18/1203190696599.html; “Three-Second Memory Myth,” The Daily Mail, January 7, 2009, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1106884/Three-second-memory-myth-Fish-remember-months.html.
Page 60, “Bees display a remarkable range of talents”: Christof Koch, “Exploring Consciousness through the Study of Bees,” Scientific American, December 2008, http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=exploring-consciousness.
Page 61, “Worker ants in colonies with a queen are physically attacked”: “Ants ‘Get Aggressive with Cheats,’ “BBC News, January 10, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/science/nature/7818692.stm.
Page 61, “Female monkeys in Thailand have been observed showing their young”: “Monkeys ‘Teach Infants to Floss,’” BBC News, March 12, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7940052.stm.
Page 62, “Scientists believe they have solved the mystery of why”: Rebecca Morelle, “Chimps Craft Ultimate Fishing Rod,” BBC News, March 4, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/science/nature/7922120.stm.
Page 62, “Humpback whales have come up with a novel way”: Rebecca Morelle, “Hungry Whales Steal Birds’ Dinner,” BBC News, March 17, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/science/nature/7940396.stm.
Page 63, “Researchers have found that bearded capuchin monkeys”: Henry Fountain, “For the Tough Nuts, Capuchin Monkeys Select the Right Stones,” New York Times, January 16, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/20/science/200btool.html?_r=1 & scp=1 & sq=monkeys%20pick%2oright & st=cse.
Page 63, “Monkeys can feel regret too — at least when playing”: Fiona MacRae, “Monkeys Have Regrets Just Like Humans — At Least When They’re Playing Deal or No Deal,” Daily Mail, May 15, 2009, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1181650/Monkeys-regrets-just-like-humans—theyre-playing-Deal-No-Deal.xhtml#ixzzoM6DwoV3Q.
Page 64, “The legendary ‘bad temper’ of mules is because”: “Grumpy Mules ‘Highly intelligent,’” BBC News, September 3, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/devon/7596494.stm.
Page 64, “Magpies can recognise themselves in a mirror, scientists have found”: “Magpie ‘Can Recognise Reflection,’” BBC News, August 19, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/science/nature/7570291.stm.
Page 65, “A wild dolphin has been observed following a specific recipe”: Christine Dell’Amore, “Dolphin ‘Chef Follows Cuttlefish Recipe,” National Geographic News, January 28, 2009, http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2009/01/090128-dolphin-cuttlefish-meal.html.
Page 65, “Sperm whales are one of the deepest diving whales”: Richard Gray, “Sperm Whales Use Babysitters for Young,” The Telegraph, June 13, 2009, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/wildlife/552192o/Sperm-whalesuse-babysitters-for-young.html.
Page 66, “Dozens of people flocked the shoreline at Laniakea Beach “: “Turtle Love Goes Beyond the Grave,” CNN, July 24, 2008: for a clip of the CNN report, go to http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YzfkeVtddIM; for a transcript, go to http://editi0n.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0807/24/cnr.02.html.
Page 66, “Eleven-year-old gorilla Gana was holding her three-month-old baby”: Marcus Dunk, “A Mother’s Grief: Heartbroken Gorilla Cradles Her Dead Baby,” Daily News, August 18, 2008, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-1046549/A-mothers-grief-Heartbroken-gorilla-cradles-dead-baby.html.
Page 68, Christine Huffard, a graduate student at the University of California at Berkeley: Rachel Tompa, “The Secret Love Lives of Octopi,” Monterey Herald, April 12,2008, http://www.racheltompa.com/documents/Herald/Octopi041208.pdf; “Sea of Love: Octopi Have Sophisticated Sex Lives,” Bubblejam.net, April 2, 2008, http://www.bubblejam.net/brain/science.
Page 68, Consider the reflections of George Schaller: Michael Bond, “Interview: Feral and Free,” New Scientist, April 5, 2007, http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg9425981.600-interview-feral-and-free.html.
Page 69, Researcher James Burns and his colleagues reported in the prestigious journalEthology: J. G. Burns, A. Saravanan, and F. H. Rodd. “Rearing Environment Affects the Brain Size of Guppies: Lab-Reared Guppies Have Smaller Brains than Wild-Caught Guppies.” Ethology 115 (2009): 122 —33.
Page 70, Masking emotions can be a very important social skill: In general, see T. Dalgleish and M. Power, Handbook of Cognition and Emotion (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999), http://www.vhml.org/theses/wijayat/sources/writings/papers/facial_expression.pdf. For evidence in apes, see Joanne Tanner and Richard Byrne, “Concealing Facial Evidence of Mood: Perspective-taking in a Captive Gorilla?” Primates 34, no. 4 (October 1993), http://www.springerlink.com/content/p12153u435uvtu37.
Page 70, “The life of bees is like a magic well”: Quoted in Bert Hölldobler and E. O. Wilson, The Superorganism: The Beauty, Elegance, and Strangeness of Insect Societies (New York: W W Norton and Company, 2009), 73.
Page 70, In China in December 2008, a trio of monkeys attacked their trainer: “Performing Monkeys Attack Trainer in China,” The Telegraph, December 17, 2008, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/3816785/Performing-monkeys-attack-trainer-in-China.html.
Page 70, In another incident, a male chimpanzee at the Kolkata Zoo: “Chimp Takes Revenge at Indian Zoo,” Mail & Guardian, December 15, 2008, http://www.mg.co.za/article/2008-12-15-chimp-takes-revenge-at-indian-zoo.
Page 71, Elephant expert Iain Douglas-Hamilton wrote to me in a recent email: Quote from personal email to author, January 9, 2008. For more on elephant news, visit Save the Elephants (STE; http://www.savetheelephants.org/elephant-news-service.html), a news serve run by Melissa Groo.
Page 71, researchers in Namibia’s Etosha National Park are luring bull males: James Morgan, “Vibrations ‘Could Save Elephants,’” BBC News, February 14, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/science/nature/7890919.stm.
Page 71, this moving account of a funeral service for a baby who was mauled to death: Peter Jackson, “The Elephants’ Farewell in Botswana,” Sunday Times, January 28, 2007, http://travel.timesonline.co.uk/tol/
Page 72, Elephants have also been observed mourning a black rhinoceros: Schalk van Schalkwyk, “Elephant’s Sad Farewell to Friend,” News24.com, February 10, 2009, http://www.news24.com/News24/South_Africa/News/o,2-7-1442_2467026,00.html.
Page 73, I met some of these traumatized elephants at the David Sheldrick Wildlife Trust: For more on this organization, see http://www.sheldrickwildlifetrust.org/index.asp.
Page 73, A review of survivorship in Asian and African zoo elephants: R. M. Clubb, M. Rowcliffe, P. Lee, K. U. Mar, C. Moss, and G. Mason, “Compromised Survivorship in Zoo Elephants,” Science 322 (2008): 1649.
Page 75, in June 2006, researchers reported in the journal Science: Dale J. Langford et al. “Social Modulation of Pain as Evidence for Empathy in Mice,” Science 312 (2006): 1967.
Page 75, In a study of “muskrat love, “researchers separated nine male voles: Denise Gellene, “Bonding with a Mate Changes Brain Chemistry, Researchers Find,” Los Angeles Times, October 16, 2008, http://articles.latimes.com/2008/oct/16/science/sci-vole16.
Page 78, I like what Australian Bradley Trevor Greive, writes: Bradley Trevor Greive, Priceless: The Vanishing Beauty of a Fragile Planet (Kansas City, MO: Andrews McMeel Publishing, 2003), 93.
REASON 3: Animals Have and Deserve Compassion
Page 82, “Scientists are gathering evidence that[walruses are]”: Natalie Angier, “Who Is the Walrus?” New York Times, May 28, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/2o/science/2owalrus.html?_r=1&sq=walruses&st=cse&scp=2&pagewanted=all.
Page 82, “By all accounts the baby kangaroo should have not survived”: “Best Mates, the Baby Kangaroo and the Wonder Dog that Saved It,” Daily Mail, March 31, 2008, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-551330/Best-mates-baby-kangaroo-wonder-dog-saved-it.html.
Page 83, “A pygmy killer whale that beached itself on Maui”: Dan Nakaso, “Podmates Aided Dying Whale in Its Last Days” Honolulu Advertiser, May 27, 2009, http://www.network54.com/Forum/235380/
Page 83, “It looks like a moment of terror — a diver”: “The Amazing Moment Mila the Beluga Whale Saved a Stricken Diver’s Life by Pushing Her to the Surface,” Daily Mail, July 29, 2009, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/worldnews/article-1202941/Pictured-The-moment-Mila-brave-Beluga-whale-saved-stricken-divers-life-pushing-surface.html. 4, “In a case which gives the lie to the saying about ‘fighting like cats and “Hero Dog Risks Life to Save Kittens from Fire,” Reuters, October 26, 2008, http://www.reuters.com/article/oddlyEnoughNews/idUSTRE49P1VZ20081026.
Page 84, “The wandering 65-pound Pit Bull mix”: Amy Lieberman, “Stray Pit Bull Saves Woman, Child from Attacker,” Zootoo Pet News, November 5, 2008, http://www.zootoo.com/petnews/straydogsaveswomanchildheldatk.
Page 85, “A dog is recovering after a Florida Keys carpenter dove in “: “Man Dives In to Save Dog from Florida Shark Attack,” MSNBC, September 30, 2008, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/26956958/?gti=43001.
Page 85, “A local security guard recently discovered a peculiar scene”: “An Unusual Relationship Between Birds and Fishes,” Spluch Blogspot, August 30, 2007, http://spluch.blogspot.com/2007/08/unusual-relationship-between-birds-and.html. Page 86, “A dolphin has come to the rescue of two whales”: “New Zealand dolphin Rescues Beached Whales,” BBC News, March 12, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7291501.stm.
Page 87, “An eight-year-old dog has touched the hearts of Argentines “: Daniel Schweimler, “Argentine Dog Saves Abandoned Baby,” BBC News, August 23, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/americas/7577275.stm.
Page 87, “Trapped in a dark sewer, the six little mallard ducklings “: Paul Sims, “Amazing Rescue by a Mother Duck Who Went the Extra Mile,” Daily Mail, June 17, 2008, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1026801/Amazing-rescue-mother-duck-went-extra-mile.html.
Page 88, “A 25o-pound bear stranded under a bridge near Lake Tahoe”: “Bear Rescued from Bridge after Nearly Falling Off,” MSNBC, October 1, 2007, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/21078089.
Page 89, Consider these scenarios. A teenage female elephant was once nursing: For more on the examples in this section, see Marc Bekoff, Wild Justice.
Page 93, Domestic animals do this so naturally and powerfully: One example of this is the essay “The Healing Power of Dogs” by Tara Parker-Pope, New York Times, January 8, 2008, http://well.bl0gs.nytimes.com/2008/01/08/the-healing-power-of-dogs.
Page 94,Consider a study conducted by psychologist Carolyn ZahnWaxler: C.Zahn-Waxler, M. Radke-Yarrow, E. Wagner, and M. Chapman, “Development of Concern for Others,” Developmental Psychology28 (1992): 126 —36.
Page 94, In a completely different study, one focused on alleviating stress, Karen Allen: Karen Allen et al., “Presence of Human Friends and Pet Dogs as Moderators of Autonomic Responses to Stress in Women.” Journal ofPersonality and Social Psychology 61 (1991): 582 —89.
Page 95, “My entire life has been touched by birds”: This story was sent by Alexandria Neonakis to the author by email on August 14, 2008.
REASON 4: Connection Breeds Caring, Alienation Breeds Disrespect
Page 106, we suffer from what… Richard Louv calls nature-deficit disorder: See Richard Louv, Last Child in the Woods, and the author’s website, http://richardlouv.com. For more on the Children and Nature Network, visit http://www.childrenandnature.org.
Page 107, Australian environmental ethicist Rod Bennison has developed the notion: Rod Bennison, “Ecological Inclusion: An History of the Ideas That Have Shaped the Interaction Between Human and NonHuman Animals with a View to a New Interrelationship,” PhD diss., University of Newcastle, Australia, 2007.
Page 107, “Not long ago I lectured a group of keen university students “: Clive Marks, “When Extinction Becomes a Heresy,” Sydney Morning Herald, September 27, 2008, http://www.smh.com.au/news/environment/conservation/when-extinction-becomes-a-heresy/2008/09/26/1222217517619.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap2.
Page 108, “That’s the way hunting works. The thingyou’re hunting for”: William Yardley, “Wolves Aren’t Making It Easy for Idaho Hunters,” New York Times, September 10, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/11/us/nwolves.html?_r=1&hp. Emphasis added by author.
Page 109, Already living at the Moon Bear Centre were two dogs: For more about the Moon Bear Centre, visit www.animalsasia.org. For more about Tremor and Richter, visit http://www.animalsasia.org/blog/index.php?entry=entry080804-204808 and http://www.animalsasia.org/blog/index.php?entry=entry080723-001948.
Page 110, a New York restaurant purchased a just-caught 140-year-old lobster: “NY Eatery Frees Ancient Lobster,” BBC News, January 10, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/americas/7821645.stm.
Page 113, “Seeing those guys go at a zolb turkey is like poetry”: Time, December 3, 2007, Page 29.
Page 113, “In a study of urban, middle class children, Alina Pavlakos”: William Crain, “Animal Feelings: Learning Not to Care and Not to Know,” Green Money Journal, summer 2009, http://www.greenmoneyjournal.com/article.mpl?newsletterid=46&articleid=64O.
Page 114, The former mayor of Ojai, California, Suza Francina, has written that 4-Hprograms: Suza Francina, “4-H Responsibility Should Include Visit to Slaughterhouse,” Ventura County Star, August 16, 2009, http://www.venturacountystar.com/news/2009/aug/16/4-h-responsibility-should-include-\visit-to.
Page 115, In Australia 470 million chickens were slaughtered from 2006 to zooy: For more information, see Voiceless, the website of the Animal Protection Institute in Australia; the numbers here are cited from the “Nest to Nugget” report, http://www.voiceless.org.au/images/stories/reports/from_nest_to_nugget_cas_online_final.pdf.
Page 116, documented in 2008 at the Aviagen Turkeys plant in Lewisburg, West Virginia: Donald B. McNeil Jr., “Group Documents Cruelty to Turkeys,” New York Times, November 18, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/
Page 116, Cows display strong emotions; they feel pain, fear, and anxiety: Jonathan Leake, “The Secret Life of Moody Cows,” The Times, February 27, 2005, http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article416070.ece.
Page 116, While some have suggested that one solution would be to genetically engineer “pain-free” animals: Ewen Callawy, “Pain-free Animals Could Take Suffering Out of Farming,” New Scientist, September 2, 2009, http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20327243.400-painfree-animals-could-take-suffering-out-of-farming.html?full=true.
Page 117, Intensively farmed fish suffer from a range of welfare problems: Peter Stevenson, “Closed Waters,” the World Society for the Protection of Animals, 2007 report, http://www.ciwf.org.uk/includes/documents/
Page 117, The shocking abuse of “downer” cows … an undercover investigation by the U.S. Humane Society: “Expanded Undercover Investigation Shows Mistreatment of Downer Cows Is Commonplace at Livestock Auctions,” HSUS, May 7, 2008, http://www.hsus.org/farm/news/ournews/d0wner_investigati0n_050708.html.
Page 117, in July 2008, California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger strengthened the legal protections: “Farm Sanctuary Applauds Governor Schwarzenegger for Strengthening Legal Protections,” Reuters, July 23, 2008, http://www.reuters.com/article/pressRelease/idUS258696+23-Jul-2008+BW20080723; “Government Bans ‘Downer’ Cows from Food Supply,” Associated Press, March 14, 2009, http://www.newsvine.com/_news/2009/03/14/2546655-government-bans-downer-cows-from-food-supply.
Page 117, Raising animals in conditions that foster disease: For more information on factory farms, see the Humane Farming Association (https://hfa.org) and the Humane Society of the United States Factory Farming Campaign (www. hsus.org/ farm).
Page 117, Physicians at the Austin Medical Center in Minnesota were mystified: Denise Grady, “A Medical Mystery Unfolds at Minnesota Meatpacking Plant,” New York Times, February 5, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/05/health/05iht-O5pork.9742270.html.
Page 118, “We continue to allow agribusiness companies to add antibiotics”: Nicholas Kristof, “Pathogens in Our Pork,” New York Times, March 14, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/15/opinion/15krist0f.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=pathogens%20pork&st=cse.
Page 118, “We don’t let hog or dairy farms spread their waste unregulated”: Ian Urbina, “In Maryland, Focus on Poultry Industry Pollution,” New York Times, November 28, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/29/ us/29poultry.html?_r=1 & scp=1 & sq=maryland%20poultry & st=cse.
Page 119, industrial meat production is harming the planet, helping spur climate change, and degrading life for all species: For more information about industrial agriculture and the environment, see the Compassion in World Farming publications, http://www.ciwf.org.uk/resources/publications/environment_sustainability
Page 119, In New Zealand, 34.2. million sheep, S)-J million cattle, 1.4 million deer: Bijal Trivedi, “How Kangaroo Burgers Could Save the Planet,” New Scientist, December 25, 2008, http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20026873.100-how-kangaroo-burgers-could-save-the-planet.html.
Page 119, “producing a pound of beef creates 11 times as much greenhouse gas emission”: Elisabeth Rosenthal, “As More Eat Meat, a Bid to Cut Emissions,” New York Times, December 3, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/04/science/earth/04meat.html?pagewanted=2&_r=1&ref=science.
Page 119, “Global demand for meat has multiplied in recent years “: Mark Bittman, “Rethinking the Meat-Guzzler,” New York Times, January 27, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/01/27/weekinreview/27bittman.html.
Page 120, pharmaceutical medicines, pesticides, and chemicals used to treat andprotect agricultural animals: Peter M. J. Fisher and Ross Scott, “Evaluating and Controlling Pharmaceutical Emissions from Dairy Farms: A Critical First Step in Developing a Preventative Management Approach,” Journal of Cleaner Production 16, no. 14 (September 2008), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&
Page 120, one article summarized the report, “Don’t eat meat, ride a bike, and be a frugal shopper”: “Lifestyle Changes Can Curb Climate Change: IPCC Chief,” Agence France-Presse, January 15, 2008, http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5iIVBkZpOUA9Hz3Xc2u-61mDlrwoQ.
Page 121, a 2.008 study at Carnegie Mellon University found that “foregoing red meat and dairy just one day a week”: Natasha Loder, Elizabeth Finkel, Craig Meisner, and Pamela Ronald, “The Problem of What to Eat,” Conservation Magazine 9, no. 3 (July/September 2008), http://www.conservationmagazine.org/articles/v9n3/the-problem-of-what-to-eat.
Page 121, the carbon footprint of meat-eaters is almost twice that of vegetarians: A. C. Bert, “Love Mother Earth? Slash Carbon Footprint by Going Veggie,” Now Public blog, August 26, 2008, http://www.nowpublic.com/environment/love-mother-earth-slash-carbon-footprint-going-veggie
Page 121, humans are now consuming allresources jo percent faster than the sustainable rate of replenishment: “6.7 Billion People Overconsume by 30%,” World Population Balance Newsletter, August 2009, http://www.worldpopulationbalance.org/wpb_newsletters/
Page 124, “Switching from the average American diet to a vegetarian one”: Bijal Trivedi, “What Is Your Dinner Doing to the Climate?” New Scientist, September 11, 2008, http://environment.newscientist.com/article/mg19926731.700.
REASON 5: Our World Is Not Compassionate to Animals
Page 129, the U.S. National Research Council recently concluded that the testing of toxic substances: “Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy,” National Academy of Sciences, 2007, http://dels.nas.edu/dels/rpt_briefs/Toxicity_Testing_final.pdf; for the report from England, see “Call to End Animal Pain-Research,” BBC News, August 14, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/health/7561061.stm.
Page 129, Sharon Begley discovered that “153 out of’ 167 government-funded studies of bisphenol-A”: Sharon Begley, “Just Say No — To Bad Science,” Newsweek, 2007, http://www.newsweek.com/id/35104.
Page 130, rent the 2005 documentary film Earthlings: To see a preview of Earthlings, and get information about screenings, visit http://www.earthlings.com.
Page 131, “The Army says it’s critical to saving the lives of wounded soldiers”: “Army Shoots Live Pigs for Medical Drill,” MSNBC, July 18, 2008, http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/25735344/.
Page 131, “Newly released videos are raising questions about the military’s continued use “: “Videos Renew Debate on Military Use of Animals,” CNN, June 5, 2009, http://www.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/06/05/military.animals.training.
Page 132, “A dolphin has died after colliding with another dolphin “: “Dolphin Dies After Aerial Collision in US,” Sydney Morning Herald, April 29, 2008, http://www.smh.com.au/news/news/dolphin-dies-after-aerial-collision-in-us/2008/04/29/1209234842080.html.
Page 132, “The Berlin Zoo is under pressure to explain the fate of hundreds of animals”: Kate Connolly, “Unbearable Zoo Mystery Turns into Potboiler,” Sydney Morning Herald, March 29, 2008, http://www.smh.com.au/news/environment/unbearable-zoo-mystery-turns-into-potboiler/2008/03/28/1206207408578.html.
Page 133, “Senior zoo experts, staff and the RSPCA have accused the Melbourne Zoo”: Royce Miller and Cameron Houston, “Zoo Rocked by Abuse Allegations,” The Age, January 19, 2008, http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/zoo-rocked-by-abuse-allegations/2008/01/18/1200620212113.html.
Page 134, “Staff at a Hamburg zoo say one of their orangutans died”: “Orangutan Drowns in German Zoo,” De Spiegel, July 31, 2008, http://www.spiegel.de/international/zeitgeist/0,1518,569266,00.html.
Page 134, “Thirty-two research monkeys at a Nevada laboratory died”: Scott Sonner, “32 Research Monkeys Die in Accident at Nevada Lab,” Asssociated Press, August 7, 2008, http://www.foxnews.com/wires/2008Aug07/0,4670,ResearchMonkeyDeaths,00.html.
Page 134, “A monkey, slotted to be used in a drug-product research experiment”: Chris Halsne, “Monkey Boiled Alive at Research Lab,” KIRO TV, January 31, 2008, http://www.kirotv.com/news/15189249/detail.html.
Page 136, U.S. Department of Agriculture statistics for the fiscal year 2005 listed: The information about this USDA report is from the “Animal Experimentation in the United States (2007)” fact sheet by Stop Animal Exploitation Now, http://www.all-creatures.org/saen/fact-anex-2007.html.
Page 136, Worldwide in zoo5, it was estimated that in ijg countries about 58.3 million: Katy Taylor, N. Gordon, G. Langley, and W. Higgins, “Estimates for Worldwide Laboratory Animal Use in 2005,” Alternatives to Laboratory Animals 36 (2008): 327 —42.
Page 136, Veterinarian Andrew Knight has estimated that 68,607, 807 additional animals: Andrew Knight, “127 Million Non-human Vertebrates Used Worldwide for Scientific Purposes in 2005,” ATLA: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals 36, no. 5 (2008): 494 —96.
Page 137, Britain reported that experiments on animals rose to 3.2 million: Nigel Morris, “Experiments on Animals Rose to 3.2m Last Year,” The Independent, July 22, 2008, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/experiments-on-animals-rose-to-32m-last-year-873747.html.
Page 137, In the United States … a marked increase in primates imported: These numbers come from the Humane Society of the United States website, “An Introduction to Primate Issues,” http://www.hsus.org/animals_in_research/
Page 137, “In all, 1,149people were convicted in 2007 for crimes against animals”: James Meikle, “RSPCA: ‘Throwaway Society’ Blamed as Animal Cruelty Convictions Rise,” The Guardian, July 30, 2008, http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2008/jul/30/ukcrime.
Page 138, the market for purebred or pedigree dogs has led to the rise of abusive “puppy mills”: For more information, see the Humane Society of the United States website, “Puppy Mills,” http://www.hsus.org/pets/issues_affecting_our_pets/get_the_facts_on_puppy_mills.
Page 138, Renowned Australian veterinarian Paul McGreevy laments, “Pedigree dogs”: Paul McGreevy, “Comment: We Must Breed Happier, Healthier Dogs,” New Scientist, October 8, 2008, http://www.newscientist.com/channel/opinion/mg20026776.400-comment-we-must-breed-happier-healthier-dogs.html; for BBC coverage of the Crufts dog show, see Henry Chu, “A British Fight Over Dog-breeding Ethics Gets Pug Ugly,” Los Angeles Times, March 5, 2009, http://articles.latimes.com/2009/mar/O5/world/fg-britain-dogshow5.
Page 138, Internationally, millions of wild animals are traded illegally: For more information on the illegal wildlife trade, see the websites of the Humane Society of the United States, “Wildlife Trade,” http://www.hsus.org/wildlife/issues_facing_wildlife/wildlife_ trade, and of “Traffic,” http://www.traffic.org.
Page 140, Worldwide, as many as 300, 000 cetaceans slowly meet their death: For this information, see “Shrouded by the Sea: The Animal Welfare Implications of Cetacean Bycatch in Fisheries — a Summary Document,” Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society (2008), http://www.wdcs.org/submissions_bin/wdcs__bycatchrep0rt_2008.pdf.
Page 141, a thirty-year study on Ram Mountain in Alberta, Canada, biologist Marco Festa-Bianchet Sherbrooke: Lily Huang, “It’s Survival of the Weak and Scrawny,” Newsweek, January 12, 2009, http://www.newsweek.com/id/177709?from=rss. For more on this research, see Cornelia Dean, “Research Ties Human Acts to Harmful Rates of Species Evolution,” New York Times, January 12, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/13/science/I3fish.html?_r=2&ref=science.
Page 141, elephants spend between 72 to 96 percent of the time chained: For more information on animal welfare in circuses, visit www.captiveanimals.org.
Page 142, a suit was filed against Ringling Brothers and Barnum & Bailey Circus: David Stout, “Suit Challenges Image of Circus Elephants as Willing Performers,” New York Times, January 31, 2009, http://www.nytimes.com/ 2009/02/01/us/01circus.html?_r=1 & scp=1 & sq=suit%20challenges% 2oimage & st=cse.
Page 142, a recent British study found that about 54 percent of elephants: Craig Redmond, “The Elephant in the Cage,” The Guardian, December 12, 2008, http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2008/dec/12/elephants-zoos-animal-welfare.
Page 142, Wouldn’t zoos without elephants and lions … become lessons in compassion?: For an editorial proposing this idea, see Lori Marino, Gay Bradshaw, and Randy Malamud, “Zoos Without Elephants: A Lesson in Compassion,” Los Angeles Times, December 15, 2008, http://www.latimesxom/news/opinion/la-oew-marino15-2008dec15,0,1163582.story.
Page 143, the minimum standard of care for animals . .. is established by the Animal Welfare Act (AWA): For more information on the AWA, see the U.S. Humane Society website, “Laws Protecting Animals in Research,” http://www.hsus.org/animals_in
Page 143, violations of the Animal Welfare Act in the United States increased more than go percent: For more information on animal research, see the Stop Animal Exploitation Now! (SAEN) website, http://www.all-creatures.org/saen.
Page 143, “Millions of birds suffer miserably each year in government, university”: Karen Davis, “The Experimental Use of Chickens and Other Birds in Biomedical and Agricultural Research,” United Poultry Concerns, 2003, http://www.upc-online.org/genetic/experimental.htm.
Page 144, “The federal government should conduct a thorough review of the regulations”: “Against Vicious Activism,” editorial, Nature 457, February 5, 2009, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v457/n723o/pdf/457636a.pdf.
Page 145, a 2008 story in the New Scientist looked at researchers who weep: Andy Coghlan, “Lab Animal Carers Suffer in Silence,” New Scientist, March 26, 2008, http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19726493.700-labanimal-carers-suffer-in-silence.html.
Page 146, “Mice are lousy models for clinical studies”: The quote by Mark Davis is from “Mouse Trap? Immunologist Calls for More Research on Humans, Not Mice,” Science Daily, December 31, 2008, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/12/081218122154.htm.
Page 146, “Since President Richard Nixon declared the war on cancer”: Andrew Knight, “Animals Needn’t Die to Save Human Lives,” Seattle Times, October 14, 2003, http://www.aknight.info/pages/publications/animal% 2oresearch%2omedical/editorial_seattle_times_2003.htm.
Page 147, The U.S. National Institutes of Health.. .promotes a children’s coloring book called The Lucky Puppy: To see this coloring book, visit http://kids.niehs.nih.gov/images/coloring/luckycolor.pdf.
Page 147, Stuart Derbyshire and Andrew Bagshaw wrote, “We believe that animals are sufficiently different”: “Animal Pain Is Scientifically Valid: Whether It Is Morally Acceptable Is Another Question,” Alternatives to Laboratory Animals 36 (2008): 491.
Page 147, Roberto Caminiti, chair of the Programme of European Neuroscience Schools, argues: The quotes of Roberto Caminiti and Bill Crum are from Bill Crum, “It Should Be Possible to Replace Animals in Research,” Nature457, February 2009, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v457/n230/pdf/457657b.pdf.
Page 148, “When one empirically analyzes animal models using scientific tools”: Niall Shanks, Ray Greek, and Jean Greek, “Are Animal Models Predictive for Humans?” Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 4, no. 2 (January 15, 2009), http://www.peh-med.eom/content/4/1/2/abstract.
Page 148, “When it comes to adapting therapeutic interventions”: “Mouse Trap? Immunologist Calls for More Research on Humans, Not Mice,” Science Daily, December 31,2008, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/12/081218122154.htm.
Page 149, In a paper titled “The Poor Contribution of Chimpanzee Experiments to Biomedical Progress”: Andrew Knight, “The Poor Contribution of Chimpanzee Experiments to Biomedical Progress,” Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 10, no. 4 (2007), http://lib.bioinfo.pi/pmid:17970631.
Page 149, the U.S. National Institutes of Health and the Environmental Protection Agency announced a five-year deal: Larry Greenemeier, “Feds Agree to Toxicity Tests that Cut Animal Testing,” Scientific American, February 15, 2008, http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=feds-agree-to-toxicity-test.
Page 150, “In previous studies, researchers showed that humans who had been paralyzed”: Benedict Carey, “Monkeys Think, Moving Artificial Arm as Own,” New York Times, May 29, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/29/science/29brain.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=monkeys+robot+arm&st=nyt&oref=slogin.
Page 150, The deplorable maternal-deprivation studies of Harry Harlow at the University of Wisconsin: For more information on the current and historic use of monkeys at the University of Wisconsin, visit the website for Madison’s Hidden Monkeys, http://www.madisonmonkeys.com/index.htm.
Page 151, Psychologist Kenneth Shapiro has written extensively about the use of animal models: For instance, see Kenneth Shapiro, Animal Models of Human Psychology: Critique of Science, Ethics and Policy (Seattle: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers, 1998).
Page 152, “The monoclonal antibody TGN1412 was safe in monkeys”: John J. Pippin, “Opposing View: Replace Animal Experiments,” USA Today, December 15, 2008.
Page 152, Jonathan Balcombe and his colleagues analyzed eighty published studies: Jonathan Balcombe, “Laboratory Routines Cause Animal Stress,” Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science (autumn 2004), as announced in a news release by the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, November 18, 2004, http://www.pcrm.org/news/release041118.html.
Page 153, I am not interested to know whether vivisection: Quoted in Joshua Katcher, “Vivisection Takes Front Stage in New York Times, Today,” The Discerning Brute, May 28, 2008, http://thediscerningbrute.com/2008/05/28/vivisection-takes-front-stage-in-new-york-times-today/.
Page 153, an antivivisection movement has argued that these practices are immoral: In 2008 the American Anti-Vivisection Society published an extremely useful historical account of the anti-vivisection movement, called “The Birth of a Movement”; to read it, visit http://www.aavs.org/images/spring2008.pdf. For more information on animal use in research and education, visit Inter Niche, http://www.interniche.org.
Page 154, Medical schools in the United States are also “swapping pigs for plastic”: Meredith Wadman, “Medical Schools Swap Pigs for Plastic,” Nature News, May 7, 2008, http://www.nature.com/news/2008/080507/full/453140a.html.
Page 154, In January 2008, the New York Times reported that all American medical schools: Nicholas Bakalar, “Killing Dogs in Training of Doctors Is to End,” New York Times, January 1, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/ 01/01/heal th/research/oidog.html?_r=1 & scp=1 & sq=belloni%2odogs & st= cse & oref=slogin. For more information on dissection and its alternatives, see the American Anti-Vivisection Society (www.aavs.org), and In Defense of Animals’ Dissection Campaign (http://www.idausa.org/campaigns/dissection/dissection.html), and PETA Kids (www.petakids.com/disindex.html).
Page 155, “such a severe case of capture myopathy — a kind of muscle meltdown”: “Bears Captured for Research More Prone to Injuries, Death,” Edmonton Journal, August 19, 2008, http://www.canada.com/topics/news/national/story.html?1d=7be8722e-o83C-42ce-af35-6ecaa7f3ee36.
Page 156, John Brusher and Jennifer Schull have developed nonlethal methods for determining: John Brusher and Jennifer Schull, “Non-lethal Age Determination for Juvenile Goliath Grouper Epinephelus itajara from Southwest Florida,” Endangered Species Research 7 (July 2009), http://www.int-res.com/articles/esr2009/7/n007p205.pdf.
Page 156, Even a 2009 essay in the New York Times noted the effectiveness of noninvasive research: Jim Robbins, “Tools that Leave Wildlife Unbothered Widen Research Horizons,” New York Times, March 9, 2009, http://www .nytimes.com/2009/03/10/science/10wild.html? scp=1 & sq= tools%2owildlife%2ounbothered & st=cse.
Page 158, Israeli scientists are using the behavior of disturbed animals in zoos: “Bears, Gazelles and Rats Inspire New Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Treatment,” Science Daily, January 28, 2009, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/01/090127170708.htm.
Page 159, injuries in rodeos are very common: For more on rodeo injuries, mutton busting, and more, visit the website Showing Animals Respect and Kindness (SHARK), http://www.sharkonline.org, and the ASPCA, http://www.aspca.org/about-us/policy-positions/rodeo.html. For the Bud Kerby quote, see the PETA fact sheet “Rodeo: Cruelty for a Buck,” http://www.peta.org/factsheet/files/FactsheetDisplay.asp?ID=69.
Page 159, In June zoog in Longmont, Colorado, a twelve-year-old boy was killed when a bull: Vanessa Miller, “Coroner: Boy Died of Ruptured Heart Valve,” The Daily Camera, June 29,2009, www.dailycamera.com/ci_13126842.
Page 160, Ralph, an adolescent, twenty-two-foot-long whale shark, died mysteriously: Shaila Dewan, “Death of a Shark Leaves Scientists Grasping,” New York Times, January 13, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/13/science/13shark.html. For more on animal welfare in zoos, see Michael D. Lemonick, “Who Belongs in the Zoo?” Time, June 11, 2006, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1202920,00.html.
Page 161, an essay in Time magazine even speculated whether Tatiana: Alexandra Silver, “Did This Tiger Hold a Grudge?” Time, December 28, 2007, http://www.time.eom/time/health/article/0,8599,1698987,00.html.
Page 162, Stephen Zawistowski, science adviser for the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals: Lisa Leff and Terence Chea, “Experts Say Taunting Wasn’t Only Factor in Tiger Attack,” Big Cat News, January 18, 2008, http://bigcatnews.blogspot.com/2008/o1/experts-say-tauntingwasnt-only-factor.html.
Page 163, when I was a reader for the “Review of the Smithsonian Institution’s National Zoological Park”: For more details on this report, see Marc Bekoff, “It’s Not Happening at the Zoo,” Animal Welfare Institute,http://www.awi0nline.0rg/ht/d/ContentDetails/i/1927/pid/2505. For my January 26, 2004, reader’s report on the National Zoo’s review, visit the Animal Welfare Institute website, http://www.awionline.org/ht/display/ContentDetails/i/n644/pid/25O5.
Page 167, “In the past 10years Western zoos have spent or committed”: Georgia Mason, “It Is Cruel to Keep Elephants in Captivity,” The Independent, December 12, 2008, http://www.independent.co.uk/opinion/commentators/georgia-mason-it-iisi-cruel-to-keep-elephants-in-captivity-1062899.html.
Page 169, A recent study conducted by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums: “Why Zoos & Aquariums Matter,” Association of Zoos & Aquariums, 2007, http://www.aza.org/uploadedFiles/Education/why_zoos_matter.pdf.
Page 170, In one study conducted at the Edinburgh Zoo in Scotland: See Animalearn Fact Files, #11, Animals in Entertainment, published by the American Anti-Vivisection Society, http://www.animalearn.org/home.php.
Page 170, the conservation camps in Chengdu, China, which Sarah Bexell and her Chinese colleagues have organized: See Sarah Bexell, “Effect of a Wildlife Conservation Camp Experience in China” (2006) and “Nurturing Humane Attitudes toward Animals” (2010); full citations are in References. : 173, the results of a national survey of i5y veterinary faculty in the United States: C. R. Heleski, A. Mertig, A. J. Zanella, “Results of a National Survey of US Veterinary College Faculty Regarding Attitudes Toward Farm Animal Welfare,” Journal ofthe American Veterinary Medical Association 226, no. 9 (May 2005), http://www.cababstractsplus.org/google/abstract.asp?AcNo=20053093469.
Page 174, Françoise Wemels felder stresses in her excellent work: Françoise Wemelsfelder, “How Animals Communicate Quality of Life: The Qualitative Assessment of Behavior,” Animal Welfare 16 (May 2007), http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/
Page 175, “Although it is true that I chose the items listed as critical to the welfare”: Sue Savage-Rumbaugh, “Welfare of Apes in Captive Environments: Comments On, and By, a Specific Group of Apes,” Journal o fApplied Animal Welfare Science 10, no. 1 (March 2007, http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~
content=a788000924~db=all~order=page. For more on Sue Savage-Rumbaugh and her bonobo studies, see Wendy Jewell, “Science Hero: Dr. Sue Savage-Rumbaugh,” MyHero.com, http://www.myhero.com/myhero/hero.asp?hero=sue_savage_rumbaugh; and the Great Ape Trust of Iowa website, http://www.iowagreatapes.org/media/releases/2008/nr_ioao8.php.
REASON 6: Acting Compassionately Helps All Beings and Our World
Page 177, “To see animals who have been tortured all their lives “: Hannah Wiest, “Wipe Your Paws,” Casper Star-Tribune, September 13, 2008, http://www.trib.com/news/state-and-regional/article_3c8oa45C-259O-56369eee-2cb44df9c865.html. For more on the Kindness Ranch, visit their website, http://kindnessranch.org.
Page 178, In 2.002, the Party for the Animals was founded in the Netherlands: For more on Partij Voor de Dieren (Party for the Animals), visit http://www.partijvoordedieren.nl/content/view/129.
Page 179, the European Union was considering revising and updating its regulations over the use of animals: “Revision of Directive 86/609/EEC on the Protection of Animals Used for Experimental and Other Scientific Purposes,” European Commission website, May 11, 2008, http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/revision_en.htm; see also “Revised Directive 86/609/EEC on Animal Experiments,” Dr. Hadwen Trust, November 5, 2008, http://www.drhadwentrust.org/news/revised-directive-86609eec-on-animal-experiments-read-the-dr-hadwen-trusts-reaction-to-new-draft. For more on Animals Count, visit their website, www.animalscount.org.
Page 179, In July 2009, China drafted the country’s first law on animal protection: “Animal Rights on the Agenda in China,” CCTV, June 28, 2009, http://www.cctv.com/program/newshour/20090628/102405.shtml.
Page 180, In the small Portuguese town of Viana do Castelo . . the mayor banned bullfighting: “International Praise for Portuguese Mayor After Bull Ring Is Redeveloped,” League Against Cruel Sports, January 8, 2009, http://www.league.org.uk/news_details.asp?NewsID=ii33.
Page 180, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger signed a law that strengthened the protection of downed cows: “Gov. Schwarzenegger Signs Law Strengthening California’s Protection for Downed Cows,” Humane Society of the United States press release, July 22, 2008, http://www.hsus.org/press_
Page 180, In New Jersey, Farm Sanctuary achieved a precedent-setting victory: “Unanimous Decision of New Jersey Supreme Court Results in Precedent Setting Victory for Farm Animals,” Farm Sanctuary press release, July 30, 2008, http://www.farmsanctuary.org/mediacenter/2008/pr_nj_decisiono8.html. See also the main Farm Sanctuary website, www.farmsanctuary.org.
Page 182, “Colorado is now the first state in the country to ban the use of gestation crates”: “Colorado Bans the Veal Crate and the Gestation Crate,” Compassion in World Farming press release, May 19, 2008, http://www.ciwf.org.uk/news/factory_farming/colorado_bans_veal_crates.aspx.
Page 183, “[Lily] Tomlin last year took up the cause of Jenny”: Patrick Williams, “Appealing to Dallas’ Wallet, Lily Tomlin Keeps Trying to Move Jenny the Elephant,” Dallas Observer, January 28, 2009, http://www.dallas0bserver.com/2009-01-29/news/never-forget.
Page 183, “The unwanted horses seemed destined for death”: Lyndsey Lay ton, “A Dramatic Rescue for Doomed Wild Horses of the West,” Washington Post, November 18, 2008, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/11/17/AR2008111703680.html.
Page 184, “Spain’s parliament voiced its support on Wednesday”: Martin Roberts, “Spanish Parliament to Extend Rights to Apes,” Reuters, June 25, 2008, http://www.reuters.com/article/scienceNews/idUSL256586320080625?sp=true.
Page 184, “Born Free USA… today congratulated the US House of Representatives”: “US Congress Moves Swiftly on Legislation to Stop ‘Pet’ Primate Trade,” Reuters, February 24, 2009, http://www.reuters.com/article/pressRelease/idUS24i547+24-Feb-2009+PRN2009O224.
Page 185, “The government of Cameroon has created a new national park”: Richard Black, “Protection Boost for Rare Gorilla,” BBC News, November 28, 2008, http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/science/nature/7754544.stm.
Page 186, “The European Commission on Wednesday proposed a ban on seal products”: Leigh Phillips, “Brussels proposes ban on seal cruelty,” EU Observer.com, July 23, 2008, http://euobserver.com/9/2653o.
Page 193, soldiers in Zimbabwe are being fed elephant meat for their rations: “Zimbabwe Troops ‘Eat Elephants,’” BBC News, January 9, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.Uk/2/hi/africa/7820885.stm.
Page 194, “If you want to protect wildlife in developing countries”: Bryan Walsh, “Eco-Bargain: Save Animals, Reduce Poverty,” Time, February 1, 2008, http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,17O9186,00.html.
Page 197, As Mike Tidwellpoints out in his essay “The Low-Carbon Diet”: Mike Tidwell, “The Low-Carbon Diet,” Audubon, January-February 2009, http://www.audubonmagazine.org/featureso9o1/viewpoint.html.
Page 201, Our stewardship of wild animals should continue: Clive Marks, “When Extinction Becomes a Heresy,” Sydney Morning Herald, September 27, 2008, http://www.smh.com.au/news/environment/conservation/whenextinction-becomes-a-heresy/2008/o9/26/i2222i75i76i9.html?page=fullpage#contentSwap2.
Page 203, “In July last year, a butterfly landed on my shoulder”: Dan Southerland, “The Butterfly Effect,” Washington Post, August 24, 2008, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/o8/15/AR2008081502356_pf.html.
Page 206, “Human beings are wired to care . .. and it’s probably our best route to happiness”: Patricia Leigh Brown, “Even If You Can’t Buy It, Happiness Is Big Business,” New York Times, November 26, 2008, www.nytimes.com/2008/n/27/us/27happy.html?scp=3&sq=dacher&st=cse.