References and Further Reading - Why You Love Music: From Mozart to Metallica-The Emotional Power of Beautiful Sounds - John Powell

Why You Love Music: From Mozart to Metallica-The Emotional Power of Beautiful Sounds - John Powell (2016)

References and Further Reading

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A. Main textbook references and suggestions for further reading

Chapter 1 What Is Your Taste in Music?

Adrian North and David Hargreaves, “Musical Preference and Taste,” chap. 3 of The Social and Applied Psychology of Music (Oxford University Press, 2008).

Peter J. Rentfrow and Jennifer A. McDonald, “Preference, Personality, and Emotion,” chap. 24 of Handbook of Music and Emotion: Theory, Research, Applications, ed. Patrick Juslin and Justin Sloboda (Oxford University Press, 2010).

Chapter 2 Lyrics, and Meaning in Music

Adrian North and David Hargreaves, The Social and Applied Psychology of Music (Oxford University Press, 2008).

Chapter 3 Music and Your Emotions

Patrik Juslin and John Sloboda, “Music and Emotion,” chap. 15 of The Psychology of Music, 3rd ed., ed. Diana Deutsch (Academic Press, 2013).

John Sloboda, “Music in Everyday Life: The Role of Emotions,” chap. 18 of Handbook of Music and Emotion: Theory, Research, Applications, ed. Patrik Juslin and John Sloboda (Oxford University Press, 2010).

Chapter 4 Repetition, Surprises, and Goose Bumps

Elizabeth Helmuth Margulis, On Repeat: How Music Plays the Mind (Oxford University Press, 2014).

David Huron, Sweet Anticipation: Music and the Psychology of Expectation (MIT Press, 2006).

Patrik Juslin and John Sloboda, “Music and Emotion,” chap. 15 of The Psychology of Music, 3rd ed., ed. Diana Deutsch (Academic Press, 2013).

Chapter 5 Music as Medicine

Suzanne B. Hanser, “Music, Health and Well-Being,” chap. 30 of Handbook of Music and Emotion: Theory, Research, Applications, ed. Patrik Juslin and John Sloboda (Oxford University Press, 2010).

Adrian North and David Hargreaves, “Music, Business, and Health,” chap. 5 of The Social and Applied Psychology of Music (Oxford University Press, 2008).

Chapter 6 Does Music Make You More Intelligent?

E. Glenn Schellenberg and Michael W. Weiss, “Music and Cognitive Abilities,” chap. 12 of The Psychology of Music, 3rd ed., ed. Diana Deutsch (Academic Press, 2013).

Chapter 7 From Psycho to Star Wars: The Power of Movie Music

Kathryn Kalinak, Film Music: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford University Press, 2010).

Siu-Lan Tan, Annabel Cohen, Scott Lipscombe, and Roger Kendall, eds., The Psychology of Music in Multimedia (Oxford University Press, 2013).

Annabel Cohen, “Music as a Source of Emotion in Film,” chap. 31 of Handbook of Music and Emotion: Theory, Research, Applications, ed. Patrik Juslin and John Sloboda (Oxford University Press, 2010).

Chapter 8 Are You Musically Talented?

Geoff Colvin, Talent Is Overrated (Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 2008).

Adrian North and David Hargreaves, “Composition and Musicianship,” chap. 2 of The Social and Applied Psychology of Music (Oxford University Press, 2008).

Isabelle Peretz, “The Biological Foundations of Music: Insights from Congenital Amusia,” chap. 13 of The Psychology of Music, 3rd ed., ed. Diana Deutsch (Academic Press, 2013).

Chapter 9 A Few Notes about Notes

John Powell, How Music Works: The Science and Psychology of Beautiful Sounds, from Beethoven to the Beatles and Beyond (Little, Brown and Company, 2010).

Charles Taylor, Exploring Music: The Science and Technology of Tones and Tunes (IOP Publishing, 1992).

Ian Johnston, Measured Tones (IOP Publishing, 1989).

Chapter 10 What’s in a Tune?

David Huron, Sweet Anticipation: Music and the Psychology of Expectation (MIT Press, 2006).

Aniruddh D. Patel and Steven M. Demorest, “Comparative Music Cognition: Cross-Species and Cross-Cultural Studies,” chap. 16 of The Psychology of Music, 3rd ed., ed. Diana Deutsch (Academic Press, 2013).

David Temperley, Music and Probability (MIT Press, 2010).

Chapter 11 Untangling the Tune from the Accompaniment

Diana Deutsch, “Grouping Mechanisms in Music,” chap. 6 of The Psychology of Music, 3rd ed., ed. Diana Deutsch (Academic Press, 2013).

Chapter 12 Don’t Believe Everything You Hear

William Forde Thompson, “Intervals and Scales,” chap. 4 of The Psychology of Music, 3rd ed., ed. Diana Deutsch (Academic Press, 2013).

John A. Sloboda, “Music, Language, and Meaning,” chap. 2 of The Musical Mind: The Cognitive Psychology of Music (Oxford University Press, 1985).

Chapter 13 Dissonance

Isabelle Peretz, “Towards a Neurobiology of Musical Emotions,” chap. 5 of Handbook of Music and Emotion: Theory, Research, Applications, ed. Patrik Juslin and John Sloboda (Oxford University Press, 2010).

William Forde Thompson, “Intervals and Scales,” chap. 4 of The Psychology of Music, 3rd ed., ed. Diana Deutsch (Academic Press, 2013).

Chapter 14 How Musicians Push Our Emotional Buttons

Andreas C. Lehman, John A. Sloboda, and Robert H. Woody, Psychology for Musicians (Oxford University Press, 2007).

Eric Clarke, Nicola Dibben, and Stephanie Pitts, Music and Mind in Everyday Life (Oxford University Press, 2010).

Bruno Nettl, “Music of the Middle East,” chap. 3 of Bruno Nettl et al., Excursions in World Music, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, 1997).

Reginald Massey and Jamila Massey, “Ragas,” chap. 10 of The Music of India (Stanmore Press, 1976).

Chapter 15 Why You Love Music

Marjorie Shostak, Nisa: The Life and Words of a !Kung Woman (Routledge, 1990).

Laurel J. Trainor and Erin E. Hannon, “Musical Development,” chap. 11 of The Psychology of Music, 3rd ed., ed. Diana Deutsch (Academic Press, 2013).

Raymond MacDonald, David J. Hargreaves, and Dorothy Miell, “Musical Identities,” chap. 43 of The Oxford Handbook of Music Psychology, ed. Susan Hallam, Ian Cross, and Michael Thaut (Oxford University Press, 2009).

B. References

In the following list of references you’ll find details of the original work published by psychologists, sociologists, musicologists, and many other -ologists of various persuasions, which I used as source material for this book. If any of the researchers involved find that I’ve quoted their work incorrectly, or without acknowledging them, please accept my profuse apologies and contact me ASAP so I can correct the error in future editions.

Chapter 1 What Is Your Taste in Music?

1. Peter J. Rentfrow and Jennifer A. McDonald, “Preference, Personality and Emotion,” chap. 24 of Handbook of Music and Emotion: Theory, Research, Applications, ed. P. N. Juslin and J. A. Sloboda (Oxford University Press, 2010), sec. 24.2.

2. See reference 1, section 24.3.2.

3. P. J. Rentfrow and S. D. Gosling, “The Do Re Mi’s of Everyday Life: The Structure and Personality Correlates of Music Preferences,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84 (2003): 1236-56.

4. Adrian North and David Hargreaves, “Musical Preference and Taste,” chap. 3 of The Social and Applied Psychology of Music (Oxford University Press, 2008).

5. M. B. Holbrook and R. M. Schindler, “Age, Sex and Attitude towards the Past as Predictors of Consumers’ Aesthetic Tastes for Cultural Products,” Journal of Marketing Research 31 (1994): 412-422. See also M. B. Holbrook, “An Empirical Approach to Representing Patterns of Consumer Tastes, Nostalgia, and Hierarchy in the Market for Cultural Products,” Empirical Studies of the Arts 13 (1995): 55-71. And M. B. Holbrook and R. M. Schindler, “Commentary on ‘Is There a Peak in Popular Music Preference at a Certain Song-Specific Age? A Replication of Holbrook and Schindler’s 1989 Study,’” Musicae Scientiae 17, no. 3 (2013): 305-308.

6. A. C. North, D. J. Hargreaves, and S. A. O’Neill, “The Importance of Music to Adolescents,” British Journal of Educational Psychology 70, no. 2 (June 2000): 255-272.

7. Carl Wilson, Let’s Talk about Love: A Journey to the End of Taste (Bloomsbury, 2007), p. 91.

8. North and Hargreaves, “Musical Preference and Taste” (see reference 4).

9. Vladimir Konecni and Dianne Sargent-Pollock, “Choice between Melodies Differing in Complexity under Divided-Attention Conditions,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 2 (1976): 347-356.

10. R. G. Heyduk, “Rated Preference for Musical Composition as It Relates to Complexity and Exposure Frequency,” Perception and Psychophysics 17 (1975): 84-91; See also North and Hargreaves, “Musical Preference and Taste” (see reference 4).

11. A. N. North and D. Hargreaves, “Responses to Music in Aerobic Exercise and Yogic Relaxation Classes,” British Journal of Psychology 87, no. 4 (1996): 535-547.

12. Adrian North, David Hargreaves, and Jennifer McKendrick, “The Influence of In-Store Music on Wine Selections,” Journal of Applied Psychology 84, no. 2 (1999): 271-276. See also Adrian North and David Hargreaves, “Music, Business, and Health,” chap. 5 of The Social and Applied Psychology of Music (Oxford University Press 2008).

13. Charles Areni and David Kim, “The Influence of Background Music on Shopping Behaviour: Classical versus Top Forty Music in a Wine Store,” Advances in Consumer Research 20 (1993): 336-340.

14. Adrian North, “Wine and Song: The Effect of Background Music on the Taste of Wine,” British Journal of Psychology 103, no. 3 (August 2012): 293-301.

15. Peter Stone and Susan Hickey, “Sound Matters,” documentary on Irish radio station RTE, broadcast December 10, 2011.

16. Ronald Milliman, “Using Background Music to Affect the Behavior of Supermarket Shoppers,” Journal of Marketing 46 (1982): 86-91.

17. Ronald Milliman, “The Influence of Background Music on the Behavior of Restaurant Patrons,” Journal of Consumer Research 133 (1986): 286-289.

18. Clare Caldwell and Sally Hibbert, “The Influence of Music Tempo and Musical Preference on Restaurant Patrons’ Behavior,” Psychology and Marketing 19 (2002): 895-917.

19. T. C. Robally, C. McGreevy, R. R. Rongo, M. L. Schwantes, P. J. Steger, M. A. Wininger, and E. B. Gardner, “The Effect of Music on Eating Behavior,” Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 23 (1985): 221-222.

20. North and Hargreaves, “Music, Business, and Health” (see reference 12). See also Adrian North and David Hargreaves, “The Effect of Music on Atmosphere and Purchase Intentions in a Cafeteria,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology 28 (1998): 2254-73.

21. North and Hargreaves, “Music, Business, and Health” (see reference 12), p. 290.

Chapter 2 Lyrics, and Meaning in Music

1. V. Stratton and A. H. Zalanowski, “Affective Impact of Music vs. Lyrics,” Empirical Studies of the Arts 12 (1994): 129-140.

2. Vladimir Konecni, “Elusive Effects of Artists’ ‘Messages,’” in Cognitive Processes in the Perception of Art, ed. W. R. Crosier and A. J. Chapman (Elsevier, 1984), pp. 71-93.

3. J. Leming, “Rock Music and the Socialisation of Moral Values in Early Adolescence,” Youth and Society 18 (June 1987): 363-383.

4. William Drabkin, notes to mini-score, Beethoven Symphony no. 6, Eulenburg ed., no. 407 (Eulenburg 2011), p. 8.

5. Eric F. Clarke, “Jimi Hendrix’s ‘Star Spangled Banner,’” chap. 2 of Ways of Listening: An Ecological Approach to the Perception of Musical Meaning (Oxford University Press, 2005).

6. Jostein Gaarder, Sophie’s World: A Novel about the History of Philosophy (1991; Orion, 2000).

7. Adrian North and David Hargreaves, The Social and Applied Psychology of Music (Oxford University Press, 2008), p. 79.

8. Philip Ball, The Music Instinct: How Music Works and Why We Can’t Do Without It (Bodley Head, 2010), p. 241.

Chapter 3 Music and Your Emotions

1. N. H. Frijda, “The Laws of Emotion,” American Psychologist 43, no. 5 (May 1988): 349-358.

2. Patrik Juslin and John Sloboda, “Music and Emotion,” chap. 15 of The Psychology of Music, 3rd ed., ed. Diana Deutsch (Academic Press, 2013).

3. Robert Plutchik, Emotions and Life: Perspectives from Psychology, Biology, and Evolution (American Psychological Association, 2003).

4. Deryck Cooke, The Language of Music (Oxford University Press, 1959), p. 115.

5. See reference 4, p. 55.

6. W. F. Thomson and B. Robitaille, “Can Composers Express Emotions through Music?” Empirical Studies of the Arts 10 (1992): 79-89.

7. P. N. Juslin, S. Liljestrom, P. Laukka, D. Vastfjall, and L.-O. Lundqvist, “Emotional Reactions to Music in a Nationally Representative Sample of Swedish Adults: Prevalence and Causal Influences,” Musicae Scientiae 15 (July 2011): 174-207.

8. L.-O. Lundqvist, F. Carlsson, P. Hilmersson, and P. N. Juslin, “Emotional Responses to Music: Experience, Expression and Physiology,” Psychology of Music 37 (2009): 61-90.

9. Juslin and Sloboda, “Music and Emotion” (see reference 2).

10. Lars Kuchinke, Herman Kappelhoff, and Stefan Koelsch, “Emotion in Narrative Films: A Neuroscientific Perspective,” chap. 6 of The Psychology of Music in Multimedia, ed. Siu-Lan Tan, Annabel Cohen, Scott Lipscombe, and Roger Kendall (Oxford University Press, 2013).

11. Anne Blood and Robert Zatorre, “Intensely Pleasurable Responses to Music Correlate with Activity in Brain Regions Implicated in Reward and Emotion,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98 (September 2001): 11818-23.

12. Stefan Koelsch, T. Fritz, D. Y. von Cramon, K. Muller, and A. D. Friederici, “Investigating Emotion with Music: An FMRI Study,” Human Brain Mapping 27 (2006): 239-250.

13. Juslin and Sloboda, “Music and Emotion” (see reference 2).

14. Juslin and Sloboda, “Music and Emotion” (see reference 2).

15. P. N. Juslin, S. Liljestrom, D. Vastfjall, G. Barradas, and A. Silva, “An Experience Sampling Study of Emotional Reactions to Music: Listener, Music and Situation,” Emotion 8 (2008): 668-683.

16. William Forde Thompson, Music, Thought, and Feeling: Understanding the Psychology of Music, 2nd ed. (Oxford University Press, 2015), p. 179.

17. John Sloboda, Exploring the Musical Mind: Cognition, Emotion, Ability, Function (Oxford University Press, 2004), pp. 319-331.

18. John Sloboda, “Music in Everyday Life: The Role of Emotions,” chap. 18 of Handbook of Music and Emotion: Theory, Research, Applications, ed. Patrik Juslin and John Sloboda (Oxford University Press, 2010).

19. E. Bigand, S. Filipic, and P. Lalitte, “The Time Course of Emotional Response to Music,” Annals of the New York Academy of Science 1060 (2005): 429-437.

20. Sloboda, “Music in Everyday Life: The Role of Emotions” (see reference 18), p. 495.

21. J. H. McDermott and M. D. Hauser, “Nonhuman Primates Prefer Slow Tempos but Dislike Music Overall,” Cognition 104 (2007): 654-668.

22. Aniruddh Patel and Steven Demorest, “Comparative Music Cognition: Cross-Species and Cross-Cultural Studies,” chap. 16 of Deutsch, The Psychology of Music (see reference 2).

23. K. E. Gfeller, “Musical Components and Styles Preferred by Young Adults for Aerobic Fitness Activities,” Journal of Music Therapy 25 (1988): 28-43. See also Suzanne B. Hanser: “Music, Health and Well-Being,” chap. 30 of Juslin and Sloboda, Handbook of Music and Emotion (see reference 18).

24. Sloboda, “Music in Everyday Life” (see reference 18), p. 508. See also John Sloboda, A. M. Lamont, and A. E. Greasley, “Choosing to Hear Music: Motivation, Process and Effect,” in The Oxford Handbook of Music Psychology, ed. Susan Hallam, Ian Cross, and Michael Thaut (Oxford University Press, 2009), pp. 431-440.

25. Elizabeth Margulis, “Attention, Temporality, and Music That Repeats Itself,” chap. 3 of On Repeat: How Music Plays the Mind (Oxford University Press, 2014).

26. T. Shenfield, S. E. Trehub, and T. Nakota, “Maternal Singing Modulates Infant Arousal,” Psychology of Music 31 (2003): 365-375.

27. J. M. Standley, “The Effect of Music-Reinforced Non-nutritive Sucking on Feeding Rate of Premature Infants,” Journal of Paediatric Nursing 18, no. 3 (June 2003): 169-173.

28. Juslin and Sloboda, “Music and Emotion” (see reference 2).

29. John A. Sloboda, The Musical Mind: The Cognitive Psychology of Music (Oxford University Press, 1985), p. 213.

30. S. Dalla Bella, I. Peretz, L. Rousseau, and N. Gosselin, “A Developmental Study of the Affective Value of Tempo and Mode in Music,” Cognition 80 (2001): B1-B10.

31. D. Huron and M. J. Davis, “The Harmonic Minor Scale Provides an Optimum Way of Reducing Average Melodic Interval Size, Consistent with Sad Affect Cues,” Empirical Musicology Review 7, no. 3-4 (2012): 103-117.

32. Patrik Juslin and Petri Laukka, “Communication of Emotions in Vocal Expression and Music Performance: Different Channels, Same Code?” Psychological Bulletin 129, no. 5 (2003): 770-814. See also Aniruddh Patel, Music, Language, and the Brain (Oxford University Press, 2010). And E. Coutinho and N. Dibben, “Psychoacoustic Cues to Emotion in Speech Prosody and Music,” Cognition and Emotion (2012), DOI:10.1080/02699931.2012.732559.

33. Dwight Bolinger, Intonation and Its Parts: Melody in Spoken English (Stanford University Press, 1986).

34. Thompson, Music, Thought, and Feeling (see reference 16), p. 315.

35. David Huron, “The Melodic Arch in Western Folksongs,” Computing in Musicology 10 (1996): 3-23.

36. Diana Deutsch, “The Processing of Pitch Combinations,” chap. 7 of Deutsch, The Psychology of Music (see reference 2).

37. Patel, Music, Language, and the Brain (see reference 32).

38. G. Ilie and W. F. Thompson, “A Comparison of Acoustic Cues in Music and Speech for Three Dimensions of Affect,” Music Perception 23 (2006): 310-329.

39. Eric Clarke, Nicola Dibben, and Stephanie Pitts, Music and Mind in Everyday Life (Oxford University Press, 2010), pp. 18-19.

40. Deutsch, “The Processing of Pitch Combinations” (see reference 36).

41. Juslin and Sloboda, “Music and Emotion” (see reference 2). See also Patrik N. Juslin, Simon Liljestrom, Daniel Västfjäll, and Lars-Olov Lundqvist, “How Does Music Evoke Emotions? Exploring the Underlying Mechanisms,” chap. 22 of Juslin and Sloboda, Handbook of Music and Emotion.

Chapter 4 Repetition, Surprises, and Goose Bumps

1. Elizabeth Helmuth Margulis, On Repeat: How Music Plays the Mind (Oxford University Press, 2014), pp. 15-16.

2. Peter Kivy, The Fine Art of Repetition: Essays in the Philosophy of Music (Cambridge University Press, 1993), p. 356.

3. Margulis, On Repeat (see reference 1), p. 15.

4. J. S. Horst, K. L. Parsons, and N. M. Bryan, “Get the Story Straight: Contextual Repetition Promotes Word Learning from Storybooks,” Frontiers in Psychology 2, no. 17, DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00017.

5. D. Deutsch, T. Henthorn, and R. Lapidis, “Illusory Transformation from Speech to Song,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 129, no. 4 (April 2011): 2245-52.

6. R. Brochard, D. Abecasis, D. Potter, R. Ragot, and C. Drake, “The ‘Ticktock’ of Our Internal Clock: Direct Brain Evidence of Subjective Accents in Isochronous Sequences,” Psychological Science 14, no. 4 (July 2003): 362-366. See also David Huron, “Expectation in Time,” chap. 10 of Sweet Anticipation: Music and the Psychology of Expectation (MIT Press, 2006).

7. Robert B. Zajonc, “Attitudinal Effects of Mere Exposure,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, monograph suppl. 9 no. 2, pt. 2 (June 1968): 1-27.

8. David Huron, “Surprise,” chap. 2 of Sweet Anticipation: Music and the Psychology of Expectation (MIT Press, 2006).

9. Huron, “Surprise” (see reference 8), p. 38.

10. C. He, L. Hotson, and L. J. Trainor, “Development of Infant Mismatch Responses to Auditory Pattern Changes between 2 and 4 Months Old,” European Journal of Neuroscience 29, no. 4 (February 2009): 861-867. See also Laurel J. Trainor and Robert Zatorre, “The Neurobiological Basis of Musical Expectations,” chap. 16 of The Oxford Handbook of Music Psychology, ed. Susan Hallam, Ian Cross, and Michael Thaut (Oxford University Press, 2009), pp. 431-440.

11. Huron, “Surprise” (see reference 8).

12. John Sloboda, “Music Structure and Emotional Response: Some Empirical Findings,” Psychology of Music 19 (1991): 110-120. See also Patrik Juslin and John Sloboda, “Music and Emotion,” chap. 15 of The Psychology of Music, 3rd ed., ed. Diana Deutsch (Academic Press, 2013).

13. R. R. McCrae, “Aesthetic Chills as a Universal Marker of Openness to Experience,” Motivation and Emotion 31, no. 1 (2007): 5-11.

14. Sloboda, “Music Structure and Emotional Response” (see reference 12).

15. L. R. Bartel, “The Development of the Cognitive-Affective Response Test—Music.” Psychomusicology 11 (1992): 15-26.

Chapter 5 Music as Medicine

1. For serotonin, see S. Evers and B. Suhr, “Changes in Neurotransmitter Serotonin but Not of Hormones during Short Time Music Perception,” European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, no. 250 (2000): 144-147; for dopamine, see V. Menon and D. Levitin, “The Rewards of Music Listening: Response and Physiological Connectivity in the Mesolimbic System,” Neuroimage 28 (2005): 175-184.

2. M. H. Thaut and B. L. Wheeler, “Music Therapy,” chap. 29 of Handbook of Music and Emotion: Theory, Research, Applications, ed. Patrik Juslin and John Sloboda (Oxford University Press, 2010).

3. S. B. Hanser and L. W. Thompson, “Effects of a Music Therapy Strategy on Depressed Older Adults,” Journal of Gerontology (1994): 49 265-269. See also S. B. Hanser, “Music, Health and Well-Being,” chap. 30 of Handbook of Music and Emotion: Theory, Research, Applications, ed. Patrik Juslin and John Sloboda (Oxford University Press, 2010).

4. Hanser, “Music, Health and Well-Being” (see reference 3), p. 868.

5. C. J. Brown, A. Chen, and S. F. Dworkin, “Music in the Control of Human Pain,” Music Therapy 8 (1989): 47-60.

6. Adrian North and David Hargreaves, “Music, Business, and Health,” chap. 5 of The Social and Applied Psychology of Music (Oxford University Press, 2008), pp. 301-311. See also L. A. Mitchell, R. A. R. MacDonald, C. Knussen, and M. A. Serpell, “A Survey Investigation of the Effects of Music Listening on Chronic Pain,” Psychology of Music 35 (2007): 39-59. And William Forde Thompson, Music, Thought, and Feeling: Understanding the Psychology of Music, 2nd ed. (Oxford University Press, 2015), p. 220.

7. L. A. Mitchell and R. A. R. MacDonald, “An Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Preferred and Relaxing Music on Pain Perception,” Journal of Music Therapy 63 (2006): 295-316.

8. Oliver Sacks, “Speech and Song: Aphasia and Music Therapy,” chap. 16 in Musicophilia: Tales of Music and the Brain (Knopf, 2007).

9. Hanser, “Music, Health and Well-Being” (see reference 3), p. 870.

10. Sacks, Musicophilia (see reference 8), p. 252.

11. North and Hargreaves, “Music, Business, and Health” (see reference 6), p. 308.

12. S. A. Rana, N. Akhtar, and A. C. North, “Relationship between Interest in Music, Health and Happiness,” Journal of Behavioural Sciences 21, no. 1 (June 2011): 48.

13. Laszlo Harmat, Johanna Takacs, Robert Bodizs, “Music Improves Sleep Quality in Students,” Journal of Advanced Nursing 62, no. 3 (2008): 327-335.

14. Hui-Ling Lai and Marion Good, “Music Improves Sleep Quality in Older Adults,” Journal of Advanced Nursing 49, no. 3 (2005): 234-244.

15. D. Chadwick and K. Wacks, “Music Advance Directives: Music Choices for Later Life,” 11th World Congress of Music Therapy, Brisbane, Australia, July 2005, cited in Hanser, “Music, Health and Well-Being” (see reference 3).

Chapter 6 Does Music Make You More Intelligent?

1. F. H. Rauscher, G. L. Shaw, and K. N. Ky, “Music and Spatial Task Performance,” Nature 365 (October 1993): 611.

2. Adrian North and David Hargreaves discuss “the Mozart effect” in “Composition and Musicianship,” chap. 2 of The Social and Applied Psychology of Music (Oxford University Press, 2008), pp. 70-74.

3. J. Pietschnig, M. Voracek, and A. K. Formann, “Mozart Effect-Shmozart Effect: A Meta-Analysis,” Intelligence 38 (2008): 314-323.

4. K. M. Nantais and E. G. Schellenberg, “The Mozart Effect: An Artifact of Preference,” Psychological Science 10 (1999): 370-373. See also E. Glenn Schellenberg and Michael W. Weiss, “Music and Cognitive Abilities,” chap. 12 of The Psychology of Music, 3rd ed., ed. Diana Deutsch (Academic Press, 2013).

5. M. Isen, “A Role for Neuropsychology in Understanding the Facilitating Influence of Positive Affect on Social Behavior and Cognitive Processes,” in The Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology, 2nd ed., ed. S. J. Lopez and C. R. Snyder (Oxford University Press, 2011), pp. 503-518.

6. F. G. Ashby, A. M. Isen, and A. U. Turken, “A Neuropsychological Theory of Positive Affect and Its Influence on Cognition,” Psychological Review 106 (1999): 355-386.

7. W. F. Thompson, E. G. Schellenberg, and G. Hussain, “Arousal, Mood, and the Mozart Effect,” Psychological Science 12 (2001): 248-251.

8. E. G. Schellenberg and S. Hallam, “Music Listening and Cognitive Abilities in 10 and 11 Year Olds: The Blur Effect,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1060 (2005): 202-209.

9. William Forde Thompson, Music, Thought, and Feeling: Understanding the Psychology of Music, 2nd ed. (Oxford University Press, 2015), p. 302. See also Gabriela Ilie and William Forde Thompson, “Experiential and Cognitive Changes Following Seven Minutes Exposure to Music and Speech,” Music Perception 28, no. 3 (February 2011): 247-264.

10. D. Miscovic, R. Rosenthal, U. Zingg, D. Metzger, and L. Janke, “Randomized Control Trial Investigating the Effect of Music on the Virtual Reality Laparoscopic Learning Performance of Novice Surgeons,” Surgical Endoscopy 22 (208): 2416-20.

11. K. Kallinen, “Reading News from a Pocket Computer in a Distracting Environment: Effects of the Tempo of Background Music,” Computers in Human Behavior 18 (2002): 537-551.

12. Daniel Kahneman, Thinking Fast and Slow (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2013), p. 55.

13. C. F. Lima and S. L. Castro, “Speaking to the Trained Ear: Musical Expertise Enhances the Recognition of Emotions in Speech Prosody,” Emotion 11 (2011): 1021-31.

14. S. Moreno, E. Bialystok, R. Barac, E. G. Schellenberg, N. J. Cepeda, and T. Chau, “Short-Term Music Training Enhances Verbal Intelligence and Executive Function,” Psychological Science 22 (2011): 1425-33.

15. L. M. Patston and L. J. Tippett, “The Effect of Background Music on Cognitive Performance in Musicians and Non-musicians,” Music Perception 29 (2011): 173-183.

16. D. Southgate and V. Roscigno, “The Impact of Music on Childhood and Adolescent Achievement,” Social Science Quarterly 90 (2009): 13-21.

17. J. Haimson, D. Swain, and E. Winner, “Are Mathematicians More Musical Than the Rest of Us?” Music Perception 29 (2011): 203-213.

18. E. G. Schellenberg, “Music Lessons Enhance IQ,” Psychological Science 15 (2004): 511-514.

Chapter 7 From Psycho to Star Wars: The Power of Movie Music

1. Annabel Cohen, “Music as a Source of Emotion in Film,” chap. 31 of Handbook of Music and Emotion: Theory, Research, Applications, ed. Patrik Juslin and John Sloboda (Oxford University Press, 2010).

2. Kathryn Kalinak, Film Music: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford University Press, 2010), p. 44.

3. Cohen, “Music as a Source of Emotion in Film” (see reference 1).

4. W. F. Thompson, F. A. Russo, and D. Sinclair, “Effects of Underscoring on the Perception of Closure in Filmed Events,” Psychomusicology 13 (1994): 9-27.

5. M. G. Boltz, “Musical Soundtracks as a Schematic Influence on the Cognitive Processing of Filmed Events,” Music Perception 18, no. 4 (2001): 427-454, cited in David Bashwiner, “Musical Analysis for Multimedia: A Perspective from Music Theory,” chap. 5 of The Psychology of Music in Multimedia, ed. Siu-Lan Tan, Annabel Cohen, Scott Lipscombe, and Roger Kendall (Oxford University Press, 2013).

6. Cohen, “Music as a Source of Emotion in Film” (see reference 1); A. J. Cohen, K. A. MacMillan, and R. Drew, “The Role of Music, Sound Effects and Speech on Absorption in a Film: The Congruence-Associationist Model of Media Cognition,” Canadian Acoustics 34 (2006): 40-41.

7. Kalinak, Film Music (see reference 2), p. 27.

8. Kalinak, Film Music (see reference 2), pp. 14-15.

9. R. Y. Granot and Z. Eitan, “Musical Tension and the Interaction of Dynamic Auditory Parameters,” Music Perception 28 (2011): 219-245.

10. Zohar Eitan, “How Pitch and Loudness Shape Musical Space and Motion,” chap. 8 of Tan, Cohen, Lipscombe, and Kendall, The Psychology of Music in Multimedia (see reference 5).

11. William Forde Thompson, Music, Thought, and Feeling: Understanding the Psychology of Music, 2nd ed. (Oxford University Press, 2015), p. 162.

12. M. G. Boltz, M. Schulkind, and S. Kantra, “Effects of Background Music on the Remembering of Filmed Events,” Memory and Cognition 19, no. 6 (1991): 593-606, cited in Berthold Hoeckner and Howard Nusbaum, “Music and Memory in Film and Other Multimedia: The Casablanca Effect,” chap. 11 of Tan, Cohen, Lipscombe, and Kendall, The Psychology of Music in Multimedia (see reference 5).

13. E. S. Tan, Emotion and the Structure of Narrative Film: Film as an Emotion Machine (Routledge, 1995).

14. E. Eldar, O. Ganor, R. Admon, A. Bleich, and T. Hendler, “Feeling the Real World: Limbic Response to Music Depends on Related Content,” Cerebral Cortex 17 (2007): 2828-40, cited in Annabel Cohen, “Congruence Association Model of Music and Multimedia: Origin and Evolution,” chap. 2 of Tan, Cohen, Lipscombe, and Kendall, The Psychology of Music in Multimedia.

15. Kalinak, Film Music (see reference 2), p. 63.

16. Roger Kendall and Scott Lipscombe, “Experimental Semiotics Applied to Visual, Sound and Musical Structures,” chap. 3 of Tan, Cohen, Lipscombe, and Kendall, The Psychology of Music in Multimedia.

17. “Diegetic Music, Non-diegetic Music and Source Scoring,” www.filmmusicnotes.com, posted April 21, 2013, by Film Score Junkie.

18. Kalinak, Film Music (see reference 2), p. 102.

19. Hoeckner and Nusbaum, “Music and Memory in Film and Other Multimedia” (see reference 12).

20. Kalinak, Film Music (see reference 2), p. 105.

21. Sandra K. Marshall and Annabel J. Cohen, “Effects of Musical Soundtracks on Attitudes toward Animated Geometric Figures,” Music Perception 6, no. 1 (Fall 1988): 95-112.

22. Cohen, “Congruence Association Model” (see reference 14).

23. Carolyn Bufford, “The Psychology of Film Music,” Psychologyinaction.org, posted November 5, 2012.

24. Kendall and Lipscombe, “Experimental Semiotics Applied to Visual, Sound and Musical Structures” (see reference 16).

25. L. A. Cook and D. L. Valkenburg, “Audio-Visual Organization and the Temporal Ventriloquism Effect between Grouped Sequences: Evidence that Unimodal Grouping Precedes Cross-Modal Integration,” Perception 38, no. 8 (2009): 1220-33.

26. G. L. Fain, Sensory Transduction (Sinauer Associates, 2003).

27. Scott Lipscombe, “Cross-Modal Alignment of Accent Structures in Multimedia,” chap. 9 of Tan, Cohen, Lipscombe, and Kendall, The Psychology of Music in Multimedia (see reference 5), p. 196.

28. Herbert Zettl, Sight, Sound, Motion: Applied Media Aesthetics, 7th ed. (Wadsworth Publishing Co., 2013), p. 80.

29. Marilyn Boltz, “Music Videos and Visual Influences on Music Perception and Appreciation: Should You Want Your MTV?” chap. 10 of Tan, Cohen, Lipscombe, and Kendall, The Psychology of Music in Multimedia (see reference 5).

30. Lipscombe, “Cross-Modal Alignment of Accent Structures in Multimedia” (see reference 27), p. 208.

Chapter 8 Are You Musically Talented?

1. John A. Sloboda, Jane W. Davidson, Michael J. A. Howe, and Derek G. Moore, “The Role of Practice in the Development of Performing Musicians,” British Journal of Psychology 87 (1996): 287-309.

2. K. Anders Ericsson, Ralf Th. Krampe, and Clemens Tesch-Romer, “The Role of Deliberate Practice in the Acquisition of Expert Performance,” Psychological Review 100, no. 3 (1993): 363-406, cited in Geoff Colvin, Talent Is Overrated (Nicholas Brealey Publishing, 2008), pp. 57-61.

3. Anthony Kemp and Janet Mills, “Musical Potential,” in The Science and Psychology of Musical Performance, ed. Richard Parncut and Gary E. McPherson (Oxford University Press, 2002), pp. 3-16.

4. Sloboda, Davidson, Howe, and Moore, “The Role of Practice in the Development of Performing Musicians” (see reference 1), p. 301.

5. J. W. Davidson, M. J. A. Howe, D. G. Moore, and J. A. Sloboda, “The Role of Teachers in the Development of Musical Ability,” Journal of Research in Music Education 46 (1998): 141-160.

6. S. Hallam and V. Prince, “Conceptions of Musical Ability,” Research Studies in Music Education 20 (2003): 2-22.

7. Isabelle Peretz, “The Biological Foundations of Music: Insights from Congenital Amusia,” chap. 13 of The Psychology of Music, 3rd ed., ed. Diana Deutsch (Academic Press, 2013).

Chapter 10 What’s in a Tune?

1. Paul Roberts, Images: The Piano Music of Claude Debussy (Amadeus Press, 1996), p. 121.

2. David Huron, “Statistical Properties of Music,” chap. 5 of Sweet Anticipation: Music and the Psychology of Expectation (MIT Press, 2006).

3. David Temperley, Music and Probability (MIT Press, 2010), p. 58.

4. Huron, “Statistical Properties of Music” (see reference 2), p. 65.

5. Huron, “Statistical Properties of Music” (see reference 2), p. 195.

6. Temperley, Music and Probability (see reference 3), p. 147.

7. David Temperley, “Revision, Ambiguity, and Expectation” chap. 8 of The Cognition of Basic Musical Structures (MIT Press, 2004).

8. Diana Deutsch, “The Processing of Pitch Combinations,” chap. 7 of The Psychology of Music, 3rd ed., ed. Diana Deutsch (Academic Press, 2013).

9. C. Liegeois, I. Peretz, M. Babei, V. Laguitton, and P. Chauvel, “Contribution of Different Cortical Areas in the Temporal Lobes to Music Processing,” Brain 121 (1998): 1853-67.

10. Aniruddh Patel and Steven Demorest, “Comparative Music Cognition: Cross-Species and Cross-Cultural Studies,” chap. 16 of Deutsch, The Psychology of Music (see reference 8).

11. P. C. M. Wong, A. K. Roy, and E. H. Margulis, “Bimusicalism: The Implicit Dual Enculturation of Cognitive and Affective Systems,” Music Perception 27 (2009): 291-307.

12. S. M. Demorest, S. J. Morrison, L. A. Stambaugh, M. N. Beken, T. L. Richards, and C. Johnson, “An fMRI Investigation of the Cultural Specificity of Musical Memory,” Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 5 (2010): 282-291.

13. H. H. Stuckenschmidt, Schoenberg: His Life, World and Work, trans. Humphrey Searle (Schirmer Books, 1977), p. 277.

14. Howard Goodall, The Story of Music (Chatto and Windus, 2013), p. 219.

15. G. A. Miller. “The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information,” Psychological Review 63, no. 2 (March 1956): 81-97.

16. Anthony Pople, Berg: Violin Concerto (Cambridge University Press, 1991), pp. 39, 40, 65, and passim.

17. Keith Richards and James Fox, Life (Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 2011), p. 511.

18. R. Brauneis, “Copyright and the World’s Most Popular Song,” GWU Legal Studies Research Paper no. 392, Journal of the Copyright Society of the USA 56, no. 355 (2009).

19. See reference 18, p. 11.

20. T. S. Eliot, “Philip Massinger,” in The Sacred Wood: Essays on Poetry and Criticism, Bartleby.com.

Chapter 11 Untangling the Tune from the Accompaniment

1. Diana Deutsch, “Grouping Mechanisms in Music,” chap. 6 of The Psychology of Music, 3rd ed., ed. Diana Deutsch (Academic Press, 2013).

Chapter 12 Don’t Believe Everything You Hear

1. John Backus, The Acoustical Foundations of Music, 2nd ed. (W. W. Norton and Co., 1977), pp. 238-239.

2. J. Chen, M. H. Woollacott, S. Pologe, and G. P. Moore, “Pitch and Space Maps of Skilled Cellists: Accuracy, Variability, and Error Correction,” Experimental Brain Research 188, no. 4 (July 2008): 493-503. See also J. Chen, M. H. Woollacott, and S. Pologe, “Accuracy and Underlying Mechanisms of Shifting Movements in Cellists,” Experimental Brain Research 174, no. 3 (2006): 467-476.

3. John A. Sloboda, The Musical Mind: The Cognitive Psychology of Music (Oxford University Press, 1985), p. 23.

4. A. M. Liberman, K. S. Harris, J. A. Kinney, and H. Lane, “The Discrimination of the Relative Onset Time of the Components of Certain Speech and Non-speech Patterns,” Journal of Experimental Psychology 61 (1961): 379-388.

5. S. Locke and L. Kellar, “Categorical Perception in a Non-linguistic Mode,” Cortex 9, no. 4 (December 1973): 355-369.

6. J. A. Siegel and W. Siegel, “Categorical Perception of Tonal Intervals: Musicians Can’t Tell Sharp from Flat,” Perception and Psychophysics 21, no. 5 (1977): 399-407. See also William Forde Thompson, “Intervals and Scales,” chap. 4 of The Psychology of Music, 3rd ed., ed. Diana Deutsch (Academic Press, 2013).

7. B. C. J. Moore, “Frequency Difference Limens for Short-Duration Tones,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 54 (1973): 610-619.

8. C. Micheyl, K. Delhommeau, X. Perrot, and A. J. Oxenham, “Influence of Musical and Psychoacoustical Training on Pitch Discrimination,” Hearing Research 219 (2006): 36-47.

Chapter 13 Dissonance

1. A. J. Blood, R. J. Zatorre, P. Bermudez, and A. C. Evans, “Emotional Responses to Pleasant and Unpleasant Music Correlate with Activity in Paralimbic Brain Regions,” Nature Neuroscience 2 (1999): 382-387.

2. L. J. Trainor and B. M. Heinmiller,“The Development of Evaluative Responses to Music: Infants Prefer to Listen to Consonance over Dissonance,” Infant Behavior and Development 21 (1998): 77-88. See also William Forde Thompson, “Intervals and Scales,” chap. 4 of The Psychology of Music, 3rd ed., ed. Diana Deutsch (Academic Press, 2013).

3. C. Chiandetti and G. Vallortigara, “Chicks Like Consonant Music,” Psychological Science 22 (2011): 1270-73.

4. Isabelle Peretz, “Towards a Neurobiology of Musical Emotions,” chap. 5 of Handbook of Music and Emotion: Theory, Research, Applications, ed. Patrik Juslin and John Sloboda (Oxford University Press, 2010).

Chapter 14 How Musicians Push Our Emotional Buttons

1. Andreas C. Lehman, John A. Sloboda, and Robert H. Woody, Psychology for Musicians (Oxford University Press, 2007), p. 85.

2. J. A. Sloboda, “Individual Differences in Music Performance,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4, no. 10 (October 2000): 397-403.

3. A. Penel and C. Drake, “Sources of Timing Variations in Music Performance: A Psychological Segmentation Model,” Psychological Research 61 (1998): 12-32.

4. E. Istok, M. Tervaniemi, A. Friberg, and U. Seifert, “Effects of Timing Cues in Music Performances on Auditory Grouping and Pleasantness Judgments,” conference paper, Tenth International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition, Sapporo, Japan, August 25-29, 2008.

5. Lehman, Sloboda, and Woody, Psychology for Musicians (see reference 1), p. 97.

6. Eric Clarke, Nicola Dibben, and Stephanie Pitts, Music and Mind in Everyday Life (Oxford University Press, 2010), p. 40.

7. B. H. Repp, “The Aesthetic Quality of a Quantitatively Average Music Performance: Two Preliminary Experiments,” Music Perception 14 (1997): 419-444.

8. Richard Ashley, “All His Yesterdays: Expressive Vocal Techniques in Paul McCartney’s Recordings,” unpublished manuscript, referenced in Lehman, Sloboda, and Woody, Psychology for Musicians, p. 90.

9. Howard Goodall, The Story of Music (Chatto and Windus, 2013), p. 304.

10. David Huron, “Creating Tension,” chap. 15 of Sweet Anticipation: Music and the Psychology of Expectation (MIT Press, 2006), p. 324.

11. Ashley Kahn, Kind of Blue: The Making of the Miles Davis Masterpiece (Granta Books, 2001), p. 29.

12. Last Word (obituary program), BBC Radio 4, December 7, 2012.

13. Bruno Nettl, “Music of the Middle East,” chap. 3 of Bruno Nettl et al., Excursions in World Music, 2nd ed. (Prentice-Hall, 1997), p. 62.

14. Reginald Massey and Jamila Massey, “Ragas,” chap. 10 of The Music of India (Stanmore Press, 1976), p. 104.

15. Kathryn Kalinak, Film Music: A Very Short Introduction (Oxford University Press, 2010), p. 13.

16. David Huron, “Mental Representation of Expectation (II),” chap. 12 of Sweet Anticipation (see reference 10), p. 235.

17. K. L. Scherer and J. S. Oshinsky, “Cue Utilization in Emotion Attribution from Auditory Stimuli,” Motivation and Emotion 1, no. 4 (1977): 331-346.

18. Lehmann, Sloboda, and Woody, Psychology for Musicians (see reference 1), p. 86.

Chapter 15 Why You Love Music

1. N. J. Conrad, M. Malina, and S. C. Munzel, “New Flutes Document the Earliest Musical Tradition in South-Western Germany,” Nature 460, no. 7256 (2009): 737-740.

2. Jared Diamond, “Farmer Power,” chap. 4 of Guns, Germs and Steel: A Short History of Everybody for the Last 13,000 Years (Vintage, 2000), p. 86.

3. Peter Gray, “Play as a Foundation for Hunter-Gatherer Social Existence,” American Journal of Play (Spring 2009): 476-522.

4. Marjorie Shostak, Nisa: The Life and Words of a !Kung Woman (Routledge, 1990), p. 10.

5. Nicolas Guéguen, Sébastien Meineri, and Jacques Fischer-Lokou, “Men’s Music Ability and Attractiveness to Women in a Real-Life Courtship Context,” Psychology of Music 42, no. 4 (July 2014): 545-549.

6. Laurel J. Trainor and Erin E. Hannon, “Musical Development,” chap. 11 of The Psychology of Music, 3rd ed., ed. Diana Deutsch (Academic Press, 2013).

7. Mary B. Schoen-Nazzaro, “Plato and Aristotle on the Ends of Music,” Laval Théologique et Philosophique 34, no. 3 (1978): 261-273.

8. Trainor and Hannan, “Musical Development” (see reference 6), p. 425.

9. T. Nakata and S. Trehub, “Infants’ Responsiveness to Maternal Speech and Singing,” Infant Behaviour and Development 27 (2004): 455-464.

10. Tali Shenfield, Sandra Trehub, and Takayuki Nakata, “Maternal Singing Modulates Infant Arousal,” Psychology of Music 31, no. 4 (2003): 365-375.

11. Sandra Trehub, Niusha Ghazban, and Mariève Corbell, “Musical Affect Regulation in Infancy,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1337 (2015): 186-192.

12. Sandra Trehub, personal communication, April 22, 2015.

13. Raymond MacDonald, David J. Hargreaves, and Dorothy Miell, “Musical Identities,” chap. 43 of The Oxford Handbook of Music Psychology, ed. Susan Hallam, Ian Cross, and Michael Thaut (Oxford University Press, 2009), pp. 431-440.

14. Marc J. M. Delsing, Tom F. M. Ter Bogt, Rutger C. M. E. Engels, and Wim H. J. Meeus, “Adolescents’ Music Preferences and Personality Characteristics,” European Journal of Personality 22 (2008): 109-130.

15. M. B. Holbrook and R. M. Schindler, “Age, Sex and Attitude towards the Past as Predictors of Consumers’ Aesthetic Tastes for Cultural Products,” Journal of Marketing Research 31 (1994): 412-422.

16. Adrian North and David Hargreaves, The Social and Applied Psychology of Music (Oxford University Press, 2008), p. 111.

17. R. Zatorre and V. Salimpoor, “From Perception to Pleasure: Music and Its Neural Substrates,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110, suppl. 2, June 18, 2013, 10430-437.

Fiddly Details

1. P. von Hippel and D. Huron, “Why Do Skips Precede Reversals? The Effect of Tessitura on Melodic Structure,” Music Perception 18, no. 1 (2000): 59-85.

* It’s possible that wine number five did so well because the wine drinkers were just thinking more positively about everything after tasting all that wine. Perhaps more tests are required? And if so—can I come along?

* I’ll be explaining what major and minor keys are later in this chapter. For this part of the discussion it’s only necessary to know that the key of a piece of music is the team of notes being used for that piece. Major keys have a more tightly connected team than minor keys, and major keys are often associated with happiness in Western music. As we shall see, however, this is not always the case.

* The pleasant music was happy classical stuff. To make the unpleasant music, the researchers re-recorded the pleasant music twice, at different pitches. They then played all three versions at the same time. It sounds impressively awful, as you’ll hear if you go to: http://www.stefan-koelsch.de/Music_Emotion1.

* The stories are great, though. Have a look at the TV series with Kenneth Branagh—but don’t expect it to be a cheery evening’s viewing.

* In classical music terms, this piece is a “rondo” or “rondeau” (i.e., it has a main opening tune that it keeps returning to), but Purcell jokingly referred to this particular piece as a Round O. Benjamin Britten used the tune as the basis for his “Young Person’s Guide to the Orchestra.”

* This principle will be discussed in more detail in chapters nine and twelve.

* The timbre of an instrument is the quality of the sound it makes. Low notes on a clarinet have a rich, warm timbre. A flute has a clear, pure timbre. The timbre of your voice can vary from warm and relaxed to anxious and stressed. Timbre is more fully described in section A under “Fiddly Details” at the back of this book.

* http://deutsch.ucsd.edu/psychology/pages.php?i= 212.

* One of my more recently discovered goose bump moments is in a track, “The Birds,” by the band Elbow (on the album Build a Rocket Boys!)—the synthesizer entry three minutes, twenty-five seconds into the track.

* People who have a high “openness to experience” rating tend to have above-average levels of active imagination, aesthetic sensitivity, attentiveness to inner feelings, preference for variety, and intellectual curiosity.

* For those of you who sang this song at school without ever being told what it’s about: Frère Jacques is a monk and we are singing to him to wake him up so he can ring (sonnez) the bell for morning prayers (les matines).

* The questionnaire is available in various forms and asks from twelve to sixty questions about how you’ve been feeling over the past few weeks.

* About half of the people in this age group have occasional sleeping problems, and a substantial proportion of them take hypnotic drugs to help them sleep (although none of the participants took these drugs during the test).

* My present favorite is an album called Cantabile by Nigel North.

* I’m going for “Blue, Red and Grey” by the Who.

* Actually, Albinoni might be music’s only no-hit wonder. There’s a good chance that “Albinoni’s” Adagio was actually written by Italian musicologist-composer Remo Giazotto in the 1950s.

* Whenever I give a talk about music, I have to begin by saying, “Before we start, I’d better point out that I’m not the John Powell—I’m just a John Powell.” This usually gets a laugh from most of the audience—but there are always a couple of people who look a bit disappointed. The disappointment doesn’t last long, however, because within seconds my bodyguards have them forcibly ejected from the auditorium and thrown out onto the street.

* Sandra Marshall composed the music for the experiment. The “weak” music used a major key at a moderate tempo and generally used only one note at a time. The “strong” music was in a minor key with a slow but accelerating tempo and more than one note at a time.

* The Congruence-Association Model, or CAM. For Professor Cohen’s full description of the model, read chapter two of The Psychology of Music in Multimedia, ed. Siu-Lan Tan, Annabel Cohen, Scott Lipscombe, and Roger Kendall (Oxford University Press, 2013).

* If you’re wondering how long that is, it takes about a quarter of a second to say the word “it.”

* Goldwyn was reputed to be a rich source of one-liners, including “Include me out” and “A verbal contract isn’t worth the paper it’s written on.” But the work-luck line isn’t completely original. It’s a paraphrase of a quote from Thomas Jefferson, who said, “I’m a great believer in luck, and I find the harder I work, the more I have of it.”

* Sound waves with pressure ripples below twenty times a second are known as subsonic. Vibrations above twenty thousand times a second are ultrasonic.

* The note “middle A” or “A4 ”—which has a frequency of 440 vibrations per second.

* Actually it’s one second divided by the frequency of 110 Hz (9. 0909 milliseconds), but we’ll use the approximate value of nine milliseconds for this discussion.

* Actually 4. 5454 milliseconds.

* If you want to know more about this “bouncing back” rule (including why it doesn’t work in “Baa, Baa, Black Sheep”) have a look at “Fiddly Details,” section B, “Post-Skip Reversal.”

* One of my favorite older-newer pairs is Chopin’s “Berceuse” and Bill Evans’s “Peace Piece.”

* If you’d like to know how we choose the accompanying chords and harmonies for tunes, you’ll find more information in “Fiddly Details,” section C, “Harmonizing a Tune.”

* If you’d like a bit more explanation about how we get to this huge number, please read “Fiddly Details,” part D, “How Many Tunes Are Hidden in the Harmony?”

* As I explained in chapter nine, the cycle time of a note is the amount of time it takes to complete one cycle of its particular air pressure ripple pattern. The number of these cycles that can fit into a second is the frequency of the note. If a note has a cycle time of one hundredth of a second, then its frequency is 100 Hz.

* You’ll find a bit more detail about how scales are put together in “Fiddly Details,” section E, “Scales and Keys.”

* Fixed-note instruments (keyboards, harps, marimbas, etc.) have all their notes tuned to the equal temperament (ET) scale, and the pitch of the notes can’t be changed by the performer. On a completely variable-pitch instrument (violin, cello, slide trombone, etc.), you can play any pitch you like within the range of the instrument. On partially variable-pitch instruments (flute, saxophone, guitar, etc.), the player has a limited ability to alter (bend) the pitch of the standard notes for the instrument while playing.

* For example, if you organized your Just tuning around the note of C, then most of the key of C major would work out very nicely, but the key of F sharp major would have lots of mismatched combinations that would sound out of tune.

* Pure tones are computer-generated notes with a very clean (though rather boring) sound. For more details, see “Fiddly Details,” section A, “Timbre.”

* None of the notes that make up an F major chord are members of the key of B major.

* As usual I’m generalizing here. There are lots of exceptions to the observational “rules” I present in this chapter.

* Just to make life extra difficult, “andantino” has two meanings: slightly faster or slightly slower than walking speed. You just have to guess which one the composer had in mind.

* Dance music needs a repetitive beat so you can coordinate your movements to it. J. S. Bach and some other composers often build up elaborate interweaving patterns that require the clarity of a steady beat.

* For more information on timbre, see “Fiddly Details,” section A.

* Some of the bigger harpsichords have two keyboards that have different sounds, to make things more interesting, but the basic problem is still there.

* See “Fiddly Details,” section A, for further details.

* For more about how this works, see “Fiddly Details,” section C, “Harmonizing a Tune.”

* If you want a great introduction to world music, I recommend Real World 25, which is available as a three-CD boxed set or MP3 download. You’ll find a list of suggestions for listening and watching in all sorts of genres at the back of the book—but this is the one I’d recommend most of all.

* Not forgetting all you fathers, sisters, brothers, etc.

* If any of you are in this quandary, you might find the selection of albums from various musical genres at the back of this book useful.

* It’s also known as a “sine wave.”

* For an example of earlier theories, see L. B. Meyer, Explaining Music: Essays and Explorations (University of Chicago Press, 1978).

* C3, C4, and C5 played together would not be a chord because, as far as harmony is concerned, notes with the same letter name are similar to one another. For a chord you need three or more different letter names (C, E, and G, for example).

* The same principle works for any major key.

* Once a chord has been inverted it is no longer named after its lowest note. If you want to find its name, then you need to un-invert it back to its simplest form—as explained at the beginning of this section—and then identify the lowest note.

* I’ve used very simple arpeggio patterns here, but you can present the notes of the chord in any order, with any rhythm, and the technique still works.

* Capital letters mean that we want a major chord. Minor chords have a lowercase “m” or “min” after the capital letter, like this: Am or Amin.

* To keep things simple I’m writing here as if everything is written in C major, but this progression works in any key as long as you use the appropriate chords for that key. For example, if the song is in the key of E major, the progression would be E major, B major, C sharp minor, and A major.

* Those of you who enjoy juggling numbers might like this proof of things not always working out in the Just system. The distance between note 1 and note 3 in a major scale is four semitones, and the distance between note 1 and note 8 is twelve semitones. So three times the four-semitone jump should equal the octave: ⅘ x ⅘ x ⅘ should equal ½. But if you do the calculation, you’ll find that the answer (0. 512) is slightly more than ½.

* For example, if A has a frequency of 110 Hz, then the note one semitone up (which we call either A sharp or B flat) has a frequency of 110 multiplied by 1.059463, which is 116.54 Hz. The next note up, B, will have a frequency of 116.54 multiplied by 1.059463, which is 123.47 Hz, and so on.