NOTES - Higher Ground: Stevie Wonder, Aretha Franklin, Curtis Mayfield, and the Rise and Fall of American Soul - Craig Werner

Higher Ground: Stevie Wonder, Aretha Franklin, Curtis Mayfield, and the Rise and Fall of American Soul - Craig Werner (2004)

NOTES

In the cases of Aretha Franklin and Stevie Wonder, much of the material included in reference works and celebrity biographies has been drawn from official Motown press releases and widely quoted interviews. When I have quoted interview material from a biography listed in “A Note on Sources,” the citation refers to that relatively easily available source. When a quotation from an individual listed in the “Interviews” section has no citation here, it comes from a personal conversation with me.

Introduction

“Moving On Up”

“You heard her three or four times … ,” quoted in Ann Powers, “Aretha Franklin,” in The Rolling Stone Book of Women in Rock, ed. Barbara O’Dair (New York: Random House, 1997), p. 93.

“an impulse to keep … ,” Ralph Ellison, Shadow and Act (New York: Random House, 1964), pp. 78-79.

“the most fundamental of existential … ,” Albert Murray, The Hero and the Blues (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1973), p. 38.

“It’s just like being in church … ,” Queen of Soul video.

“Gospel and the blues … ,” quoted in liner notes to Ray Charles: The Birth of Soul (Atlantic Records).

“For, while the tale of how … ,” James Baldwin, “Sonny’s Blues,” in James Baldwin: Early Novels and Stories (New York: Library of America, 1998), p. 892.

Chapter One

“There Is a Fountain Filled with Blood”

“taught me things … ,” Gerri Hirshey, Nowhere to Run: The Sound of Soul Music (New York: Penguin, 1989), p. 231.

“somebody would start … ,” Mark Bego, Aretha Franklin: Queen of Soul, rev. ed. (New York: Da Capo, 2001), p. 15.

“A voice spoke … ,” Bill McGraw, “Style to Spare,” Michigan History (Nov.-Dec. 2000), p. 73.

“I was young … ,” David Nathan, The Soulful Divas (New York: Billboard Books, 1999), p. 73.

“Aretha’s mother … ,” Bego, Queen of Soul, p. 12.

“People loved her … ,” C.L. Franklin, Give Me This Mountain: Life History and Selected Sermons, ed. Jeff Todd Titon (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989), p. 23.

“for a black boy … ,” Ernest Withers, personal interview, Feb. 2002.

“A young black man … ,” Timothy Tyson, Radio Free Dixie (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000), pp. 41-42.

“On weekends the traffic … ,” Lars Bjorn with Jim Gallert, Before Motown: A History of Jazz in Detroit, 1920-1960 (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2001), p. 72.

“No longer is the Valley … ,” ibid., Before Motown, p. 66.

“The people you saw … ,” Bego, Queen of Soul, p. 16.

“raising money in church … ,” Daniel Wolff, You Send Me: The Life and Times of Sam Cooke (New York: William Morrow, 1995), p. 54.

“the pull of those days … ,” Aretha Franklin and David Ritz, Aretha: From These Roots (New York: Villard, 1999), p. 60.

a nickname that suggested … ,” Franklin, Give Me This Mountain, p. 16.

“rocking back and forth … ,” Mary Wilson and Patricia Romanowski, Dreamgirl: My Life as a Supreme (New York: St. Martin’s, 1986), p. 22.

“my main minister … ,” B.B. King and David Ritz, Blues All Around Me: The Autobiography of B.B. King (New York: Avon, 1996), p. 96.

“In no way, shape … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, pp. 5-6.

“had a brush and a case … ,” Leslie Gourse, Aretha Franklin: Lady of Soul (New York: Franklin Watts, 1995), p. 22.

“just bangin’, not playin’ … ,” Phyl Garland, The Sound of Soul (Chicago: Henry Regnery, 1969), p. 197.

“We poke our heads … ,” Smokey Robinson and David Ritz, Smokey: Inside My Life (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1989), p. 29.

“I keep cooking … ,” Franklin, Give Me This Mountain, p. 38.

“I’m good and mean … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 26.

“a time of high optimism … ,” ibid., p. 19.

“My childhood was … ,” Nathan, Soulful Divas, p. 74.

“Daddy’s personal affairs … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 27.

“Most of what I learned … ,” Garland, Sound of Soul, p. 199.

“When he would get into … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 14.

“God stirs the nest … ,” King and Ritz, Blues All Around Me, p. 197.

The text of “The Eagle Stirreth Her Nest” can be found in American Sermons: The Pilgrims to Martin Luther King, Jr., ed. Michael Warner (New York: Library of America, 1999), pp. 826-34.

“Daddy preached self-pride … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, pp. 19-20.

“They had gone spiritually … ,” Jerry Butler, Only the Strong Survive: Memoirs of a Soul Survivor (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000), p. 17.

“chronic urban guerrilla warfare … ,” Arnold R. Hirsch, The Making of the Second Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago, 1940-1960 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998), pp. 58-59.

“In the early days … ,” David Whitaker, Cabrini-Green (Chicago: W3 Publishing, 2000), p. 25.

“When the red high-rises … ,” ibid., p. 34.

“I thought I was livin’ … ,” ibid., p. 36.

“Everybody took care … ,” ibid., p. 38.

“was very much into poetry … ,” liner notes to People Get Ready! The Curtis Mayfield Story (Rhino Records), p. 14.

“I never really had to acquire … ,” People Get Ready, p. 12.

“I shrink away … ,” Whitaker, Cabrini-Green, p. 43.

“There was always talk … ,” ibid., pp. 20-21.

“He would get up there … ,” William Barlow, Voice Over: The Making of Black Radio (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1999), p. 104.

“The guitar used to … ,” People Get Ready, p. 42.

“he was an exceptional talent … ,” Butler, Only the Strong, p. 32.

“We had a lot of … ,” Whitaker, Cabrini-Green, p. 21.

“As far as dealing with Curtis … ,” ibid., p. 21.

“When I was telling Lula … ,” Constanze Elsner, Stevie Wonder (New York: Popular Library, 1977), p. 14.

“He stayed away … ,” John Swenson, Stevie Wonder (New York: Harper & Row, 1986), p. 15.

“Some jobs white folks … ,” Thomas J. Sugrue, The Origins of the Urban Crisis: Race and Inequality in Postwar Detroit (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1996), p. 99.

“the people in Conant Gardens … ,” Elaine Latzman Moon, Untold Tales, Unsung Heroes: An Oral History of Detroit’s African American Community 1918-1967 (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1994), p. 114.

“project boys … ,” ibid., p. 115.

“upper lower circumstances … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 15.

“My mother wasn’t very happy … ,” Elsner, Stevie, p. 30.

“I never really wondered … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 13.

“We were poor … ,” James Haskins, The Stevie Wonder Story (New York: Dell, 1979), p. 11.

“I’m glad that I’m blind … ,” Ben Fong-Torres, “The Formerly Little Stevie Wonder,” Not Fade Away (San Francisco: Miller Freeman Books, 1999), p. 145.

“When I was just a little baby … ,” ibid., p. 146.

“It was the playhouse trip … ,” Haskins, Stevie, p. 21.

“You know those small sheds … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 12.

“Great googa mooga … ,” David Carson, Rockin’ Down the Dial: The Detroit Sound of Radio (Troy, Mich.: Momentum, 2000), p. 55.

“If it hadn’t been for black radio … ,” Barlow, Voice Over, p. 210.

“They made me feel … ,” Haskins, Stevie, pp. 15-16.

“The first time I really felt … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 15.

“I was always beating things … ,” Haskins, Stevie, p. 14.

“I started playing the blues … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 15.

“I used to love … ,” “Stevie Wonder: Lifesongs,” Rock Around the World.com, issue 16.

“We used to get … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 22.

“Detroiters were serious skaters … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 46.

“I remember skating … ,” Wilson and Romanowski, Dreamgirl, p. 26.

“I fell in love … ,” Robinson and Ritz, Smokey, p. 37.

“Next thing I know … ,” Hirshey, Nowhere to Run, p. 231.

“Aretha had a way … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 25.

“I got friendly … ,” Hirshey, Nowhere to Run, p. 228.

“All you needed to do … ,” quoted in liner notes to Ray Charles: The Birth of Soul (Atlantic Records).

“A’s, B’s, some C’s...,” Bego, Aretha, p. 18.

“In Detroit, the Franklin girls … ,” Wilson and Romanowski, Dreamgirls, pp. 23-24.

“I could have killed Aretha … ,” Nathan, Soulful Divas, p. 74.

“She always wanted to sing … ,” David Nathan, “A Tribute to Erma Franklin,” Rock’s Backpages.com.

“So we decided … ,” Hirshey, Nowhere to Run, pp. 231-32.

“we were too busy … ,” Garland, Sound of Soul, p. 198.

“When I was pregnant … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 71.

“Many of the neighborhood girls … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 31.

“a national leader … ,” Jerry Wexler and David Ritz, The Rhythm and the Blues: A Life in American Music (New York: Knopf, 1993), p. 206.

“He liked music … ,” Gourse, Aretha, p. 59.

“Women absolutely loved him … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 25.

“Reverend was gone … ,” Gourse, Aretha, p. 20.

“Carolyn snapped into action … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 27.

“That charisma he had … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 25.

“He would spend Saturday night … ,” Al Young, “Brilliant Careers: Aretha Franklin,” Salon (Aug. 3, 1999).

“nothing inconsistent between … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 16.

“so amazed by Aretha’s singing … ,” Willa Ward-Royster as told to Toni Rose, How I Got Over: Clara Ward and the World-Famous Ward Singers (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1997), p. 18.

“You can’t explain … ,” Hirshey, Nowhere to Run, p. 231.

“The Reverend and Clara … ,” Ward-Royster, How I Got Over, p. 100.

“Although Mom was jealous … ,” ibid., p. 117.

“Daddy and Clara … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 17.

“I just cancelled … ,” Garland, Sound of Soul, p. 199.

“helped shape my basic … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 41.

“He showed me some … ,” Garland, Sound of Soul, p. 198.

“monuments of pure gospel power,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 51.

“I’d have died to go … ,” Hirshey, Nowhere to Run, p. 232.

“When the whites … ,” Craig Werner, A Change Is Gonna Come: Music, Race and the Soul of America (New York: Plume, 1998), p. 37.

“As much as anybody … ,” Hirshey, Nowhere to Run, p. 233.

“He did so many things … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 27.

“All the acts … ,” Peter Guralnick, Sweet Soul Music: Rhythm and Blues and the Southern Dream of Freedom (New York: Little, Brown, 1999), p. 334.

“We’d drive thousands … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 21.

“driving 8 or 10 hours … ,” Nathan, Soulful Divas, pp. 74-75.

“When you were singing … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 20.

“was just too shy … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, pp. 63-64.

“I meet all kinds of people … ,” Robinson and Ritz, Smokey, p. 48.

“Blacks had to stay with blacks … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 20.

“rainy night on a dark … ,” Mavis Staples, personal interview, May 1997.

The text of “Without a Song” can be found in Franklin, Give Me This Mountain, pp. 89-97.

Chapter Two

“Keep On Pushing”

The material concerning the use of the Impressions’ songs in the Chicago movement is drawn in part from Guy and Candie Carawan, Sing for Freedom: The Story of the Civil Rights Movement Through Its Songs (Bethlehem, Penn.: Sing Out! Books, 1990).

“Chicago is not that different … ,” Adam Cohen and Elizabeth Taylor, American Pharaoh: Mayor Richard J. Daley, His Battle for Chicago and the Nation (Boston: Little, Brown, 2000), p. 331.

“It was warrior music … ,” Gordon Sellers, personal interview, October 2002.

“I started out … ,” Joanne Bland, personal interview, October 2002.

“Curtis always seemed … ,” Brian Ward, Just My Soul Responding: Rhythm and Blues, Black Consciousness, and Race Relations (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998), p. 76.

“WVON played a big part … ,” Barlow, Voice Over, p. 211.

“As a jock during that time … ,” ibid., p. 204

“Curtis Mayfield was living around there … ,” Robert Pruter, Doowop: The Chicago Scene (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1996), p. 6

“We were all into trying … ,” ibid., p. 174

“At that time everybody … ,” ibid.

“Joe [Breckenridge] and the guys … ,” ibid., p. 175.

“Curtis was not easily convinced … ,” Butler, Only the Strong, p. 38.

“We had a long debate … ,” Whitaker, Cabrini-Green, p. 43.

“He convinced me … ,” Butler, Only the Strong, p. 38.

“Dawson didn’t want … ,” Cohen and Taylor, American Pharaoh, p. 172.

“The snow was about five feet … ,” People Get Ready, p. 41.

“They sang about five or six … ,” Robert Pruter, Chicago Soul (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991), p. 31.

“That’s it! That’s it! … ,” Butler, Only the Strong, pp. 42-43.

“Why did that happen? … ,” Pruter, Chicago Soul, p. 26.

“he had a great ear … ,” ibid., p. 25.

“They pressed up the records … ,” Butler, Only the Strong, p. 50.

“When the record came out … ,” Pruter, Chicago Soul, p. 32.

“The place went up in screams … ,” Butler, Only the Strong, p. 54.

“when she got to Curtis … ,” ibid., p. 66.

“I used to get down … ,” ibid., p. 81.

“We ain’t going on … ,” ibid., pp. 70-71.

“Back during those times … ,” Pruter, Chicago Soul, p. 32.

“We scuffled some … ,” ibid., pp. 137-38.

“not rigid. Very liquidy … ,” ibid., p. 75.

“sense of humor … ,” Butler, Only the Strong, p. 92.

“When Jerry called … ,” Pruter, Chicago Soul, p. 138.

“a compelling account … ,” Ward, Just My Soul, p. 205.

“It was something I’d lived … ,” Hirshey, Nowhere to Run, p. 258.

“I had saved a thousand … ,” Pruter, Chicago Soul, p. 138.

“When the fellows would go out … ,” People Get Ready, p. 42.

“Curtis and I, we knew … ,” Pruter, Chicago Soul, p. 73.

“The Chicago sound … ,” ibid.

“I must have had ten cups … ,” ibid., pp. 81-82.

“Gene seemed to sing … ,” ibid., p. 64.

“You would have to be careful … ,” ibid., p. 73.

“Motown used to put … ,” ibid., p. 77.

“Daddy and I had our sights … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 80.

“untutored genius,” Bego, Aretha, p. 42.

“At first there was a quiet … ,” Garland, Sound of Soul, pp. 199-200.

“I’d never really leave … ,” Hirshey, Nowhere to Run, p. 232.

“Reverend, your daughter doesn’t need … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 81.

“she did everything wrong … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 38.

“When you walk … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 85.

“For the first three months … ,” Guralnick, Sweet Soul Music, p. 335.

“I was distracted … ,” John Hammond, John Hammond on Record: An Autobiography (New York: Ridge, 1977), p. 346.

“I went to the studio … ,” ibid., p. 348.

“to wed Barbra Streisand … ,” Anthony Heilbut, The Gospel Sound: Good News and Bad Times, rev. ed. (New York: Limelight, 1985), p. 277.

“I suppose you could say … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 86.

“One night John called … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 43.

“I came in and kind of upset … ,” ibid., p. 54.

“I think I made some very good … ,” ibid., p. 53.

“Aretha was so multi-talented … ,” ibid., p. 69.

“she could really sing … ,” James Brown and Bruce Tucker, James Brown: Godfather of Soul (New York: Thunder’s Mouth, 1990), p. 128.

“Jazz was going through … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 91.

“I sang to the floor … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 49.

“After checking in … ,” Ward-Royster, How I Got Over, pp. 225-26.

“They don’t respect each other … ,” Gourse, Aretha, p. 47.

“Ted beat her down … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 79.

“It was a catch-22 … ,” ibid., pp. 70-71.

“It seems like they won’t … ,” Robinson and Ritz, Smokey, p. 123.

“very little money … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 67.

“a voice from up in the booth … ,” ibid., p. 60.

“Aretha went berserk … ,” Gourse, Aretha, p. 47.

“It was like I had no idea … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 62.

“There was another young artist … ,” Hirshey, Nowhere to Run, p. 239.

“upward mobility … ,” Guralnick, Sweet Soul Music, p. 338.

“A lot of people missed … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 59.

“On Columbia I cut … ,” ibid., p. 77.

“road maps for gospel-based … ,” Nathan, Soulful Divas, p. 75.

“I cherish the records … ,” Wexler and Ritz, The Rhythm, p. 206.

“He was like our little … ,” Bill Dahl, Motown: The Golden Years (Iola, Wis.: Krause, 2001), p. 195.

“Everyone loved him … ,” Wilson and Romanowski, Dreamgirl, p. 113.

“When Stevie Wonder came there … ,” Dahl, Motown, p. 195.

“got around better than I did … ,” ibid.

“I was just a victim … ,” Elsner, Stevie, p. 41.

“I think his mother … ,” Hirshey, Nowhere to Run, p. 219.

“People were just walking … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 25.

“First of all let me tell you … ,” Elsner, Stevie, p. 43.

“You got to come hear this little kid … ,” Berry Gordy, To Be Loved (New York: Warner, 1994), p. 148.

“hyper, bright, and brimming … ,” Robinson and Ritz, Smokey, p. 112.

“His mother brought him … ,” Elsner, Stevie, p. 48.

“I was very fortunate … ,” Michael Goldberg, “The Timeless World of Wonder,” Rolling Stone (Apr. 10, 1986), p. 153.

“I was not Little Stevie Wonder’s baby-sitter … ,” Hirshey, Nowhere to Run, p. 220.

“He knew and loved my family … ,” Susan Whitall, Women of Motown: An Oral History (New York: Avon, 1998), p. 76.

“Me and my friend … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 25.

“He’d call my secretary … ,” Gordy, To Be Loved, p. 331.

“I’d call up and say … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 36.

“I like that suit … ,” Gordy, To Be Loved, p. 241.

“I remember a teacher … ,” Elsner, Stevie, p. 26.

“I cried and cried … ,” Haskins, Stevie, p. 33.

“The company, working through … ,” Swenson, Stevie, pp. 39-40.

“kind, studious young man … ,” Wilson and Romanowski, Dreamgirl, p. 133.

“I think the nicest compliment … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 44.

“Stevie made friends … ,” Elsner, Stevie, p. 52.

“one of the major forces … ,” Fong-Torres, “Formerly Little,” p. 142.

“It was just amazing … ,” Elsner, Stevie, p. 47.

“It didn’t take long … ,” Robinson and Ritz, Smokey, p. 112.

“I think a harmonica … ,” Sue Clark, “Stevie Wonder Gets Good and Pissed,” Rolling Stone (Sept. 30, 1971), p. 12.

“This is the very best … ,” Haskins, Stevie, p. 42.

“The first time I began to feel … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 31.

“Motown’s buses … ,” Otis Williams and Patricia Romanowski, Temptations (New York: Fireside, 1988), p. 78.

The description of the confrontation between West and Nash is drawn from the Eyes on the Prize video and from Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954-63 (New York: Touchstone, 1989), p. 295.

“down in Alabama … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 42.

“Holy smoke, that was really … ,” ibid.

“He and Little Stevie Wonder remained … ,” Martha Reeves and Mark Bego, Dancing in the Street: Confessions of a Motown Diva (New York: Hyperion, 1994), p. 77.

“So many of us have to demand … ,” Elsner, Stevie, p. 35.

“It really was not like that … ,” David Freeland, Ladies of Soul (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2001), p. 89.

“I was on a lot of the Motown tours … ,” Nelson George, Where Did Our Love Go? The Rise and Fall of the Motown Sound (New York: St. Martin’s, 1985), p. 74.

“When Stevie got to … ,” Elsner, Stevie, p. 57.

“It was never planned … ,” George, Where Did, p. 73.

“It was neither easy … ,” Elsner, Stevie, p. 94.

“We pulled up at 103rd Street … ,” ibid., p. 86.

“You would not believe … ,” ibid., p. 90.

“We hadn’t taken advantage … ,” Gordy, To Be Loved, p. 226.

“that young, undeveloped … ,” ibid., p. 226.

“they would go through the list … ,” Adam White and Fred Bronson, The Billboard Book of Number One Rhythm and Blues Hits (New York: Billboard Books, 1993), p. 14.

“We kind of clicked … ,” Dahl, Motown, p. 200.

“What would happen … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 53.

“That music wanted out … ,” White and Bronson, Billboard Book, p. 14.

“provided a core of legitimate … ,” Ward, Just My Soul, p. 204.

“I would sit there … ,” Pruter, Chicago Soul, p. 74.

“There was nothing original … ,” ibid., p. 140.

“We were in Nashville … ,” People Get Ready, p. 43.

“You don’t know what Chicago is like … ,” Cohen and Taylor, American Pharaoh, p. 348.

“They wouldn’t even give us … ,” ibid., p. 432.

“the opposition it would face … ,” ibid., p. 358.

“The streets of Alabama … ,” ibid., p. 415.

Chapter Three

“Spirit in the Dark”

The description of Aretha at the Fillmore West draws on Michael Lydon, “A Spirit in the Dark: Aretha Franklin at Fillmore West, 1971,” Rock’s Backpages.com.

“Aretha was continuing … ,” Wexler and Ritz, The Rhythm, p. 206.

“considered the musical tastes … ,” ibid., pp. 245-46.

“magic chord,” Guralnick, Sweet Soul Music, p. 340.

“I took her to church … ,” ibid., p. 341.

“To say we took her back … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 93.

“to base the music around me … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 108.

“no lawyers, managers, or agents … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 83.

“I was not unhappy to see her … ,” Hammond, John Hammond, p. 349.

“At the end of the day … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 72.

“below-the-Bible-Belt sound … ,” Hirshey, Nowhere to Run, p. 294.

“Stax was steaming … ,” Wexler and Ritz, The Rhythm, p. 204.

“Twenty-five thousand dollars … ,” Rob Bowman, Soulsville U.S.A.: The Story of Stax Records (New York: Music Sales, 1997), p. 165.

“Nobody knew those were white guys … ,” Butler, Only the Strong, p. 193.

“I knew about Aretha … ,” Guralnick, Sweet Soul Music, pp. 339-40.

“She hit that magic chord … ,” ibid., p. 340.

“It was a killer … ,” Wexler and Ritz, The Rhythm, p. 210.

“I couldn’t believe it … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 86.

“Walpurgisnacht, a Wagnerian … ,” Wexler and Ritz, The Rhythm, p. 211.

“the most fucked-up horn section … ,” Guralnick, Sweet Soul Music, p. 340.

“presenting Aretha and Ted … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 84.

“A redneck patronizing … ,” Wexler and Ritz, The Rhythm, p. 211.

“a lot drunker than I thought … ,” Guralnick, Sweet Soul Music, p. 342.

“new national anthem … ,” Ward, Just My Soul, p. 362.

“I don’t make it a practice … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 155.

“the need of a nation … ,” ibid., p. 112.

“I just lost my song … ,” Guralnick, Sweet Soul Music, p. 332.

“like Minerva, full-formed … ,” Wexler and Ritz, The Rhythm, p. 247.

“When it comes to the ABCs...,” Hirshey, Nowhere to Run, pp. 243-44.

“We had been fucked over … ,” ibid., p. 242.

“frenzied hand-clapping … ,” Garland, Sound of Soul, pp. 194-95.

“This was a ‘love wave’ … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 108.

“My first inclination … ,” Wallace Terry, Bloods: An Oral History of the Vietnam War by Black Veterans (New York: Random House, 1984), p. 167.

“When you’re talking … ,” Pruter, Chicago Soul, p. 142.

“social conscience … ,” People Get Ready, p. 44.

“Our purpose is to educate … ,” Ward, Just My Soul, p. 339.

“beautiful beautiful … ,” Nikki Giovanni, Love Poems (New York: William Morrow, 1997), p. 34.

“I wasn’t a quitter … ,” Pruter, Chicago Soul, p. 304.

“after the riots … ,” Whitaker, Cabrini-Green, p. 45.

“It made you want to cry … ,” ibid., p. 26.

“People ask me what soul is … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 57.

“Categorization can be the death … ,” ibid., p. 81.

“Some of that psychedelic music … ,” ibid., p. 57.

“Stevie wanted to play … ,” Hendrix: Setting the Record Straight, ed. John McDermott (New York: Warner, 1992), p. 237.

“When I think of the sixties … ,” Michael Goldberg, “The Timeless World of Wonder,” Rolling Stone (Apr. 10, 1986), p. 153.

“I just dug the effects … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 57.

“Stevie wanted people in the studio … ,” White and Bronson, Billboard Book, p. 33.

“Those whites takin’ over … ,” Haskins, Stevie, p. 59.

“Have you heard the Temptations’ … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 67.

“Writing is my thing … ,” Clark, “Stevie Wonder Gets Good and Pissed,” p. 15.

“I had the desire to move out … ,” White and Bronson, Billboard Book, p. 74.

“This is the kind of freedom … ,” Fong-Torres, “Formerly Little,” p. 147.

“By the time he’s 21 … ,” Haskins, Stevie, p. 59.

“I had to find out … ,” Goldberg, “Timeless World,” p. 154.

“I told Curtis … ,” The Curtom Story, liner notes, p. 8.

“You can hear a lot of Curtis … ,” People Get Ready, p. 4.

“I like the Impressions … ,” Jimi Hendrix in His Own Words, ed. Tony Brown (London: Omnibus, 1994), p. 91.

“You learn the market … ,” Pruter, Chicago Soul, p. 308.

“Of course I could relate … ,” ibid., p. 308.

“My contract was made … ,” “Can a Black Man Sing the Whites?” Rolling Stone (July 6, 1972), p. 8.

“It was a very important contract … ,” Fong-Torres, “Formerly Little,” p. 49.

“He was about 19 then … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 75.

“I had some misgivings … ,” Gordy, To Be Loved, p. 305.

“I knew I couldn’t forever … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 78.

“they began to understand … ,” Martin E. Horn, Innervisions: The Music of Stevie Wonder (Bloomington, Ind.: 1st Books, 2000), p. 105.

“a woman’s supposed to … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 82.

“He’d be in the studio … ,” Elsner, Stevie, p. 166.

“I recorded 40 tunes … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 76.

“It really isn’t so much to imitate … ,” ibid., p. 77.

“Stevie showed up with … ,” George, Where Did, p. 180.

“I thought at the very beginning … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 85.

“My drummer had … ,” ibid., p. 83.

“It was spontaneous … ,” ibid., p. 86.

“He establishes rapport … ,” Fong-Torres, “Formerly Little,” p. 141.

“If you think of blacks … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 89.

“Motown got caught … ,” Hirshey, Nowhere to Run, p. 191.

“conjured up images … ,” Ward, Just My Soul, p. 367.

“The most interesting thing … ,” Haskins, Stevie, p. 68.

“it’s a funky, dirty … ,” Horn, Innervisions, p. 121.

“I was sitting … ,” Annette Carson, Je f Beck: Crazyfingers (San Francisco: Backbeat, 2001), p. 112.

“I told Motown … ,” Swenson, Stevie, pp. 87-88.

“The black revolution … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 145.

“Soul music is music … ,” Gourse, Aretha, p. 90.

“Sometimes she’d call me … ,” Wexler and Ritz, The Rhythm, p. 212.

Summaries and quotations from the June 18, 1968, Time cover story can be found in Heilbut, Gospel Sound, p. 277; Gourse, Aretha, p. 75; Garland, Sound of Soul, p. 202; and Bego, Aretha, pp. 103-104.

“The story said her husband … ,” Nathan, Soulful Divas, p. 80.

“String the titles together … ,” Gourse, Aretha, p. 76.

“I think she may have cried … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 126.

“The songs she chose … ,” Wexler and Ritz, The Rhythm, p. 215.

“I sing to the realist … ,” Gourse, Aretha, p. 81.

“It should have been called … ,” Bego, Aretha, pp. 121-22.

“Her taste could sometimes … ,” ibid., p. 122.

“shocked and saddened … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 132.

“just a curtain, chair, and mirror … ,” ibid., p. 123.

“gathering the bullets … ,” Franklin, Give Me This Mountain, p. 31.

“The same people who left … ,” Ze’ev Chafets, Devil’s Night and Other True Tales of Detroit (New York: Random House, 1990), p. 167.

“I loved that phrase … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 136.

“When Aretha records a tune … ,” Charlie Gillett, Making Tracks: Atlantic Records and the Growth of a Multi-Billion-Dollar Industry (New York: Allen, 1992), p. 211.

“introverted musical genius … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 140.

“The thousands of black people … ,” Ted Fox, Showtime at the Apollo (New York: Henry Holt, 1985), p. 268.

“the way black folk sing … ,” Michael Lydon, Ray Charles: Man and Music (New York: Riverhead, 1999), p. 270.

“King Curtis could make me … ,” Hirshey, Nowhere to Run, p. 234.

“return” to gospel … , Gourse, Aretha, p. 98.

Chapter Four

Songs in the Key of Life

“It’s the last days of life … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 93.

“Stevie is someone who goes … ,” Elsner, Stevie, pp. 208-209.

“No, we do have a lot … ,” ibid., p. 210.

“I think the deepest … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 93.

“Since the jobs that are available … ,” William Julius Wilson, The Truly Disadvantaged: The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990), p. 261.

“ ‘Higher Ground’ was a very special … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 94.

“The people couldn’t feel me … ,” Haskins, Stevie, p. 96.

“It’s a madhouse … ,” Gordy, To Be Loved, p. 330.

“I knew that Stevie … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 95.

“The only thing I know … ,” The best description of Wonder’s recovery, based primarily on Rolling Stone reports, can be found in Swenson, Stevie, pp. 94-95.

“I can usually tell a woman … ,” Haskins, Stevie, pp. 111-12.

“We didn’t have to do … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 97.

“the only act who could have topped … ,” Haskins, Stevie, p. 119.

“Sometimes he’ll call me … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 91.

“Steve has seeing-eye … ,” Elsner, Stevie, p. 97.

“That’ll tell you where I’m going … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 105.

“If you were to turn on … ,” Robert Christgau, “Stevie Wonder Is All Things to All People,” in Grown Up All Wrong (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998), p. 135.

“The best way to get … ,” White and Bronson, Billboard Book, p. 144.

“I would have been the only black … ,” Elsner, Stevie, p. 256.

“I definitely feel that Marvin … ,” ibid., p. 234.

“Anyone who can stand up … ,” Haskins, Stevie, p. 130.

“I remember in Boston … ,” Elsner, Stevie, p. 224.

“His songs do more … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 112.

“America doesn’t make people … ,” Elsner, Stevie, p. 252.

“There are faults at Motown … ,” Swenson, Stevie, pp. 111-12.

“That was probably no good … ,” Pruter, Chicago Soul, pp. 310-11.

“As far as my doing songs … ,” Chris Salewicz, “Keep On Pushing: Curtis Mayfield,” Rock’s Backpages.com.

“The album allowed me … ,” People Get Ready, p. 32.

“We were now setting up … ,” ibid., p. 46.

“We got great recognition … ,” Pruter, Chicago Soul, p. 309.

“The next thing I knew … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 169.

“It proved the permanent power … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 112.

“It took us about five days … ,” Nathan, Soulful Divas, p. 87.

“When she told me that Quincy … ,” Wexler and Ritz, The Rhythm, p. 277.

“I don’t want to talk … ,” Bego, Aretha, pp. 159-60.

“Even though the lyrics … ,” Patricia Hill Collins, Black Feminist Thought (Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1990), p. 108.

“Aretha was right on time … ,” ibid., p. 108.

“you can see a lot … ,” Rolling Stone Raves: What Your Rock and Roll Favorites Favor, ed. Shawn Dall (New York: William Morrow, 1999), p. 142.

“The end of the seventies … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 181.

“The song had wings … ,” ibid., p. 157.

“At one point, Natalie called … ,” ibid., p. 160.

“Someone told her I went around … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 167.

“In disco the musical pulse … ,” Iain Chambers, Urban Rhythms, Pop Music, and Popular Culture (New York: St. Martin’s, 1986), p. 147.

“It was definitely R&B dance music … ,” Anthony Haden-Guest, The Last Party: Studio 54, Disco, and the Culture of the Night (New York: Morrow, 1997), p. xxi.

“I didn’t think it would be as big … ,” Nathan, Soulful Divas, p. 87.

“A song, like a person … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, pp. 160-61.

“the joy of love … ,” Both Mayfield’s and Wonder’s comments can be found in the liner notes to The Philly Sound (Epic Legacy Records).

“I was going on the road … ,” Pruter, Chicago Soul, p. 310.

“It was weird … ,” ibid., p. 320.

“True jazz is an art … ,” Ellison, Shadow and Act, p. 234.

“When I got the gig … ,” Swenson, Stevie, pp. 98-99.

“there were times when he’d stay … ,” Haskins, Stevie, p. 140.

“I’d made Stevie a huge blackberry cobbler … ,” Elsner, Stevie, p. 213.

“I had such a good time … ,” Horn, Innervisions, p. 176.

“flawed masterpiece,” Christgau, “Stevie,” p. 139.

“one of my favorite Stevie Wonder … ,” Dall, Rolling Stone Raves, p. 19.

“was forever telling us … ,” Gordy, To Be Loved, pp. 359-60.

“The more I heard people ask … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 120.

“It would have been nice … ,” ibid.

“I like what I wear … ,” Nathan, Soulful Divas, p. 71.

“Los Angeles was not the easiest … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 172.

“I told him that I was interested … ,” Hirshey, Nowhere to Run, p. 237.

“I want everyone to know … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 172.

“I couldn’t bear to deny … ,” ibid., p. 192.

“A man of enormous energy … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, pp. 184-85.

Chapter Five

“Who’s Zoomin’ Who?”

“I know you’ve been standing … ,” Swenson, Stevie, pp. 126-27.

“Every time we did that song … ,” ibid., p. 135.

“I’m concerned because I can see … ,” ibid., p. 138.

“Mr. Reagan keeps asking … ,” Marshall Frady, Jesse Jackson: A Biography (New York: Random House, 1996), p. 305.

“Every minute you allow yourself … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 135.

“Lots of times when things are said … ,” ibid., p. 128.

“I just basically was saying … ,” ibid., p. 140.

“Stevie is a communicator … ,” Barlow, Voice Over, p. 269.

“the news and public-affairs … ,” ibid., p. 278.

“I felt something was happening … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 136.

“Prince has really been unique … ,” Dall, Rolling Stone Raves, pp. 191-92.

“Three days later he’d written … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 137.

“many characters, no one particular … ,” Horn, Innervisions, pp. 260-61.

“If being banned means … ,” ibid., p. 238.

“I’m very happy now … ,” Swenson, Stevie, p. 141.

“You can assassinate the man … ,” ibid., p. 136.

“As many whites as blacks … ,” Horn, Innervisions, p. 212.

“We have a monopoly on rats … ,” Frady, Jesse Jackson, p. 199.

“Now, Joe Louis milk … ,” ibid., p. 202.

“A kinder, gentler nation … ,” ibid., p. 64.

“Our time has come … ,” ibid., p. 385.

“I’m certain she noted … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 182.

“similarity in stylings … ,” ibid., p. 206.

“My brother would get … ,” ibid., p. 204.

“dealt with her as one singer … ,” ibid., p. 207.

“had so much fun … ,” ibid., p. 208.

“My good friend Miss Ree … ,” Hirshey, Nowhere to Run, p. 34.

“All of a sudden Luther … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 195.

“Well, Mr. Vandross wanted to know … ,” Hirshey, Nowhere to Run, p. 29.

“the biggest lie ever told … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 233.

big mistake,” ibid., pp. 200-201.

“At that point … ,” ibid., p. 203.

“I should have married Aretha … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 320.

“He was born in poverty … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, pp. 206-207.

“You can’t say the word ‘death’ … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 221.

“She was delighted with what she heard … ,” Nathan, Soulful Divas, p. 91.

“In the voice you feel … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 226.

“It was my first musical declaration … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 210.

“I suppose the song’s feminist … ,” Bryony Sutherland and Lucy Ellis, Annie Lennox: The Biography (New York: Music Sales, 2001), p. 261.

“I think we had a role-reversal … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 230.

“I got along alright with her … ,” Sutherland and Ellis, Annie Lennox, p. 261.

“Annie had just had a photo session … ,” ibid., pp. 262-63.

“A lot of people forget … ,” Queen of Soul video.

“was looking to establish … ,” ibid.

“the best, quite simply … ,” ibid.

“I sounded like one … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 239.

“She said she wanted to re-create … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 270.

“when the choir walks down … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 217.

“I am a traditionalist … ,” ibid., p. 220.

“For singers today … ,” Bego, Aretha, pp. 269-70.

“I sang between his words … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 217.

“I need that old-fashioned … ,” ibid., p. 222.

“describes what my family … ,” ibid., p. 224.

“At that time, I wasn’t … ,” People Get Ready, p. 37.

“Sampling allowed him … ,” Steve Morse, “Setting the New Market in Sampling,” Boston Globe (March 3, 2002).

“The president let everyone know … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, pp. 240-41.

“There were eight minutes … ,” Bego, Aretha, p. 328.

“I did it … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 249.

“No matter how far I may venture … ,” ibid., p. 250.

“It’s not even the financial thing … ,” Morse, “Setting the New Market.”

“Look at someone like Aretha … ,” Chris Nickerson, Lauryn Hill: She’s Got That Thing (New York: St. Martin’s, 1999), p. 133.

“Our podium, what we have to speak from … ,” ibid., p. 17.

“The rhythm, the syncopation … ,” ibid., p. 129.

“a young woman who knows … ,” Franklin and Ritz, Aretha, p. 246.

“old-fashioned down-home … ,” ibid., p. 248.

“A really heavy union … ,” Horn, Innervisions, p. 296.

“I sort of went out there … ,” “Wonder, Hill, Clapton Praise Mayfield,” Rolling Stone (Feb. 23, 2000).