No Bone Unturned: The Adventures of a Top Smithsonian Forensic Scientist and the Legal Battle for America's Oldest Skeletons - Jeff Benedict (2003)

SOURCE NOTES

The primary sources for this book include interviews conducted by the author, the personal papers of Doug Owsley, legal documents from the Kennewick Man litigation (Robson Bonnichsen et al. v. U.S. et al.Civil Case No. 96-1481), and Dr. Owsley’s forensic case files. Owsley’s personal papers included copious handwritten notes, personal correspondence, and logbooks chronicling his travels. Owsley’s forensic files included dental and medical records and X rays, correspondence from state and federal law enforcement agencies, transcripts, personal correspondence between Owsley and surviving family members, crime scene photographs, Owsley’s field notes, and forensic reports from each of the cases featured in the book.

Attorneys Paula Barran and Alan Schneider also provided the author with access to the complete court file from the Kennewick Man litigation.

Secondary sources included scholarly articles, press reports, and personal correspondence to the author.

The author also relied on background material in the form of textbooks, treatises, reference books, laws, maps, and photographs.

AUTHOR’S INTERVIEWS

Dennis Apodaca, Portland, Oregon • Paula Barran, Portland, Oregon • Bill Bass, Knoxville, Tennessee • Sam Blake, Portland, Maine • Randy Blake, Washington, D.C. • Idy Bramlet, Lusk, Wyoming • Ryan Brown, Kennewick, Washington • Jim Chatters, Richland, Washington • Jenny Chatters, Richland, Washington • Chip Clark, Washington, D.C. • Donald Craib, Washington, D.C. • Amy Dansie, Carson City, Nevada • Dolores Davis, Scranton, Pennsylvania • Joe DiZinno, Washington, D.C. • Richard Donaldson, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania • Robert Fri, Washington, D.C. • George Gill, Laramie, Wyoming • Lauryn Grant, Washington, D.C. • Danny Greathouse, Washington, D.C. • Edwin Harnden, Portland, Oregon • Cleone Hawkinson, Portland, Oregon • Dan Hester, Louisville, Colorado • Audi Huber, Pendleton, Oregon • Richard Hunt, Portland, Oregon • Richard Jantz, Knoxville, Tennessee • Floyd Johnson, Kennewick, Washington • Suzanne Johnson, Kennewick, Washington • Rebecca Kardash, Washington, D.C. • Bill Kelso, Jamestown, Virginia • Bill Lehey, Richland, Washington • Sharon Long, Carson City, Nevada • Julie Longenecker, Pendleton, Oregon • Mike Lyon, RWC, California • Tom McClelland, Richland, Washington • Andy Miller, Richland, Washington • Henry Miller, St. Mary’s City, Maryland • Armand Minthorn, Umatilla Indian Reservation, Pendleton, Oregon • Bill Owsley, Laramie, Wyoming • Douglas Owsley, Jeffersonton, Virginia • Hilary Owsley, Jeffersonton, Virginia • Kim Owsley, Jeffersonton, Virginia • Susan Owsley, Jeffersonton, Virginia • Audrey Pfister, Lusk, Wyoming • Karen Rehm, Jamestown, Virignia • David Riggs, Jamestown, Virginia • Kari Sandness, Washington, D.C. • Lee Sappington, Idaho • Alan Schneider, Portland, Oregon • John Schultz, Richland, Washington • Diane Stallings, Yorktown, Virginia • Dennis Stanford, Washington, D.C. • Pam Stone, Amherst, Massachusetts • Jeff Van Pelt, Umatilla Indian Reservation, Pendleton, Oregon • John Verano, New Orleans, Louisiana • Roz Works, Carson City, Nevada

To ensure the highest level of accuracy, most interviews were tape-recorded and personally transcribed by the author. In many instances, passages in the book containing dialogue were presented to the participants to proofread for accuracy prior to publication.

SCHOLARLY ARTICLES AND PUBLISHED PAPERS

Bonnichsen, Robson, and Alan L. Schneider. “Battle of the Bones.” The Sciences, July 2000.

Collins, Michael B. “Clovis Second: Time Is Running Out for an Old Paradigm.” Discovering Archeology, February 2000.

Dixon, James E. “Coastal Navigators: The First Americans May Have Come by Water.” Discovering Archeology, February 2000.

Frison, George C. “Progress and Challenges: Intriguing Questions Linger after 75 years of Answers.” Discovering Archeology, February 2000.

Gill, George W. “Two Mummies from the Pitchfork Rock Shelter in Northwestern Wyoming.” Journal of the Plains Anthropological Society, 1976.

Gill, George W., and Douglas W. Owsley. “Electron Microscopy of Parasite Remains on the Pitchfork Mummy and Possible Social Implications.” Journal of the Plains Anthropological Society, 1985.

Grisbaum, Gretchen, and Douglas H. Ubelaker. An Analysis of Forensic Anthropology Cases Submitted to the Smithsonian Institution by the Federal Bureau of Investigation from 1962 to 1994. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001.

Hall, Don Alan. “A Database on Humanity’s Past: Smithsonian Team Races the Clock with Repatriation.” Mammoth Trumpet, January 1997.

Haynes, C. Vance. “New World Climate.” Discovering Archeology, February 2000.

Hinds, V. Strode. “Reconstructing Charles Floyd.” We Proceed On, February 2001.

Hofman, Jack L. “The Clovis Hunters.” Discovering Archeology, February 2000.

Kelso, William, and Beverly Straube. “1996 Interim Report on the APVA Excavations at Jamestown, Virginia.” The Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities, 1997.

Mansisidor, Julie. “Getting to the Bare Bones.” University of Wyoming Alumni Magazine, fall 1999.

Miller, Henry. “Mystery of the Lead Coffins.” American History, October 1995.

Owsley, Douglas W. “Fluctuating Asymmetry as an Indicator of Developmental Insatiability in Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology 52, no. 2 (1980).

———. “Identification of the Fragmentary, Burned Remains of Two U.S. Journalists Seven Years after Their Disappearance in Guatemala.” Journal of Forensic Sciences, November 1993.

———. “Techniques for Locating Burials, with Emphasis on the Probe.” Journal of Forensic Sciences, September 1995.

Owsley, Douglas W., and David R. Hunt. “Clovis and Early Archaic Crania from the Anzick Site (24PA506), Park County, Montana.” Journal of the Plains Anthropological Society 46 (May 2001).

Owsley, Douglas W., and Richard L. Jantz. “Archeological Politics and Public Interest in Paleoamerican Studies: Lessons from Gordon Creek Woman and Kennewick Man.” American Antiquity, September 2001.

———. “Biography in the Bones: Skeletons Tell the Story of Ancient Lives and Peoples.” Discovering Archeology, February 2000.

———. “Putting a Paleoamerican Campsite to Bed.” Mammoth Trumpet 17, no. 3 (June 2002).

Owsley, Douglas W., Robert W. Mann, et al. “Positive Identification in a Case of Intentional Extreme Fragmentation.” Journal of Forensic Sciences, July 1993.

Owsley, Douglas W., and Sarah B. Pelot. “Three Grams of Bone and Three Dental Fragments Aid Identification of a Homicide Victim.” Journal of Forensic Identification, September 1995.

Owsley, Douglas W., D. H. Ubelaker, et al. “The Role of Forensic Anthropology in the Recovery and Analysis of Branch Davidian Compound Victims: Techniques of Analysis.” Journal of Forensic Sciences, May 1995.

Prag, John. “Putting Flesh on Bone: Facial Reconstructions Give New Meaning to Old Skulls.” Discovering Archeology, February 2000.

Stafford, Thomas W. “How Old Is It? The Powers and Pitfalls of Radiocarbon Dating.” Discovering Archeology, February 2000.

Stanford, Dennis, and Bruce Bradley. “The Solutrean Solution: Did Some Ancient Americans Come from Europe?” Discovering Archeology, February 2000.

Steele, Gentry D. “The Skeletons’ Tale: Old Skulls Are Painting a Complex Picture of American Origins.” Discovering Archeology, February 2000.

Tankersley, Kenneth B. “The Puzzle of the First Americans.” Discovering Archeology, February 2000.

Ubelaker, Douglas H. “A History of Smithsonian-FBI Collaboration in Forensic Anthropology, Especially in Regard to Facial Imagery.” Paper presented at the Ninth Biennial Meeting of the International Association for Craniofacial Identification, FBI, Washington, D.C., July 24, 2000.

———. “Ales Hrdlicka’s Role in the History of Forensic Anthropology.” Journal of Forensic Sciences, July 1999.

———. “J. Lawrence Angel and the Development of Forensic Anthropology in the United States.” In A Life in Science: Papers in Honor of J. Lawrence Angel, edited by Jane E. Buikstra, pp. 191–200. Kampsville, Illinois: Center for American Archeology, 1990.

———. “T. Dale Stewart’s Perspective on His Career as a Forensic Anthropologist at the Smithsonian.” Journal of Forensic Sciences, March 2000.

———. “The Influence of William M. Bass III on the Development of American Forensic Anthropology.” Journal of Forensic Sciences, September 1995.

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. “Jamestown Island Revisited.” Vol. 22, no. 1, 1999.

Waters, Michael R. “Proving Pre-Clovis.” Discovering Archeology, February 2000.

PRESS REPORTS

Begley, Sharon, and Andrew Murr. “The First Americans.” Newsweek, April 26, 1999.

Blake, Samuel. “What Else Did the C.I.A. Know?” New York Times, March 30, 1995.

Brown, David. “Nevada Mummy Caught in Debate over Tribal Remains.” Washington Post, May 5, 1996.

Claiborne, William. “FBI Probes Theft of Ancient Bones Sought by Tribes.” Washington Post, September 30, 2000.

Coll, Steve. “The Body in Question.” Washington Post Magazine, June 3, 2001.

Dawson, Jim. “Bones Are Building Block toward Filling in Full Human.” Minneapolis Star Tribune, March 17, 1993.

Egan, Timothy. “Expert Panel Recasts Origin of Fossil Man in Northwest.” New York Times, October 16, 1999.

Gore, Rick. “People Like Us.” National Geographic, July 2000.

Hill, Richard. “Kennewick Man Belongs to Five Tribes, U.S. Says.” Portland Oregonian, September 26, 2000.

Lemonick, Michael. “Bones of Contention.” Newsweek, October 14, 1996.

Malcomson, Scott L. “The Color of Bones: How a 9,000-Year-Old Skeleton Called Kennewick Man Sparked the Strangest Case of Racial Profiling.” New York Times Magazine, April 2, 2000.

Manning, Anita. “Smithsonian Scientist Knows the Truth in His Bones.” USA Today, June 24, 1997.

Milloy, Ross E. “Years after Cult Fire, Legal Battles Gather Force.” New York Times, November 26, 1999.

Nemecek, Sasha. “Who Were the First Americans?” Scientific American, September 2000.

Parfit, Michael. “Dawn of Humans.” National Geographic, December 2000.

Potter, Maximillian. “The Body Farm.” GQ, June 2002.

Preston, Douglas. “The Lost Man.” The New Yorker, June 16, 1997.

“Progress Is Seen in Guatemala Case.” New York Times, March 25, 1992.

Recer, Paul. “Examination of Ancient Skulls Prompts Theory about Human Settlement of the Americas.” Associated Press, August 2, 2001.

Rensberger, Boyce. “Putting a New Face on Prehistory.” Washington Post, April 15, 1997.

Wilford, John Noble. “New Answers to an Old Question: Who Got Here First?” New York Times, November 9, 1999.

BOOKS

Berlin, Ira. Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America. Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Gross, Daniel R. Discovering Anthropology. Mountain View, Calif.: Mayfield Publishing Company.

Hening, William Waller. The Statutes at Large; Being a Collection of all the Laws of Virginia. New York: R. & W. & G. Bartow, 1823.

McCartney, Martha W. “A Study of the Africans and African Americans on Jamestown Island and at Green Spring, 1619–1803.” National Parks Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Williamsburg, Virginia, 2000.

Owsley, Douglas W., and Richard L. Jantz. Skeletal Biology in the Great Plains: Migration, Warfare, Health, and Subsistence. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1994.

Owsley, Douglas W., and Jerome C. Rose. Bioarcheology of the North Central United States: A Volume in the Central and Northern Plains Archeological Overview. Fayetteville, Ark.: Arkansas Archeological Survey, 1997.

Stanford, Dennis. The Walakpa Site, Alaska: Its Place in the Birnirk and Thule Cultures. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1976.

CORRESPONDENCE TO AUTHOR

Bass, Bill. Letter re: Doug Owsley’s graduate school years. September 11, 2000.

Brown, Ryan. Fax re: Benton County officials meeting with Army Corps officials. November 5, 1999.

Chatters, Jim. E-mail re: Kennewick Man. May 8, 2001.

Dansie, Amy. Letter re: Spirit Cave mummy. June 10, 2001.

Hawkinson, Cleone. E-mail re: Trip with Doug to inventory Kennewick Man. July 11, 2001.

Lyon, Mike. Letter re: Childhood years in Lusk, Wyoming, with Doug Owsley. January 15, 2001.

Owsley, Douglas. Letter re: Larson Massacre dates. July 27, 2001.

———. Letter re: St. Mary’s City. December 28, 2001.

Schneider, Alan. Fax re: Bruce Babbitt decision declaring Kennewick Man a Native American. July 17, 2001.

———. Letter re: Kennewick Man inventory. July 12, 2001.

Stanford, Dennis. E-mail re: “Anzick Chapter.” July 16, 2002.

LAWS

Archaeological Resources Protection Act, 16 USCA 470aa.

Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act, 25 USCS 3001.

PRESS RELEASES

“BLM Makes Spirit Cave Man Determination,” Bureau of Land Management, August 15, 2000.

“Interior Department Determines ‘Kennewick Man’ Remains to Go to Five Tribes,” U.S. Department of Interior, September 25, 2000.

REFERENCE MATERIALS

The American Heritage Picture History of the Civil War. American Heritage Publishing Co., 1960.

Buikstra, Jane E., and Douglas H. Ubelaker. Standards: for Data Collection from Human Skeletal Remains. Arkansas Archeological Survey Research Series no. 44, 1994, Fayetteville, Ark.

Haglund, William D., and Marcella H. Sorg. Forensic Taphonomy: The Postmortem Fate of Human Remains. New York: CRC Press, 1997.

Hall, Kermit L. The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Smithson, James, founder of the Smithsonian Institution. All material pertaining to him was obtained from the Smithsonian’s on-line archives, available at www.si.edu/archives/documents/smithson.htm.

Ubelaker, Douglas H., and William M. Bass, Richard L. Jantz, and Fred H. Smith. A Review of Human Origins. 6th ed. 1990. (Dr. William Bass at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN provided this to the author.)

Wilshin, Francis F. Manassas (Bull Run). Washington, D.C.: National Park Service Historical Handbook Series no. 15. 1957.

REPORTS

Babbitt, Bruce. Electronic copy of the original notice announcing that Kennewick Man is Native American. September 21, 2000.

Huckleberry, Gary, and Julie K. Stein. “Kennewick Man: Analysis of Sediments Associated with Human Remains Found at Columbia Park, Kennewick, WA.” 1999.

McManamon, Francis P. “Kennewick Man: The Initial Scientific Examination, Description, and Analysis of the Kennewick Man Human Remains.” 1999.

Owsley, Douglas. “Report of the Inventory of the Kennewick Skeleton.” October 28–29, 1998.

Powell, Joseph F., and Jerome C. Rose. “Kennewick Man: Report on the Osteological Assessment of the ‘Kennewick Man’ Skeleton (CENWW.97.Kennewick).” 1999.