The French and Indian War: Deciding the Fate of North America - Walter R. Borneman (2006)

NOTES

1 • The Bells of Aix-la-Chapelle

1. Francis Parkman, France and England in North America, Vol. 1., La Salle and the Discovery of the Great West (New York: The Library of America/Viking, 1983), p. 927. (Reprint.)

2. Samuel Eliot Morison, The Oxford History of the American People (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965), p. 122. (Note: All contemporary quotations have been corrected for spelling and capitalization to facilitate reading.)

3. Ibid., p. 137.

4. Ibid., p. 139.

5. Ibid., pp. 155–156.

6. Charlton W. Tebeau, A History of Florida (Coral Gables, Fla.: University of Miami Press, 1971), pp. 69–70.

7. “Our trade will improve”: Walter L. Dorn, Competition for Empire, 1740–1763 (New York: Harper, 1940), p. 9. “Peace without victory”: T. Walter Wallbank et al., Civilization: Past and Present (Glenview, Ill.: Scott, Foresman, 1967), p. 435.

2 • Beautiful Ohio

1. Francis Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe: The French and Indian War (New York: Da Capo, 1995), pp. 12–13. (Reprint.)

2. Fred Anderson, Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766 (New York: Knopf, 2000), pp. 14, 21; Wilbur R. Jacobs, Wilderness Politics and Indian Gifts: The Northern Colonial Frontier, 1748–1763 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1966), p. 27.

3. “Pierre-Joseph Céloron de Blainville,” Dictionary of Canadian Biography, Vol. 3. 1741 to 1770 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1974), pp. 99–100; A. A. Lambing, ed., “Céloron’s Journal,” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly, Vol. 29, No. 3 (July 1920), pp. 336–340, hereafter “Céloron Journal.” “In certain places”: A. A. Lambing, ed., “Account of the Voyage on the Beautiful River Made in 1749, under the Direction of Monsieur De Céloron, by Father Bonnecamps,” Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly, Vol. 29, No. 3 (July 1920), pp. 401–402, hereafter “Bonnecamps Journal.”

4. “Céloron Journal,” p. 341.

5. Ibid., pp. 348–351. (There is considerable local debate over the exact location of the village of Attiqué.)

6. Howard H. Peckham, The Colonial Wars: 1689–1762 (Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1964), pp. 124–125.

7. Peckham, Colonial Wars, p. 125. “Maintained therein”: “Céloron Journal,” pp. 341, 371. “So little known”: “Bonnecamps Journal,” p. 409.

8. Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe, p. 30.

9. Thomas D. Clark, Frontier America: The Story of the Westward Movement, 2nd ed. (New York: Scribner, 1969), pp. 24–34, 39.

10. Peckham, Colonial Wars, pp. 128–129. “We don’t know”: Documents Relating to the Colonial History of the State of New York (Albany: Weed, Parsons, 1855), Vol. 6, p. 813, hereafter New York Colonial Documents (Iroquois Red Head to Warraghüyagee—William Johnson—September 10, 1753).

11. Peckham, Colonial Wars, p. 130.

12. George Washington, The Journal of George Washington: An Account of His First Official Mission, Made As Emissary from the Governor of Virginia to the Commandant of the French Forces on the Ohio, October 1753–January 1754 (Williamsburg, Va.: Colonial Williamsburg, 1959), p. 4. (Facsimile reprint of 1754 Hunter edition.)

13. Ibid., p. 4.

14. Ibid., p. 13.

15. Ibid., p. 16.

16. Ibid., pp. 25–26 (Dinwiddie to Commandant of French Forces on the Ohio, October 31, 1753).

17. Ibid., pp. 27–28 (Legardeur to Dinwiddie, December 15, 1753).

18. Ibid., p. 2.

3 • Albany, 1754

1. Adolph B. Benson, The America of 1750: Peter Kalm’s Travels in North America (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1937), pp. 340–344 (from a description of June 21, 1749). See also New York State Museum Web site for Albany at www.nysm.nysed.gov/albany; a map of early Albany in David R. Starbuck, The Great Warpath: British Military Sites from Albany to Crown Point (Hanover, N.H.: University Press of New England, 1999), p. 8; and the population estimate for 1754 in Catherine Drinker Bowen, The Most Dangerous Man in America (Boston, Mass.: Little, Brown, 1974), p. 99.

2. Charles Henry Lincoln, ed., Correspondence of William Shirley (New York: Macmillan, 1912), Vol. 2, pp. 13–14 (Lords of Trade to Shirley, September 18, 1753); hereafter Shirley Papers.

3. Wilbur R. Jacobs, Wilderness Politics and Indian Gifts: The Northern Colonial Frontier, 1748–1763 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1966), pp. 5, 11.

4. Shirley Papers, Vol. 2, pp. 12–13 (Earl of Holderness to Shirley, August 28, 1753).

5. “In case any”: Ibid., pp. 14–15 (Shirley to Sharpe, November 26, 1753). “Than a well”: p. 30 (Shirley to Lords Commissioners, January 1754).

6. Ibid., pp. 43–44 (speech to general court of Massachusetts, April 2, 1754).

7. Matthew C. Ward, Breaking the Backcountry: The Seven Years’ War in Virginia and Pennsylvania, 1754–1765 (Pittsburgh, Pa. : University of Pittsburgh Press, 2003), pp. 23–24.

8. Shirley Papers, Vol. 2, p. 46 (speech to general court of Massachusetts, April 2, 1754).

9. Samuel Eliot Morison, Oxford History of the American People (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965), pp. 69, 76, 108–109. Howard H. Peckham, The Colonial Wars: 1689–1762 (Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1964), pp. 32, 70, 106, 116. “Were there a general”: Leonard W. Larabee, The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 4, July 1, 1750, through June 30, 1753 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1961), p. 119 (Franklin to James Parker, March 20, 1751).

10. John A. Garraty, The American Nation: A History of the United States (New York: Harper and Row, 1966), pp. 89–96.

11. Pennsylvania Gazette, May 9, 1754.

12. Armand Francis Lucier, French and Indian War Notices Abstracted from Colonial Newspapers, Vol. 1, 1754–1755 (Bowie, Md.: Heritage, 1999), pp. 53–54.

13. Ibid., p. 68.

14. Lawrence Henry Gipson. The British Empire before the American Revolution, Vol. 5, The Great Lakes Frontier, Canada, the West Indies, India, 1748–1754 (New York: Knopf, 1942), pp. 113–114.

15. Ibid., The Great Lakes Frontier, pp. 119–122; Julian P. Boyd, The Susquehannah Company Papers, Vol. 1, 1750–1755 (Ithaca, N.Y: Cornell University Press, 1962), pp. 101–103.

16. Larabee, Papers of Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 4, pp. 118–119 (Franklin to Parker, March 20, 1751).

17. Gipson, The Great Lakes Frontier, pp. 127–131. “For though I projected”: Leonard W. Larabee, The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 5, July 1, 1753, through March 31, 1755 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1962), p. 454 (Franklin to Collinson, December 29, 1754).

18. Gipson, The Great Lakes Frontier, pp. 131–135.

19. Albert Henry Smyth, ed., The Writings of Benjamin Franklin (New York: Macmillan, 1907), Vol. 3, p. 242 (Franklin to Collinson, December 29, 1754).

20. Timothy J. Shannon, Indians and Colonists at the Crossroads of Empire: The Albany Congress of 1754 (Ithaca, N.Y: Cornell University Press, 2000), pp. 241–244.

21. Gipson, The Great Lakes Frontier, pp. 144–166. “I have no leaf”: Shirley Papers, Vol. 2, pp. 95–96 (Shirley to Morris, October 21, 1754). “The assemblies did not”: Walter Isaacson, Benjamin Franklin: An American Life (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2003), p. 161.

4 • Braddock’s Roads

1. Thomas Mante, The History of the Late War in North-America (London: Strahan and Cadell, 1772), p. 21.

2. “Edward Braddock.” Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. 2 (London: Oxford University Press, 1917), pp. 1061–1062. See also the standard biography of Braddock: Lee McCardell, Ill-Starred General: Braddock of the Coldstream Guards (Pittsburgh, Pa. : University of Pittsburgh Press, 1958).

3. T. R. Clayton, “The Duke of Newcastle, the Earl of Halifax, and the American Origins of the Seven Years’ War,” Historical Journal, Vol. 24 (1981), pp. 590–591.

4. Ibid., pp. 592–594.

5. Matthew C. Ward. Breaking the Backcountry: The Seven Years’ War in Virginia and Pennsylvania, 1754–1765 (Pittsburgh, Pa. : University of Pittsburgh Press, 2003), p. 37.

6. Lawrence Henry Gipson, The British Empire before the American Revolution, Vol. 6, The Years of Defeat, 1754–1757 (New York: Knopf, 1946), pp. 99–103.

7. Ibid., pp. 104–116; Guy Frégault, Canada: The War of the Conquest, trans. Margaret M. Cameron (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1969), pp. 90–91.

8. Ward, Breaking the Backcountry, p. 45.

9. Gipson, The Years of Defeat, p. 117.

10. Francis Jennings, Empire of Fortune: Crowns, Colonies, and Tribes in the Seven Years War in America (New York: Norton, 1988), p. 152.

11. “I cannot say”: Ward, Breaking the Backcountry, p. 38. Paul E. Kopperman, Braddock on the Monongahela (Pittsburgh, Pa. : University of Pittsburgh Press, 1977), p. 7.

12. Walter O’Meara, Guns at the Forks (Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice Hall, 1965), pp. 64–72.

13. Jennings, Empire of Fortune, pp. 67–68. “I have my own”: O’Meara. Guns at the Forks, pp. 126–127.

14. Kopperman, Braddock on the Monongahela, p. 9; for one estimate of Braddock’s initial force, see Francis Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe: The French and Indian War (New York: Da Capo, 1995), p. 118.

15. Kopperman, Braddock on the Monongahela, pp. 10–18, 32–39.

16. Ibid., pp. 39–40, 285; for Washington’s physical condition see Fred Anderson, Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766 (New York: Knopf, 2000), p. 97.

17. Jennings, Empire of Fortune, pp. 153–156; Gipson, The Years of Defeat, pp. 70–71.

18. Jennings, Empire of Fortune, p. 156; Kopperman, Braddock on the Monongahela, p. 30.

19. “When we endeavored”: W. W. Abbot, ed., The Papers of George Washington, Colonial Series, Vol. 1, 1748–August 1755 (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1983), pp. 339–340. Among the best analyses of the battle and contemporary accounts are Kopperman, Braddock on the Monongahela; and Stanley Pargellis, “Braddock’s Defeat,” American Historical Review, Vol. 41 (1936), pp. 253–269.

20. Kopperman, Braddock on the Monongahela, pp. 91–92. For reports of French casualties see Jennings, Empire of Fortune, p. 158; and Frégault, Canada: The War of the Conquest, p. 96.

21. Pargellis, “Braddock’s Defeat,” pp. 264–265. Kopperman, Braddock on the Monongahela, “Bibliographical Essay,” pp. 142–154, contains a thorough review of historical interpretations.

22. Frégault, Canada: The War of the Conquest, p. 97.

23. Maryland Gazette, August 28, 1755.

24. Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe, p. 169.

25. Daniel Marston, The French-Indian War, 1754–1760 (Oxford: Osprey, 2002), pp. 32–33, 78.

26. “Thomas Gage,” Dictionary of National Biography (London: Macmillan, 1908), Vol. 7, pp. 795–796.

5 • “That I Can Save England”

1. Walter L. Dorn, Competition for Empire, 1740–1763 (New York: Harper, 1940), p. 105.

2. Lawrence Henry Gipson, The British Empire before the American Revolution, Vol. 6, The Years of Defeat, 1754–1757 (New York: Knopf, 1946), p. 402.

3. Ibid.

4. Ibid., pp. 400–417. A. T. Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660–1783 (New York: Dover, 1987), pp. 286–287 (reprint of 1894 edition). “In this country”: Voltaire, Candide (New York: Random House, 1930), p. 111.

5. Samuel Eliot Morison, The Oxford History of the American People (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965), p. 164.

6. W. H. Moreland and Atul Chandra Chatterjee, A Short History of India, 4th ed. (New York: McKay, 1957), pp. 265, 270–272.

7. Pennsylvania Colonial Records, Vol. 6, p. 513 (Morris to Shirley, July 30, 1755). “Sure I am” and “in short”: Pennsylvania Gazette, October 30, 1755.

8. Boston Gazette, October 27, 1755.

9. Seymour I. Schwartz, The French and Indian War, 1754–1763: The Imperial Struggle for North America (New York: Castle, 1994), pp. 78–81. See also Daniel Marston, The French-Indian War, 1754–1760 (Oxford: Osprey, 2002), pp. 36–37; Gipson, The Years of Defeat, pp. 193–200.

10. Guy Frégault, Canada: The War of the Conquest, trans. Margaret M. Cameron (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1969), p. 137.

11. Morison, History of the American People, p. 164.

12. J. C. Long, Mr. Pitt and America’s Birthright: A Biography of William Pitt, the Earl of Chatham, 1708–1778 (New York: Stokes, 1940), pp. 239–240.

13. Ibid., p. 19.

14. William B. Willcox, A History of England, Vol. 3, The Age of Aristocracy, 1688–1830 (Lexington, Mass.: Heath, 1971), p. 71.

15. Long, Mr. Pitt, p. 242.

16. Ibid., pp. 250–253.

17. Francis Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe: The French and Indian War (New York: Da Capo, 1995), p. 328.

18. Willcox, The Age of Aristocracy, p. 76. For more on Pitt’s rise, see Fred Anderson, Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766 (New York: Knopf, 2000), pp. 172–175; and Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe, pp. 328–332.

19. Long, Mr. Pitt, p. 315.

6 • Massacre and Stalemate

1. Lawrence Henry Gipson, The British Empire before the American Revolution, Vol. 7, The Victorious Years, 1758–1760 (New York: Knopf, 1949), p. 62.

2. William B. Willcox, A History of England, Vol. 3, The Age of Aristocracy (Lexington, Mass.: Heath, 1971), pp. 75–76.

3. A. T. Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660–1783 (New York: Dover, 1987), pp. 288–289. “Louis XV and”: Francis Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe: The French and Indian War (New York: Da Capo, 1995), pp. 207, 211.

4. Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe, pp. 208–210.

5. Ibid., pp. 213, 216–217.

6. John A. Garraty, The American Nation: A History of the United States (New York: Harper and Row, 1966), pp. 98–99.

7. Guy Frégault, Canada: The War of the Conquest, trans. Margaret M. Cameron (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1969), p. 137.

8. Shirley Papers, Vol. 2, p. 557.

9. Samuel Eliot Morison, Oxford History of the American People (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965), p. 164. When William Shirley left America to face his detractors in England, he took with him the best model that the English colonies had ever seen for cooperation between an English-born, crown-appointed royal governor and the sometimes recalcitrant, sometimes impetuous colonial legislatures. Shirley had been the king’s man—there was no doubt about that—but he had also been keenly sensitive, too, and respectful of the differences between London and Boston. America was different, and Shirley had managed to pursue his king’s imperial prerogatives without trampling on some measure of colonial self-governance in local affairs. The best evidence of this was the tribute that the Massachusetts legislature bestowed on Shirley upon his departure. “Justice as well as gratitude,” the delegates avowed, “would oblige us to bear our testimony to the world that the affairs of this province have been so wisely conducted by your excellency that your name ought to be ever dear to the inhabitants.” It was a far cry from what Massachusetts would be saying about its royal governor scarcely a decade hence.)

10. Gipson, The Victorious Years, p. 91.

11. Stanley M. Pargellis, Lord Loudoun in North America (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1933), pp. 231–232; Fred Anderson, Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766 (New York: Knopf, 2000), pp. 179–180, 183–184; Gipson, The Victorious Years, pp. 91–95.

12. Frégault, Canada: The War of the Conquest, p. 137.

13. Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe, p. 264.

14. Fred Anderson, Crucible of War, pp. 185–186.

15. Gipson, The Victorious Years, p. 72.

16. Ibid., p. 81.

17. Edward P. Hamilton, ed., Adventure in the Wilderness: The American Journals of Louis Antoine de Bougainville, 1756–1760 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1964), pp. 142–143 (July 24, 1757).

18. Anderson, Crucible of War, pp. 189–190.

19. Gipson, The Victorious Years, p. 80.

20. Ian K. Steele, Betrayals: Fort William Henry and the “Massacre” (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990), p. 98.

21. Wilbur R. Jacobs, Wilderness Politics and Indian Gifts: The Northern Colonial Frontier, 1748–1763 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1966), p. 177.

22. Gipson, The Victorious Years, p. 74.

23. “In the midst”: Hamilton, Adventure in the Wilderness, p. 149 (July 27, 1757). “Accommodate, appease” and “thirty-three different”: Anderson, Crucible of War, p. 189.

24. New York Gazette, August 8, 1757.

25. Gipson, The Victorious Years, pp. 80–81.

26. Jabez Fitch, Jr., The Diary of Jabez Fitch, Jr., 2nd ed. (Glen Falls, N.Y.: Rogers Island Historical Association, 1968), p. 17.

27. “Does not think”: Anderson, Crucible of War, p. 194. Hamilton, Adventure in the Wilderness, pp. 163, 166–167.

28. Gipson, The Victorious Years, p. 84.

29. Fitch, Diary, p. 18.

30. Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe, pp. 293–294; Frye is quoted on p. 560. See also Francis Jennings, Empire of Fortune: Crowns, Colonies, and Tribes in the Seven Years War in America (New York: Norton, 1988), pp. 317–320; and Anderson, Crucible of War, pp. 195–198, for other accounts.

31. Gipson, The Victorious Years, p. 85.

32. Jennings, Empire of Fortune, pp. 317–318. Bougainville is quoted in Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe, p. 251.

33. New York Mercury, August 22, 1757.

34. Anderson, Crucible of War, p. 208.

35. Boston Evening Post, October 24, 1757.

36. J. C. Long, Mr. Pitt and America’s Birthright: A Biography of William Pitt, the Earl of Chatham, 1708–1778 (New York: Stokes, 1940), pp. 269–270.

37. Willcox, The Age of Aristocracy, p. 77.

38. John Bartlett, Bartlett’s Familiar Quotations, 13th ed. (Boston, Mass.: Little, Brown, 1955) p. 351.

7 • Fortress Atlantis

1. New York Colonial Documents, Vol. 10, p. 578 (Montcalm to de Maras, July 11, 1757).

2. Walter L. Dorn, Competition for Empire, 1740–1763 (New York: Harper, 1940), pp. 357–358.

3. New York Mercury, August 22, 1757.

4. Dorn, Competition for Empire, p. 358.

5. Guy Frégault, Canada: The War of the Conquest, trans. Margaret M. Cameron (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1969), p. 137.

6. “Jeffery Amherst,” Dictionary of National Biography, Vol. 1 (New York: Macmillan, 1908), pp. 357–359; Lawrence Henry Gipson, The British Empire before the American Revolution, Vol. 7, The Victorious Years (New York: Knopf, 1949), pp. 182–183. See also J. C. Long, Lord Jeffery Amherst: A Soldier of the King (New York: Macmillan, 1933).

7. Boston Evening Post, August 4, 1755.

8. A. J. B. Johnston et al., Louisbourg: An Eighteenth-Century Town (Halifax: Nimbus, 1991), pp. 1–3, 6–14, 20–22, 41.

9. Pennsylvania Gazette, April 27, 1758.

10. Gipson, The Victorious Years, pp. 184–191.

11. Dorn, Competition for Empire, p. 358.

12. Beckles Willson, The Life and Letters of James Wolfe (London: William Heinemann, 1909), p. 363 (Wolfe to Sackville, May 12, 1758).

13. Ibid., p. 38 (Wolfe to his father, July 4, 1743).

14. Ibid., p. 280 (Wolfe to his mother, November 8, 1755).

15. Ibid., p. 338 (Wolfe to his father, October 24, 1757); and p. 339 (Wolfe to Rickson, November 5, 1757).

16. Ibid., p. 349 (Wolfe to Rickson, January 12, 1758).

17. J. Clarence Webster, ed., The Journal of Jeffery Amherst: Recording the Military Career of General Amherst in America from 1758 to 1763 (Toronto: Ryerson, 1931), pp. 33–46.

18. Gipson, The Victorious Years, pp. 191–196.

19. Webster, Amherst Journal, pp. 50–51.

20. Willson, Life and Letters of Wolfe, pp. 384–385 (Wolfe to Walter Wolfe, July 27, 1758).

21. Boston Gazette, July 10, 1758 (letter dated onboard Namur off Louisbourg, June 9, 1758; reprinted from Halifax Gazette, June 24, 1758).

22. J. S. McLennan, Louisbourg: From Its Foundation to Its Fall, 1713–1758 (Halifax: Book Room, 1979), p. 260.

23. Boston Gazette, July 3, 1758 (letter dated Louisbourg, June 15, 1758).

24. McLennan, Louisbourg, p. 233.

25. Ibid., pp. 195, 233, 234.

26. “Being doomed”: Gipson, The Victorious Years, p. 201. See also McLennan, Louisbourg, pp. 242, 263, 265, 267, 301.

27. Frégault, Canada: The War of the Conquest, p. 219.

28. Gipson, The Victorious Years, pp. 197, 201–202; McLennan, Louisbourg, pp. 264, 266.

29. McLennan, Louisbourg, p. 276.

30. Boston Gazette, August 14, 1758 (letter dated Louisbourg, June 24, 1758).

31. Gipson, The Victorious Years, pp. 203–206; McLennan, Louisbourg, pp. 284–285.

32. Boston Gazette, August 21, 1758 (letter dated Gabarus Bay, July 29, 1758).

33. Boston Gazette, August 28, 1758 (letter dated Louisbourg, July 29, 1758).

34. Boston Gazette, August 14, 1758 (letter dated Louisbourg, June 24, 1758).

35. Gipson, The Victorious Years, p. 196.

36. Willson, Life and Letters of Wolfe, p. 385 (Wolfe to Walter Wolfe, July 27, 1758).

37. Boston Evening Post, August 28, 1758 (extract from letter of August 12, 1758).

38. McLennan, Louisbourg, p. 290; Frégault, Canada: The War of the Conquest, p. 196.

39. McLennan, Louisbourg, p. 311.

40. J. C. Long, Mr. Pitt and America’s Birthright: A Biography of William Pitt, the Earl of Chatham, 1708–1778 (New York: Stokes, 1940), pp. 292–295.

8 • “Till We Meet at Ticonderoga”

1. Lawrence Henry Gipson, The British Empire before the American Revolution, Vol. 7, The Victorious Years (New York: Knopf, 1949), p. 211.

2. Fred Anderson, Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766 (New York: Knopf, 2000), pp. 225–227. Pitt’s policies of giving more control over troops to colonial legislatures and promising them financial aid were a marked contrast to prior earlier directives to recruit colonials into regular regiments and essentially tax the colonial assemblies to benefit a common fund. Unwittingly, however, at the expense of winning the present war, Pitt gave them a taste of equality and fiscal reward that was to be reversed at the war’s conclusion and lead to bitter dissent.

3. Boston Gazette, May 29, 1758.

4. Boston Gazette, June 19, 1758.

5. Boston Gazette, June 26, 1758.

6. “Makes me tremble”: New York Colonial Documents, Vol. 10, p. 686 (Montcalm to de Moras, February 19, 1758); and p. 691 (Montcalm to de Paulmy, February 23, 1758).

7. Gipson, The Victorious Years, pp. 172–173.

8. New York Colonial Documents, Vol. 10, pp. 704–706 (Daine to de Belle Ilse, May 19, 1758).

9. Beckles Willson, The Life and Letters of James Wolfe (London: William Heinemann, 1909), p. 392 (Wolfe to Sackville, August 7, 1758).

10. Parkman has the most biographical information on Rogers, although it is hardly laudatory. Gipson and Anderson mention him almost in passing. Frégault mentions him not at all.

11. John R. Cuneo, Robert Rogers of the Rangers (New York: Oxford University Press, 1959), pp. 4, 8, 12–15, 18.

12. Robert Rogers, Reminiscences of the French War with Robert Rogers’ Journal and a Memoir of General Stark (Freedom, N.H: Freedom Historical Society, 1988), pp. 27–31; hereafter Rogers’ Journal. See also Cuneo, Rogers of the Rangers, pp. 45–49.

13. Armand Francis Lucier, French and Indian War Notices Abstracted from Colonial Newspapers, Vol. 2, 1756–1757 (Bowie, Md.: Heritage, 1999), pp. 74, 282.

14. Cuneo, Rogers of the Rangers, pp. 61–67.

15. Ibid., p. 71.

16. Rogers’ Journal, p. 63.

17. Boston Evening Post, July 3, 1758 (letter dated June 12, 1758).

18. Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe: The French and Indian War (New York: Da Capo, 1995), p. 357.

19. Boston Evening Post, July 3, 1758; Rogers, Rogers’ Journal, pp. 65, 67.

20. Rogers’ Journal, pp. 66–67.

21. Boston Gazette, July 3, 1758.

22. Francis Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe, p. 358.

23. Ibid.; Cuneo, Rogers of the Rangers, pp. 60–61.

24. Part of the legend stems from the fact that in making his escape, Rogers threw down his coat and left it on the ground to be discovered by his pursuers. His commission papers were in a pocket, and for a time the French believed that they had killed their famous enemy. See Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe, p. 312n, who is skeptical; Cuneo, Rogers of the Rangers, p. 78, who pleads ignorance; and Rogers’s own Journal, p. 52, where the story should be if it occurred.

25. Willson, Life and Letters of Wolfe, p. 384 (Wolfe to Walter Wolfe, July 27, 1758); Rogers’ Journal, p. 68.

26. “A sharp fire”: Rogers’ Journal, p. 68. “So far things”: Gipson, The Victorious Years, pp. 224–225.

27. Anderson, Crucible of War, p. 241.

28. Ibid., p. 243.

29. Ibid., p. 244.

30. “As hot a fire”: Frederick B. Richards. The Black Watch at Ticonderoga and Major Duncan Campbell of Inverawe (excerpt from Proceedings of the New York State Historical Association, Vol. 10, printed for the Ticonderoga Museum Library, n. d.), p. 24, quoting Captain James Murray to his brother, July 19, 1758; see also pp. 27 and 52 for casualty figures. For other accounts of the battle, see Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe, pp. 361–368; and Gipson, The Victorious Years, pp. 225–231.

31. This version is from Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe, pp. 561–563; but the most famous telling may be Robert Louis Stevenson’s poem, “Ticonderoga: A Legend of the West Highlands.”

32. Gertrude Selwyn Kimball, Correspondence of William Pitt When Secretary of State (New York: Macmillan, 1906), Vol. 1, p. 300; hereafter Pitt Correspondence.

33. Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe, p. 561; Guy Frégault, Canada: The War of the Conquest, trans. Margaret M. Cameron (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1969), p. 221. According to one source, this was the most deadly battle fought on American soil until the Civil War, with the exception of the battle of Long Island during the American Revolution; see Edward P. Hamilton, Fort Ticonderoga: Key to a Continent (Boston, Mass.: Little, Brown, 1964), p. 85.

34. Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe, p. 368.

35. Armand Francis Lucier, French and Indian War Notices Abstracted from Colonial Newspapers, Vol. 3, January 1, 1758–September 17, 1759 (Bowie, Md.: Heritage, 1999), p. 162.

36. Anderson, Crucible of War, p. 248.

9 • The Bateau Man

1. J. C. Long, Lord Jeffery Amherst: A Soldier of the King (New York: Macmillan, 1933), p. 76.

2. “The unlucky accident”: Beckles Willson, The Life and Letters of Wolfe (London: William Heinemann, 1909), p. 391 (Wolfe to Sackville, August 7, 1758). Rogers’ Journal, pp. 71–72. Francis Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe: The French and Indian War (New York: Da Capo, 1995), pp. 375–377.

3. Harrison Bird, Battle for a Continent: The French and Indian War, 1754–1763 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1965), p. 190. Contemporary accounts spell bateau, singular, and bateaux, plural, in a variety of ways—some quite comical—but all spellings have been corrected in these quotations.

4. Fred Anderson, Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766 (New York: Knopf, 2000), pp. 259, 778n; Lawrence Henry Gipson, The British Empire before the American Revolution, Vol. 7, The Victorious Years (New York: Knopf, 1949), p. 236.

5. Shirley Papers, Vol. 2, pp. 240–241 (Bradstreet to Shirley, August 17, 1755).

6. Ibid., pp. 442–443 (Shirley to Fox, May 7, 1756).

7. Ibid., p. 580 (Morris to Sharpe, October 8, 1756).

8. Gipson, The Victorious Years, p. 237.

9. Ibid., pp. 238–239.

10. Douglas Edward Leach, The Northern Colonial Frontier, 1607–1763 (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1966), p. 105.

11. Gipson, The Victorious Years, pp. 242–243. Fifty-five years later, after a great debate about the strategic importance and defensibility of the same location—then Kingston, Upper Canada—American troops during the war of 1812 sailed across Lake Ontario and attacked York (now Toronto) in a similar raid. It resulted in little more than the burning of the government buildings there, but this led to a thirst for retaliation that was expressed in the burning of buildings in Washington, D. C., two years later. Kingston then, like Fort Frontenac fifty-five years earlier, was the key to severing Canada. Bradstreet had recognized it.

12. Boston Gazette, August 28, 1758.

13. Boston Gazette, September 11, 1758.

14. William G. Godfrey, Pursuit of Profit and Preferment in Colonial North America: John Bradstreet’s Quest (Waterloo, Ont.: Wilfrid/Laurier University Press, 1982), pp. 128–131; Gipson, The Victorious Years, pp. 244–246; Anderson, Crucible of War, pp. 261–264. “Being so near”: New York Mercury, September 18, 1758 (letter dated Oswego, August 30, 1758).

15. “It had in it”: New York Mercury, September 18, 1758 (letter dated Oswego, August 30, 1758. “2000 barrels”: Boston Gazette, September 18, 1758 (letter dated Oswego, August 30, 1758).

16. Boston Gazette, September 18, 1758 (letter dated Oswego, August 30, 1758).

17. Gipson, The Victorious Years, p. 246.

18. Willson, Life and Letters of Wolfe, pp. 369, 403 (Wolfe to Sackville, May 24, 1758; Wolfe to Rickson, December 1, 1758).

19. Edward P. Hamilton, ed., Adventure in the Wilderness: The American Journals of Louis Antoine de Bougainville, 1756–1760 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1964), p. 273.

20. Gipson, The Victorious Years, pp. 218, 220.

10 • Braddock’s Roads Again

1. Walter O’Meara, Guns at the Forks (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1965) p. 158.

2. Lawrence Henry Gipson, The British Empire before the American Revolution, Vol 7, The Victorious Years (New York: Knopf, 1949), pp. 247–250. “Utter stranger”: Pitt Correspondence, Vol. 1, p. 252 (Abercromby to Pitt, May 22, 1758).

3. Gipson, The Victorious Years, pp. 258–259. “All suspected places”: S. K. Stevens, Donald H. Kent, and Autumn L. Leonard, eds., The Papers of Henry Bouquet, Vol. 1, December 11, 1755–May 31, 1758 (Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1972), pp. 52–53.

4. “The villainous behavior”: W. W. Abbot, ed., The Papers of George Washington, Colonial Series, Vol. 5, October 1757–September 1758 (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1988), p. 12 (Washington to Dinwiddie, October 9, 1757). “A few of their”: Alfred Proctor James, ed., The Writings of General John Forbes Relating to His Service in North America (Menasha, Wis.: The Collegiate, 1938), p. 205 (Forbes to Pitt, September 6, 1758).

5. James, Writings of Forbes, p. 129 (Forbes to Bouquet, July 6, 1758).

6. Gipson, The Victorious Years, pp. 261–262.

7. “A new way”: Abbot, Papers of George Washington, Colonial Series, Vol. 5, p. 360 (Washington to Halkett, August 2, 1758). “The Virginians are”: Gipson, The Victorious Years, p. 264n. The determination of the young Washington to press for the Virginia route and the exasperation of the proper Bouquet make for fascinating reading in Washington’s papers. See in particular Washington to Bouquet, August 2, 1758.

8. “Going into Braddock’s”: James, Writings of Forbes, p. 129 (Forbes to Bouquet, July 6, 1758). “Send me”: O’Meara, Guns at the Forks, p. 195.

9. Abbot, Papers of George Washington, Colonial Series, Vol. 5, p. 365 (Bouquet to Washington, August 3, 1758).

10. Gipson, The Victorious Years, p. 267.

11. Guy Frégault, Canada: The War of the Conquest, trans. Margaret M. Cameron (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1969), p. 99.

12. Gipson, The Victorious Years, pp. 271–273.

13. S. K. Stevens, Donald H. Kent, and Autumn L. Leonard, eds., The Papers of Henry Bouquet, Vol. 2, The Forbes Expedition (Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1951), pp. 502–504, 518–521.

14. Gipson, The Victorious Years, pp. 273–274.

15. Fred Anderson, Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766 (New York: Knopf, 2000), pp. 267–271, 779n.

16. Matthew C. Ward, Breaking the Backcountry: The Seven Years’ War in Virginia and Pennsylvania, 1754–1765 (Pittsburgh, Pa. : University of Pittsburgh Press, 2003), pp. 178–182; Anderson, Crucible of War, pp. 275–278.

17. W. W. Abbot, ed., The Papers of George Washington, Colonial Series, Vol. 6, September 1758–December 1760 (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1988), p. 99 (Washington to Fauquier, October 30, 1758).

18. Gipson, The Victorious Years, p. 282; Anderson, Crucible of War, pp. 282, 781n.

19. Frégault, Canada: The War of the Conquest, p. 224.

20. “A heavy firing”: Pennsylvania Gazette, December 7, 1758. “Monsieurs did not stay”: New York Gazette, December 18, 1758.

21. “After much fatigue”: Pennsylvania Gazette, December 28, 1758. “A long row”: Gipson, The Victorious Years, p. 283.

22. Pennsylvania Gazette, December 14, 1758.

23. “A vast country”: Pennsylvania Gazette, December 28, 1758. “Blessed be God”: Pennsylvania Gazette, December 14, 1758.

24. James, Writings of Forbes, p. 283 (Forbes to Amherst, January 26, 1759; see also postscript in Forbes to Amherst, January 18, 1759).

11 • Caribbean Gambit

1. Walter L. Dorn, Competition for Empire, 1740–1763 (New York: Harper, 1940), map following p. 364; Lawrence Henry Gipson, The British Empire before the American Revolution, Vol. 5, The Great Lakes Frontier, Canada, the West Indies, India, 1748–1754 (New York: Knopf, 1942), pp. 211, 215–216.

2. Lawrence Henry Gipson, The British Empire before the American Revolution, Vol. 8, The Culmination, 1760–1763. (New York: Knopf, 1953), pp. 65–67.

3. Ibid., pp. 67–71.

4. Ibid., pp. 72–74.

5. Ibid., p. 76.

6. A. T. Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660–1783 (New York: Dover, 1987), p. 291.

7. Boston Evening Post, August 28, 1758; reprinted from South Carolina Gazette, July 21, 1758.

8. New York Mercury, September 11, 1758 (dispatches dated Saint Augustine, August 25, 1758).

9. Given overall British losses, this number seems inflated, but it is recounted in Gipson, The Culmination, p. 83; Henry C. Wilkinson, Bermuda in the Old Empire (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1950), p. 232; Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power, p. 314; and Dorn, Competition for Empire, p. 362, among others.

10. Gipson, The Culmination, pp. 83–84.

11. Pennsylvania Gazette, November 9, 1758 (dispatches dated Saint Pierre, June 15, 1758).

12. Gipson, The Culmination, p. 86.

13. J. C. Long, Mr. Pitt and America’s Birthright: A Biography of William Pitt, the Earl of Chatham, 1708–1778 (New York: Stokes, 1940), p. 299.

14. Fred Anderson, Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766 (New York: Knopf, 2000), p. 306; Long, Pitt, p. 299.

15. Gipson, The Culmination, p. 85n.

16. Marshall Smelser, “The Insular Campaign of 1759: Martinique,” American Neptune, Vol. 6, No. 4 (October 1946), pp. 291–293.

17. Ibid. pp. 294–297. “The Highlands of Scotland”: Gipson, The Culmination, p. 91.

18. Smelser, “Martinique,” pp. 298–300.

19. Marshall Smelser, “The Insular Campaign of 1759: Guadeloupe,” American Neptune, Vol. 7, No. 1 (January 1947), pp. 21–23. “Contrary to my wishes”: Pitt Correspondence, Vol. 2, p. 30 (Moore to Pitt, January 30, 1759).

20. Pennsylvania Gazette, March 8, 1759.

21. Smelser, “Guadeloupe,” pp. 24–26; Gipson, The Culmination, pp. 100–101.

22. Smelser, “Guadeloupe,” pp. 27–30; Gipson, The Culmination, pp. 102–105.

23. Anderson, Crucible of War, p. 315.

12 • Falling Dominoes

1. J. C. Long, Lord Jeffery Amherst: A Soldier of the King (New York: Macmillan, 1933), pp. 76–77.

2. Boston Gazette, October 16, 1758.

3. Long, Amherst, pp. 78– 80, 82.

4. Guy Frégault, Canada: The War of the Conquest, trans. Margaret M. Cameron (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1969), p. 161.

5. Ibid., pp. 227–229.

6. Pitt Correspondence, Vol. 2, p. 9 (Amherst to Pitt, January 18, 1759).

7. Pitt Correspondence, Vol. 1, p. 438 (Pitt to Amherst, December 29, 1758).

8. Long, Amherst, p. 84.

9. Lawrence Henry Gipson, The British Empire before the American Revolution Vol. 7, The Victorious Years (New York: Knopf, 1949), p. 334. “To enable him”: Boston Gazette, July 23, 1759.

10. Pennsylvania Gazette, May 3, 1759 (letter dated Fort Ligonier, April 17, 1759).

11. “This morning”: New York Mercury, June 11, 1759 (letter dated Winchester, May 28, 1759). “We cannot find”: Maryland Gazette, June 14, 1759.

12. Gipson, The Victorious Years, pp. 344–345.

13. James Sullivan, The Papers of Sir William Johnson (Albany: University of the State of New York, 1921), Vol. 3, pp. 19–20 (Johnson to Amherst, February 16, 1759).

14. Francis Jennings, Empire of Fortune: Crowns, Colonies, and Tribes in the Seven Years War in America (New York: Norton, 1988), pp. 415–416.

15. Gipson, The Victorious Years, pp. 345, 347–348.

16. Robert West Howard, Thundergate: The Forts of Niagara (Englewood, N.J: Prentice Hall, 1968), pp. 90–91.

17. Fred Anderson, Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766 (New York: Knopf, 2000), pp. 335–336.

18. Gipson, The Victorious Years, p. 351.

19. Howard, Thundergate, pp. 94–95; the number of cannonballs fired is in the Pennsylvania Gazette, August 2, 1759, from a letter dated Niagara, July 16, 1759.

20. “Floating island”: New York Colonial Documents, Vol. 10, p. 986. Jennings, Empire of Fortune, pp. 417–418.

21. “The men received”: Stephen Brumwell, Redcoats: The British Soldier and War in the Americas, 1755–1763 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), p. 253. “As I hear”: Gipson, The Victorious Years, pp. 352–355. Anderson, Crucible of War, pp. 337–338.

22. Armand Francis Lucier, French and Indian War Notices Abstracted from Colonial Newspapers, Vol. 3, January 1, 1758–September 17, 1759 (Bowie, Md.: Heritage, 1999), p. 238.

23. Francis Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe: The French and Indian War (New York: Da Capo, 1995), p. 443; Anderson, Crucible of War, pp. 340–341.

24. Long, Amherst, pp. 100–101. (The biblical reference is Judges 7:25 and 8:21.)

25. Long, Amherst, pp. 105, 109; Anderson, Crucible of War, pp. 340, 342–343.

13 • Battle for a Continent—Or Is It?

1. Beckles Willson, The Life and Letters of James Wolfe (London: William Heinemann, 1909), p. 396 (Wolfe to his father, August 21, 1758); p. 397 (Wolfe to Amherst, September 30, 1758).

2. Ibid., p. 400.

3. Ibid., pp. 400–401 (Wolfe to Pitt, November 22, 1758).

4. Ibid., p. 405 (Wolfe to Parr, December 6, 1758).

5. Ibid., pp. 93, 406 (Wolfe to Rickson, April 2, 1749).

6. Ibid., pp. 415–417.

7. Ibid., p. 427 (Wolfe to his uncle Walter Wolfe, May 19, 1759).

8. Ibid., p. 388 (Wolfe to Sackville, July 30, 1758).

9. Ibid., pp. 413–414. See also Christopher Hibbert, Wolfe at Quebec: The Man Who Won the French and Indian War (New York: Cooper Square, 1999), pp. 32–34 (originally published 1959); Stuart Reid, Wolfe: The Career of General James Wolfe from Culloden to Quebec (Rockville Center, N.Y.: Sarpedon, 2000), pp. 164–165.

10. Robert Leckie, A Few Acres of Snow: The Saga of the French and Indian Wars (New York: Wiley, 1999), p. 119.

11. Fred Anderson, Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766 (New York: Knopf, 2000), p. 345.

12. Armand Francis Lucier, French and Indian War Notices Abstracted from Colonial Newspapers, Vol. 3, January 1, 1758–September 17, 1759 (Bowie, Md.: Heritage, 1999), pp. 262–263 (letter dated Quebec, April 30, 1759, printed in the Halifax Gazette of June 30, 1759).

13. Pitt Correspondence, Vol. 2, p. 8, (Amherst to Pitt, January 18, 1759).

14. Reid, Wolfe, p. 168.

15. Lawrence Henry Gipson, The British Empire before the American Revolution, Vol. 7, The Victorious Years (New York: Knopf, 1949), pp. 376–377.

16. Ibid., pp. 379–380. “The enemy have”: Willson, Life and Letters of Wolfe, p. 436.

17. Boston Gazette, September 10, 1759 (letter dated Point Lévis, July 29, 1759).

18. Willson, Life and Letters of Wolfe, pp. 457–459.

19. Gipson, The Victorious Years, p. 396.

20. Ibid., pp. 401–404; Anderson, Crucible of War, pp. 342, 383.

21. “The public service”: Willson, Life and Letters of Wolfe, p. 466. “General Wolfe’s health”: Gipson, The Victorious Years, p. 405. Anderson, Crucible of War, p. 351.

22. Gipson, The Victorious Years, pp. 406–407. “My ill-state”: Willson, Life and Letters of Wolfe, p. 475.

23. Gipson, The Victorious Years, pp. 407–409.

24. Ibid., pp. 409–410, 412; Anderson, Crucible of War, pp. 351–352.

25. Willson, Life and Letters of Wolfe, pp. 482–486.

26. Gipson, The Victorious Years, pp. 412–414.

27. Ibid., pp. 415–417; Willson, Life and Letters of Wolfe, pp. 487–488; Anderson, Crucible of War, pp. 354–355.

28. Anderson, Crucible of War, pp. 359–363.

29. Gipson, The Victorious Years, pp. 418–419.

30. Ibid., pp. 421, 423.

31. Anderson, Crucible of War, pp. 365, 368. “The English hold” Guy Frégault, Canada: The War of the Conquest, trans. Margaret M. Cameron (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1969), p. 257.

32. “Carthage may boast”: Frégault, Canada: The War of the Conquest, pp. 261–262. “The Maple Leaf Forever,” in Children’s Very First Piano Pieces (New York: Edward Schuberth, 1947), p. 60.

14 • The Making of a Legend

1. Lawrence Henry Gipson, The British Empire before the American Revolution, Vol. 7, The Victorious Years (New York: Knopf, 1949), pp. 364–365; Burt Garfield Loescher, The History of Rogers’ Rangers: The St. Francis Raid(Bowie, Md.: Heritage, 2002), pp. xix, 155–156.

2. Rogers’ Journal, p. 85.

3. “He could not have”: Gipson, The Victorious Years, p. 365. “Some 600 scalps”: Rogers’ Journal, p. 90. Francis Jennings, Empire of Fortune: Crowns, Colonies, and Tribes in the Seven Years War in America (New York: Norton, 1988), p. 189.

4. Burt Garfield Loescher, Genesis: Rogers’ Rangers, The First Green Berets (Bowie, Md.: Heritage, 2000), p. 57; Loescher, St. Francis, pp. 4–7.

5. Loescher, Genesis, pp. 57–58. “We now determined”: Rogers’ Journal, p. 89.

6. Loescher, St. Francis, pp. 29, 35, 37, 39, 42; Rogers’ Journal pp. 85–86.

7. Loescher, St. Francis, pp. 40, 46, 52–53.

8. “As long as you”: John R. Cuneo, Robert Rogers of the Rangers (New York: Oxford University Press, 1959), p. 105.

9. Loescher, St. Francis, pp. 83, 87, 88–90.

10. Ibid., pp. 94, 96, 197, 199–200.

11. Ibid., p. 180.

15 • Deciding the Fate

1. “We are masters”: Daniel Marston, The French-Indian War, 1754–1760 (Oxford: Osprey, 2002), p. 64. “A severe winter”: Lawrence Henry Gipson, The British Empire before the American Revolution, Vol. 7, The Victorious Years(New York: Knopf, 1949), p. 431.

2. “Totally unfit”: Pitt Correspondence, Vol. 2, pp. 292 (Murray to Pitt, May 25, 1760). “The English hold”: Edward P. Hamilton, ed., Adventure in the WildernessThe American Journal of Louis Antoine de Bougainville, 1756–1760 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1964), p. 321.

3. Gipson, The Victorious Years, pp. 429, 435–436.

4. Ibid., pp. 437–438.

5. Pitt, Correspondence, Vol. 2, p. 293, (Murray to Pitt, May 25, 1760).

6. “Our cannon were”: Marston, The French-Indian War, p. 67; Gipson, The Victorious Years, pp. 339–340.

7. Fred Anderson, Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766 (New York: Knopf, 2000), p. 394.

8. Walter L. Dorn, Competition for Empire, 1740–1763 (New York: Harper, 1940), p. 355; Lawrence Henry Gipson, The British Empire before the American Revolution, Vol. 8, The Culmination, 1760–1763 (New York: Knopf, 1953), pp. 4–5.

9. A. T. Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660–1783 (New York: Dover, 1987), pp. 298–299; Gipson, The Culmination, pp. 12–15.

10. Gipson, The Culmination, pp. 18–21.

11. “I had no ground”: J. C. Long, Mr. Pitt and America’s Birthright: A Biography of William Pitt, the Earl of Chatham, 1708–1778 (New York: Stokes, 1940), p. 320. “General chase”: Anderson, Crucible of War, p. 382. “Had we but two”: Julian S. Corbett, England in the Seven Years War: A Study in Combined Strategy (London: Longmans Green, 1918), Vol. 2, p. 69.

12. Gipson, The Culmination, p. 24.

13. Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power, p. 304.

14. Guy Frégault, Canada: The War of the Conquest, trans. Margaret M. Cameron (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1969), p. 273.

16 • Montreal to Michilimackinac

1. Guy Frégault, Canada: The War of the Conquest, trans. Margaret M. Cameron (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1969), p. 279.

2. Pitt Correspondence, Vol. 2, pp. 288–289 (Amherst to Pitt, May 19, 1760). Troop numbers and “made it impossible”: Frégault, Canada: The War of the Conquest, p. 282.

3. “Easiest”: Frégault, Canada: The War of the Conquest, p. 283. “The St. Lawrence”: Lawrence Henry Gipson, The British Empire before the American Revolution, Vol. 7, The Victorious Years (New York: Knopf, 1949), p. 458.

4. Frégault: Canada: The War of the Conquest, pp. 282, 285; Fred Anderson, Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766 (New York: Knopf, 2000), pp. 398, 401–402.

5. Gipson, The Victorious Years, p. 463.

6. J. C. Long, Lord Jeffery Amherst: A Soldier of the King (New York: Macmillan, 1933), p. 133.

7. Gipson, The Victorious Years, pp. 463–466. “The infamous part”: Anderson, Crucible of War, p. 408.

8. “Without having fired”: Frégault, Canada: The War of the Conquest, p. 288. “After all, sire”: This story and the phrase “a few acres of snow” are the basis for the title of Robert Leckie’s narrative of the colonial wars in North America; Voltaire used the phrase in Candide (New York: Random House, 1930), which in the edition used here is in Chapter 23, p. 110.

9. Pitt Correspondence, Vol. 1, pp. 387–392 (Lyttelton to Pitt, November 4, 1758).

10. Gipson, The Victorious Years, pp. 290–292, 292n.

11. Howard H. Peckham, The Colonial Wars, 1689–1762 (Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1964), p. 202.

12. Tom Hatley, The Dividing Paths: Cherokees and South Carolinians through the Revolutionary Era (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), pp. 122–130.

13. Ibid., p. 132.

14. Ibid., pp. 133, 138–139; Hugh F. Rankin, Francis Marion: The Swamp Fox (New York: Crowell, 1973), pp. 5–6; Anderson, Crucible of War, pp. 466–467.

15. James Sullivan, The Papers of Sir William Johnson, (Albany: University of the State of New York, 1921), Vol. 3, pp. 514–516 (Amherst to Johnson, August 9, 1761).

16. Boston Evening Post, October 13, 1760.

17. Rogers’ Journal, pp. 111–113, 121–122; John R. Cuneo, Robert Rogers of the Rangers (New York: Oxford University Press, 1959), pp. 130–134, 292n. See also Francis Parkman, The Conspiracy of Pontiac. Parkman describes the Ottawa chief as meeting with Rogers at the mouth of the Cuyahoga, but Cuneo is skeptical of this.

18. “No French officer”: Rogers’ Journal, p. 125; Cuneo, Rogers of the Rangers, pp. 135–137.

19. “Everybody here”: Cuneo, Rogers of the Rangers, p. 138. “To our great”: Rogers’ Journal, p. 129.

20. Cuneo, Rogers of the Rangers, pp. 132, 139–141.

17 • Martinique to Manila

1. Lawrence Henry Gipson, The British Empire before the American Revolution, Vol. 8, The Culmination, 1760–1763 (New York: Knopf, 1953), pp. 245–250; Charles Petrie, King Charles III of Spain: An Enlightened Despot(London: Constable, 1971), pp. 49–51.

2. J. C. Long, Mr. Pitt and America’s Birthright: A Biography of William Pitt, the Earl of Chatham, 1708–1778 (New York: Stokes, 1940), pp. 332, 337, 342–349, 370–372; Fred Anderson, Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766 (New York: Knopf, 2000), pp. 478, 801n.

3. Gipson, The Culmination, pp. 222–224.

4. Howard H. Peckham, The Colonial Wars, 1689–1762 (Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1946), pp. 206–207.

5. Walter L. Dorn, Competition for Empire, 1740–1763 (New York: Harper, 1940), pp. 367–369; A. T. Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660–1783 (New York: Dover, 1987), pp. 307–310. For a complete discussion of the Seven Years’ War in India, see Gipson, The Culmination, pp. 108–171.

6. Gipson, The Culmination, pp. 185–196; Anderson, Crucible of War, p. 490.

7. Richard Pares, War and Trade in the West Indies, 1739–1763 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1936), pp. 590–593; Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power, p. 315; Anderson, Crucible of War, pp. 498–501; Gipson, The Culmination, pp. 264–286.

8. Anderson, Crucible of War, pp. 515–517. “Such a banditti”: Gipson, The Culmination, p. 277.

18 • Scratch of a Pen

1. “Half a continent”: Francis Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe: The French and Indian War (New York: Da Capo, 1995), p. 526. “At the end”: A. T. Mahan, The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660–1783 (New York: Dover, 1987), p. 291.

2. Ronald W. Clark, Benjamin Franklin: A Biography (New York: Random House, 1983), p. 157.

3. Richard Pares, War and Trade in the West Indies, 1739–1763 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1936), pp. 219, 224.

4. Walter L. Dorn, Competition for Empire, 1740–1763 (New York: Harper, 1940), pp. 375–376.

5. Walter L. Dorn, “Frederic the Great and Lord Bute,” Journal of Modern History, Vol. 1, No. 4 (December 1929), pp. 534, 557–558.

6. Dorn, Competition for Empire, pp. 376–378.

7. Lawrence Henry Gipson, The British Empire before the American Revolution, Vol. 8, The Culmination, pp. 309–311. “There appears”: Leonard W. Larabee, The Papers of Benjamin Franklin, Vol. 10, January 1, 1762, through December 31, 1763 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1966), p. 215 (Franklin to Jackson, March 8, 1763).

8. Dorn, Competition for Empire, p. 378.

9. Gipson, The Culmination, p. 308.

10. Ibid., pp. 309, 311–312.

11. John A. Garraty, The American NationA History of the United States (New York: Harper and Row, 1966), p. 76.

19 • A Matter Unresolved

1. Lawrence Henry Gipson, The British Empire before the American Revolution, Vol. 9, The Triumphant Empire: New Responsibilities within the Enlarged Empire, 1763–1766 (New York: Knopf, 1956), pp. 51–52; Fred Anderson, Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766 (New York: Knopf, 2000), pp. 565–568.

2. Francis Parkman, The Conspiracy of Pontiac and the Indian War after the Conquest of Canada (New York: Dutton, 1908, reprint); Wilbur R. Jacobs, “Was the Pontiac Uprising a Conspiracy? Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Quarterly, Vol. 59, No. 1 (January 1959), pp. 30–34. For Neolin’s vision, see Gregory Evans Dowd, A Spirited Resistance: The North American Indian Struggle for Unity, 1745–1815 (Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992), p. 33. “Long accustomed”: Wilbur R. Jacobs, Wilderness Politics and Indian Gifts: The Northern Colonial Frontier, 1748–1763 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1966), pp. 161, 185.

3. Howard H. Peckham, Pontiac and the Indian Uprising (Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1961), pp. 15–18, 43–44, 47–48, 59–62.

4. Ibid., pp. 108–109, 154, 159–170.

5. Ibid., pp. 76–78, 117, 121–127, 130–135. See also Helen Humphrey, “The Identity of Major Gladwin’s Informant,” Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 21, No. 2 (September 1934), pp. 147–162.

6. Peckham, Pontiac and the Indian Uprising, pp. 200–210. See also John R. Cuneo, Robert Rogers of the Rangers (New York: Oxford University Press, 1959), pp. 164–167.

7. Gipson, New Responsibilities, pp. 109–110.

8. “Could it not be”: Peckham, Pontiac and the Indian Uprising, pp. 226–227. See also Matthew C. Ward, Breaking the Backcountry: The Seven Years’ War in Virginia and Pennsylvania, 1754–1765 (Pittsburgh, Pa. : University of Pittsburgh Press, 2003), pp. 228–229; Gipson, New Responsibilities, p. 108. For distribution of blankets at Fort Pitt, see Francis Jennings, Empire of Fortune: Crowns, Colonies, and Tribes in the Seven Years’ War in America(New York: Norton, 1988), pp. 447–448.

9. Gipson, New Responsibilities, p. 90.

10. Ibid., pp. 111–112; Ward, Breaking the Backcountry, p. 229.

11. Ward, Breaking the Backcountry, p. 233.

12. “We have visibly”: Peckham, Pontiac and the Indian Uprising, p. 101; Gipson, New Responsibilities, pp. 117–118, 124–126. See also William G. Godfrey, Pursuit of Profit and Preferment in Colonial North America: John Bradstreet’s Quest (Waterloo, Ont.: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 1982), pp. 196–232.

13. J. C. Long, Lord Jeffery Amherst: A Soldier of the King (New York: Macmillan, 1933), pp. 188–189, 193. “A new king”: Peckham, Pontiac and the Indian Uprising, p. 242.

14. Long, Amherst, pp. 189, 237–238.

20 • Prelude to Revolution

1. Fred Anderson, Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766 (New York: Knopf, 2000), p. 604.

2. John A. Garraty, The American Nation: A History of the United States (New York: Harper and Row, 1966), pp. 80–82, 102. Paying certain taxes and other levies to the crown was nothing new for the colonies, but heretofore this had generally been done through the colonial legislatures, as was the case with many of the appropriations during the recent war. The crown asked and the legislatures usually obliged. Popular voting for representatives to these assemblies was generally limited to white males who owned property. But the assemblies were definitely viewed as representative bodies, and their expenditures to support the crown’s mission were seen very differently from direct taxes levied by Parliament, where no colonial was present to speak for or against them.

3. L. H. Butterfield, ed., Diary and Autobiography of John Adams, Vol. 1, Diary 1755–1770 (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1961), p. 284.

4. Anderson, Crucible of War, pp. 700–701.

5. Ibid, pp. 648–650; John C. Miller, Origins of the American Revolution (Boston: Little, Brown, 1943), pp. 237–240.

6. “Americans are the sons”: J. C. Long, Mr. Pitt and America’s Birthright: A Biography of William Pitt, the Earl of Chatham, 1708–1778 (New York: Stokes, 1940), p. 439; see also pp. 461–463. “Ungrateful brats”: Garraty, The American Nation, p. 83.

7. Francis Jennings, Empire of Fortune: Crowns, Colonies, and Tribes in the Seven Years War in America (New York: Norton, 1988), pp. 463, 466–467. The thirteen colonies would finally give up their western land claims as part of the debate over the ratification of the Articles of Confederation.

8. John A. Schutz, William Shirley: King’s Governor of Massachusetts (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1961), p. 265.

9. David Lavender, The Fist in the Wilderness (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1964), pp. 14–15; John R. Cuneo, Robert Rogers of the Rangers (New York: Oxford University Press, 1959), pp. 266–267, 275–278.

10. Howard H. Peckham, Pontiac and the Indian Uprising (Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1961), pp. 261–262, 265–266, 290, 297, 311.

11. Burt Garfield Loescher, The History of Rogers’ Rangers: The St. Francis Raid (Bowie, Md.: Heritage, 2002), pp. 215–216.

12. Long, Mr. Pitt, pp. 494, 507, 533.