Engineers of Dreams: Great Bridge Builders and the Spanning of America - Henry Petroski (1996)

NOTES

Reference notes are keyed to phrases and quotes on the text pages indicated. Where successive quotes and information have come from the same source, only the first or the most prominent occurrence is referenced. Full bibliographical citations for articles and books identified only by author, or, where multiple works by an author are cited, by author and year, are given in the bibliography following these notes.

Biographical information, especially for less well-known engineers, is not always readily available or conveniently indexed. Among the most extensive sources of personal information on engineers are the biographical dictionaries of the American Society of Civil Engineers and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. The most readily available information on the lives and careers of deceased members of the ASCE, to which virtually all bridge engineers discussed in this book belonged, is often in the memoirs published in that society’s Transactions. These memoirs were generally written by associates and published several years after obituaries. So that the memoirs most relevant to this book can be more readily identified, they have all been grouped in the bibliography under the entry “Memoirs of Deceased Members,” and there alphabetically by subject. References to such entries are indicated by the notation “Memoir” in the notes. Where biographical material is not referenced, its source is the two volumes of A Biographical Dictionary of American Civil Engineers.

The following abbreviations are used in the notes:

ASCE = American Society of Civil Engineers

ASME = American Society of Mechanical Engineers

BDACE = A Biographical Dictionary of American Civil Engineers

DAB = Dictionary of American Biography

EN = Engineering News

ENR = Engineering News-Record

NYT = The New York Times

TASCE = Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers

Chapter 1 Imagine

1. The earliest bridges: see, e.g., Steinman and Watson, ch. 2; cf. Tyrrell (1912), ch. 1; Waddell (1916), ch. 1.

2. Homer: Waddell (1916), p. 11.

3. Persian kings: ibid.

4. Herodotus: ibid., p. 5.

5. China, northern India: Steinman and Watson (rev. ed., 1957), p. 17.

6. Middle Ages: see ibid., ch. 4, esp. pp. 53–54.

7. Altopascio Order: ibid., p. 54.

8. “were nicked”: ibid.

9. Frères Pontiffes: ibid.

10. Palladio: Palladio, third bk., chs. V-IX; cf. Waddell (1916), pp. 11–12.

11. brothers Grubenmann: Waddell (1916), p. 12.

12. Squire Whipple: BDACE, vol. II; “Memoir.”

13. “father of American bridge building”: BDACE, vol. II.

14. President Eliphalet Nott: Reynolds, p. 475.

15. Rensselaer: ibid., p. 466.

16. Whipple patented: U.S. Patent No. 2,064.

17. Statue of Liberty: Hawkes, p. 76.

18. one out of every five: Secretary of Transportation, p. 5.

Chapter 2 Eads

1. James Buchanan Eads: see esp. Dorsey; Steinman and Watson, ch. 10; Vollmar; Yager.

2. Young James: S. R. Watson and Watson, p. 107; Morgan, p. 92; Popular Science Monthly, Feb. 1886, p. 545.

4. “This is going to be”: S. R. Watson and Watson, p. 108.

5. a fire broke out: Jacobs and Neville, p. 58.

6. a Barrett Williams: Yager, p. 17.

7. read at will: Popular Science Monthly, Feb. 1886, p. 545.

8. West Point: Grayson, pp. 18, 22.

9. Franklin Institute: ibid., p. 24.

10. engineering schools: Grayson, pp. 24–30.

11. “the last patroon”: National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, vol. II, p. 397.

12. Rensselaer Institute: Grayson, p. 28; see also Reynolds, pp. 466–67.

13. “many of the fledgling”: Schodek, p. 13.

14. Loammi Baldwin: BDACE, vol. I; see also Ford, pp. 278–80; Schodek, pp. 340–2.

15. “learned engineering”: Ford, p. 278, with the name spelled Laommi. “who would become”: Ford, p. 279.

16. insurance underwriters: Scott and Miller, p. 71.

17. five hundred explorations: ibid.

18. Future snag boats: Popular Science Monthly, Feb. 1886, pp. 545–46.

19. “I had occasion”: Eads (1868), p. 21; see also Woodward, p. 3.

20. “most powerful”: Baxter, p. 244.

21. “the St. Louis”: quoted in S. R. Watson and Watson, p. 111; see also Baxter, pp. 242–44; Popular Science Monthly, Feb. 1886, pp. 547–48.

22. outlining a proposal: Woodward, p. 7.

23. Charles Ellet, Jr.: see Lewis.

24. “Mr. Ellet promises”: quoted in Woodward, p. 7.

25. “The time is inauspicious”: ibid., p. 9.

26. Britannia Bridge: see Clark, vol. II, p. 815.

27. “comparative merits”: J. A. Roebling (1841), p. 193.

28. “become indispensably”: quoted in Woodward, p. 10.

29. “much thought”: Homer, p. 10.

30. a tunnel under the river: Woodward, pp. 10–11.

31. “charging that bridges”: Scott and Miller, p. 77; see also Kutler.

32. “it cost nearly half”: Scott and Miller, p. 77.

33. geography had been undone: ibid., p. 78.

34. “the future Great City”: ibid., p. 78.

35. “the datum plane”: Kouwenhoven (1982), p. 542.

36. Lucius boomer: Scott and Miller, p. 79.

37. Simeon S. Post: see BDACE, vol. I; U.S. Patent No. 38,910. “most beautiful contrivance”: Palladio, p. 66.

38. “mathematical bridges”: see, e.g., Labrum, ed., pp. 100–101.

39. “not produce injurious effects”: U.S. Patent No. 38,190.

40. “measured in the center”: Kouwenhoven (1982), p. 542.

41. A convention of civil engineers: see Eads (1868), p. 37.

42. “some ‘engineering precedent’ ”: ibid., p. 41.

43. “In view of the great importance”: ibid., p. 3.

44. “Mr. Boomer’s bridge”: ibid., p. 5.

45. “needlessly extravagant”: ibid., p. 10.

46. “If the upper member”: ibid., p. 11.

47. “every known method”: ibid., p. 17.

48. “bow-string girder”: ibid., p. 12.

49. “catenary or suspended arch”: ibid., p. 17.

50. upright versus suspended arch: ibid., pp. 48–57.

51. cast steel: ibid., p. 57.

52. several patents: see U.S. Patents No. 83,942; 89,745; 95,784; 132,271; 142,378; 142,379; 142,380; 142,381; 144,519.

53. Henry Flad: BDACE, vol. I.

54. Charles Pfeiffer: Scott and Miller, p. 82; cf. Eads (1868), p. 4. Though Scott and Miller use the spelling “Pfeifer,” as does Eads in this particular source, the predominant spelling is followed here. See, e.g., Eads (1884), p. 44.

55. “based his first”: Scott and Miller, p. 90. 

56. “improvement in arch bridges”: U.S. Patent No. 95,784.

57. Flad was issued a patent: U.S. Patent No. 132,271.

58. “After careful revisions”: Eads (1868), p. 4.

59. “I cannot consent”: quoted in Scott and Miller, p. 67.

60. pneumatic caisson: ibid., p. 189; see also Steinman and Watson, pp. 185–86.

61. “a visit”: Reavis, p. 10.

62. “For a while”: ibid., p. 11.

63. sixty-six feet: Eads (1884), p. 557.

64. “where all things”: Reavis, p. 10.

65. In March 1870: see, e.g., Scott and Miller, pp. 106–7.

66. Brooklyn Bridge: D. McCullough (1972), p. 298.

67. John Roebling’s bridge: ibid., pp. 90–92.

68. Roebling’s son: ibid., p. 157.

69. went to Europe: ibid., pp. 165–67.

70. “cassoons”: ibid., p. 167.

71. “correct some statements”: Engineering, May 16, 1873, p. 337; see also Engineering, June 27, 1873, p. 458; Sept. 5, 1873, pp. 195–96; D. McCullough (1972), pp. 344–47.

72. “the first practical”: quoted by Eads in Engineering, May 16, 1873, p. 337.

73. “I trust I shall not”: Engineering, May 16, 1873, p. 337; see also Eads (1884), p. 68.

74. Francis Collingwood, Jr.: see, e.g., D. McCullough (1972), pp. 145, 374.

75. Collingwood Prize: see ASCE Official Register.

76. “The arches”: Eads (1868), p. 33.

77. Piper & Schiffler: Keystone Bridge Company, p. 7; quotations from Carnegie, p. 116, which puts the date at 1862.

78. “proud of having”: Carnegie, p. 117.

79. “did not leave”: ibid., p. 45.

80. “unusual character”: ibid., p. 119.

81. “not stand up”: quoted in ibid., p. 120.

82. “was seemingly one”: ibid., p. 120.

83. “Must we admit”: Eads (1868), p. 44.

84. “first large”: Carnegie, p. 155.

85. John Piper: ibid., p. 120.

86. meet the specifications: see, e.g., Scott and Miller, pp. 95–96, 109–10.

87. First gentleman: Steinman and Watson, pp. 181–82.

88. Linville proposed: Keystone Bridge Company, p. 16.

89. By the end of the summer: Steinman and Watson, pp. 201–5; cf. Scott and Miller, pp. 124–28.

90. fourteen heavy locomotives: Kouwenhoven (1974), p. 175.

91. discovered by Marquette: Yager, p. 81.

92. “Yon graceful forms”: Eads (1884), p. 42.

93. “Everything which prudence”: ibid., p. 43.

94. Among those individuals: ibid., p. 44.

95. fireworks: Kouwenhoven (1974), pp. 178–80, figs. 5, 8; see also Scott and Miller, p. 130. 

96. went bankrupt: Kouwenhoven (1974), p. 180.

97. official name: ibid., pp. 159–60.

98. “conducted principally”: Morgan, p. 120.

99. Arthur E. Morgan: see, e.g., Current Biography, 1956.

100. before there was a law: Morgan, p. 96.

101. “flamboyant in their gaudy paint”: Scott and Miller, p. 125.

102. “drop the case”: quoted in Morgan, p. 113; see also Scott and Miller, pp. 125–26.

103. “bible”: Morgan, p. 78. system of jetties: ibid., pp. 131–32.

104. retrospective scrutiny: ibid., p. 151.

105. Board of Army Engineers: ibid., pp. 133–37.

106. “in a narrow executive capacity”: quoted in ibid., pp. 140–41.

107. lengthy review: Eads (1884), pp. 304–29.

108. total bill: Morgan, p. 142.

109. final legislation: ibid., pp. 142–49.

110. “If the profession”: Eads (1884), p. 48.

111. “the most difficult piece”: quoted in Vollmar, p. 20.

112. thirty feet: Morgan, p. 167; cf. Vollmar, p. 21, which puts the depth at thirty-one feet when the jetties were completed in July 1879.

113. “the savings on transportation”: Vollmar, p. 21.

114. “The key-note”: Eads (1884), p. 53.

115. “directing the great sources”: quoted in, e.g., J. G. Watson, p. 9.

116. “Le Grand Français”: D. McCullough, p. 56.

117. “The question”: Eads (1884), pp. 411–12.

Chapter 3 Cooper

1. Theodore Cooper: “Memoir.”

2. Hoosac Tunnel: see Jacobs and Neville, pp. 36–51.

3. in the navy: “Memoir,” p. 828.

4. “tripped on an unbalanced plank”: Woodward, p. 184.

5. “He was conscious”: ibid., p. 185.

6. found another tube broken: ibid., p. 190.

7. Cooper moved about: “Memoir,” p. 829; see also D. McCullough (1972), p. 341.

8. Tay Bridge: see, e.g., Koerte; Paxton, ed.; Prebble.

9. east coast of Scotland: Koerte, p. 21.

10. Scottish firths: ibid., p. 18; Paxton, ed., pp. 25–26.

11. Stockton & Darlington Railway: Straub, pp. 167–68.

12. Bouch went to Scotland: Prebble, p. 20.

13. “the most insane idea”: quoted in Koerte, p. 21.

14. “The tremendous impetus”: Prebble, p. 24.

15. “[T]he simple reason”: ibid., p. 20.

16. “after some twenty years”: ibid., p. 36.

17. At Dundee: Shipway (1989), p. 1089.

18. foundations: ibid., p. 1092.

19. “Q: Sir Thomas”: quoted in Koerte, pp. 103–4. 

20. “for very limited surfaces”: Prebble, p. 202.

21. “the fall of the bridge”: quoted in Shipway (1989), p. 1096.

22. “beeswax, fiddler’s rosin”: Prebble, p. 193.

23. “no absolute knowledge”: quoted in Prebble, p. 212.

24. “We find that”: quoted in Koerte, p. 108.

25. suspension bridge: Shipway, in Paxton, ed., p. 44.

26. new Tay Bridge: Chrimes, p. 135.

27. Barlow, Son & Baker: Shipway (1989), p. 1097.

28. “The massive character”: reproduced in ibid., p. 1100.

29. The stumps: Koerte, pp. 108–9.

30. consulting engineers: see, e.g., Koerte, p. 134.

31. John Fowler: see Westhofen, pp. 276–81.

32. “major schemes”: Chrimes, p. 135.

33. Benjamin Baker: McBeth, p. 95; see also biographical sketch in Westhofen, p. 281.

34. “should be well enough”: B. Baker (1887), p. 142.

35. Gerber bridge: see Shipway, in Paxton, ed., and Shipway (1990), for illustrations of Gerber and related bridges.

36. Cincinnati Southern Railway: Jackson, p. 174.

37. Charles Shaler Smith: BDACE, vol. II.

38. Charles Conrad Schneider: ibid.

39. Octave Chanute: ibid., vol. I; see also “Memoir,” p. 1665.

40. “Canti-lever Bridge”: Spanning Niagara, p. 17.

41. “This is a question”: EN, Nov. 5, 1887, p. 335.

42. “ ‘How are you getting on’ ”: B. Baker (1887), p. 116.

43. “between England and Scotland”: Scientific American, Feb. 4, 1888, p. 70.

44. “To get an idea”: B. Baker (1887), p. 116.

45. The image of the bridge: Mackay (1990b), pp. 8–9.

46. “Indeed, I have evidence”: B. Baker (1887), p. 116.

47. “The best evidence”: ibid.

48. “was invited”: Mackay (1990b), p. 16.

49. “ingenious illustration”: EN, June 11, 1887, p. 385.

50. “Each semi-arc”: quoted in B. Baker (1887), p. 238.

51. “no deaths”: ibid., pp. 170–71.

52. “Happily there is”: ibid., p. 238.

53. Construction of the Forth Bridge: Birse, in Paxton, ed., pp. 128–29.

54. “may by its freedom”: Westhofen, p. 218.

55. steel in British bridges: Birse, in Paxton, ed., pp. 126–28.

56. Clyde Rivet Company: ibid., p. 128.

57. “You can fold”: B. Baker (1887), p. 210.

58. certainly was stiff: Shipway, in Paxton, ed., p. 62.

59. “straddle legged”: Shipway (1990), p. 1097.

60. “Holbein straddle”: ibid.

61. “the ‘cantilever fever’ ”: EN, April 7, 1888, p. 270.

62. “it was useless to criticise”: EN, Dec. 28, 1889, p. 616.

63. “there would never be”: quoted in ibid. 

64. “You all know about”: quoted in a letter to Engineering News, Oct. 10, 1907, p. 391.

65. Two Eiffel Towers: Engineering, May 3, 1889, p. 501.

66. formal opening: Cox, in Paxton, ed., p. 90.

67. “Aberdeen to New York”: Mackay (1990b), p. 112.

68. Channel tunnel: see, e.g., Hunt; cf. Engineering, Oct. 30, 1868, pp. 389–92.

69. “given reasonable care”: Grant, in Paxton, ed., p. 91.

70. trans-Siberian Railway: see NYT, Aug. 15, 1994, p. A4.

71. bridge connecting Siberia: see, e.g., G. T. Pope.

72. Joseph Strauss: Golden, p. 5.

73. Tung-Yen Lin: see G. T. Pope; cf. ENR, June 7, 1962, pp. 53–54; ENR, July 25, 1994, pp. 38–40.

74. Kinzua Viaduct: Jackson, p. 145.

75. “the first authoritative specifications”: ENR, Aug. 28, 1919, p. 443.

76. Ashtabula Bridge: Jacobs and Neville, p. 56; see also Macdonald.

77. exact cause of the failure: Jacobs and Neville, p. 57; see also Macdonald.

78. “not only alarmed”: Cooper (1889), p. 21.

79. He documented: ibid., p. 25.

80. “worked out independently”: ibid., p. 27.

81. “the first paper”: ibid., p. 22; see Cooper (1878).

82. “must provide for”: Cooper (1889), p. 51.

83. “the American system”: ibid., p. 49.

84. absent from British practice: ibid., p. 51.

85. “If an engineer”: quoted in ibid., p. 50.

86. commission of five: EN, Sept. 6, 1894, p. 187.

87. “cantaliver”: see EN, Dec. 27, 1894, p. 534.

88. “the first practical solution”: Cooper (1889), p. 21.

89. Edward Wellman Serrell: Spanning Niagara, pp. 23, 25.

90. Quebec Bridge Company: Royal Commission, pp. 12–15.

91. Cooper preferred the cantilever: ibid., pp. 16–17.

92. pace of design work: ibid., p. 37.

93. “employ a competent”: ibid., p. 42.

94. “This puts me”: ibid., p. 43.

95. “provided the efficiency”: ibid., p. 46.

96. “de facto, chief engineer”: ibid., p. 75.

97. hypercritical: ibid., pp. 50–52; cf. EN, Oct. 31, 1907, p. 474.

98. “a technical man”: Royal Commission, p. 50.

99. rejecting the proposed procedure: ibid., p. 79.

100. Over the next three weeks: ibid., pp. 79–85.

101. “it looked like a serious matter”: ibid., p. 88.

102. “a grinding sound”: NYT, Aug. 30, 1907, p. 1.

103. “for not having visited”: NYT, Aug. 31, 1907, p. 1.

104. qualified earlier reports: NYT, Sept. 1, 1907, p. 1.

105. “the Nestor”: EN, Oct. 31, 1907, p. 473.

106. “The Canadian Commission”: ibid.

107. “I should have been glad”: ibid., p. 474. 

108. “maintain a judicial attitude”: ibid., p. 469.

109. “vigorous language”: NYT, Nov. 21, 1907, p. 4.

110. “These errors of judgment”: Royal Commission, p. 9.

111. “Why, if you condemn”: EN, Oct. 3, 1907, p. 364.

112. “Mr. Cooper states”: Royal Commission, pp. 49–50.

113. “The Quebec Bridge collapse”: EN, Oct. 3, 1907, p. 365.

114. “commonplace in appearance”: Scientific American, Feb. 12, 1910, p. 148.

115. “for the sake of”: Royal Commission, p. 56.

116. “Twice the hopes”: ENR, Nov. 27, 1917, p. 579.

117. “the entire responsibility”: quoted by Lindenthal in ENR, Nov. 16, 1911, p. 583.

118. a lengthy tract: EN, Nov. 16, 1911, pp. 581–86; Nov. 23, 1911, pp. 613–19.

119. “the most important”: EN, Nov. 16, 1911, p. 599.

120. “If five or more”: ibid., p. 583.

121. “Causes of the Disaster”: ibid., p. 582.

122. “While the Quebec Bridge Co.”: ibid.

123. “foresaw”: NYT, Aug. 25, 1919, p. 11.

124. “consulting work”: ENR, Aug. 28, 1919, p. 443.

125. memoir of Cooper: see “Memoir.”

126. His total assets: NYT, March 25, 1919.

Chapter 4. Lindenthal

1. “the Nestor”: EN, Dec. 21, 1916, p. 1188.

2. “dean” of American bridge engineers: ENR, Aug. 8, 1935, p. 208.

3. Lindenthal was born: see “Memoir”; see also Buckley, p. 40.

4. “educated at”: DAB, suppl. 1, pp. 498–99; National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, vol. XVI, p. 117.

5. The issue of Lindenthal’s education: see Buckley, pp. 56–57.

6. According to a memoir: “Memoir,” p. 1790.

7. “received practical training”: ibid.

8. “was put to work”: Buckley, p. 56.

9. “to start a life”: quoted in ibid.

10. “incline plane and railroad”: National Cyclopaedia of American Biography, vol. XVI, p. 117.

11. “stood a little over six feet”: Buckley, p. 57.

12. “Lindenthal was neither”: ibid., p. 56.

13. After the Centennial Exhibition: BDACE, vol. I; Smith et al., p. 244.

14. Monongahela River: Scientific American, Sept. 22, 1883.

15. Lewis Wernwag: see Nelson, pp. 59–60.

16. “an American engineering superlative”: see Nelson.

17. “the most stunning”: Jackson, p. 321.

18. “in the course of time”: Scientific American, Sept. 22, 1883, p. 180.

19. riverboat captains could arrange: Gangewere, p. 29.

20. “would not be subject to”: Schodek, p. 129.

21. “the triumph of architectural skill”: Scientific American, Sept. 22, 1883, p. 180. 

22. Smithfield Street Bridge carried: Lindenthal (1883); Jackson, pp. 151–52; Schodek, pp. 129–31; Billington (1983), pp. 123–24.

24. portal motif: see Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, p. 129.

25. “new bridge at Pittsburg”: Scientific American, Sept. 22, 1883, p. 180.

26. “from an excellent photograph”: ibid.

27. “practicability of a railroad bridge”: TASCE, vol. 97 (1933), p. 422.

28. “There was keen competition”: ibid.

29. “given thought”: ibid., p. 423.

30. “annoyance and even danger”: Lindenthal (1887), [p. 1].

31. Arthur Mellen Wellington: BDACE, vol. II.

32. with Calvert Vaux: D. McCullough (1972), p. 146.

33. “1874–78”: quoted in EN, May 23, 1895, p. 337.

34. “great work”: ibid.

35. “It would be well”: quoted in Engineering Education, July-Aug. 1990, p. 524.

36. “the influence of his energy”: EN, May 23, 1895, p. 338.

37. “devoted his leisure”: ibid.

38. “from a man”: EN, July 9, 1887, p. 24.

39. “Are the proposed tunnels”: quoted in ibid.

40. “not as a publication”: Lindenthal (1887), copyright page.

41. “Prof. Lindenthal”: NYT, Jan. 5, 1888, p. 5.

42. “public move”: EN, Nov. 12, 1887, p. 348.

43. “wagon-ways”: EN, Nov. 19, 1887, p. 359.

44. Fort Lee: NYT, Jan. 27, 1888, p. 8; Jan. 28, 1888, p. 3.

45. “certainly not so formidable”: EN, Jan. 7, 1888, p. 1.

46. A profile diagram: EN, Jan. 14, 1888, p. 22.

47. “protect them absolutely”: ibid., p. 30.

48. “the most prominent feature”: EN, Jan. 28, 1888, p. 57.

49. “the first definite description”: ibid., p. 62.

50. “architectural excellence”: EN, Feb. 4, 1888, p. 78.

51. “The graceful suspension”: ibid., pp. 78–79.

52. “It is certainly true”: ibid., p. 79.

53. four types of bridges: EN, March 3, 1888, pp. 153–54.

54. “cantilever fever”: April 7, 1888, p. 270.

55. “as they were then”: EN, March 3, 1888, p. 154.

56. so committed to the suspension concept: ibid., p. 155; cf. EN, March 24, 1888, p. 226.

57. New-York and New-Jersey Bridge Company: Ammann (1933b), p. 5.

58. opposition on the New York side: NYT, Feb. 5, 1888, p. 3.

59. Early in 1888: EN, April 14, 1888, p. 283.

60. “It plainly contemplates”: ibid., p. 294.

61. Henry Flad: NYT, July 3, 1888, p. 4.

62. “we shall have a bridge”: NYT, Dec. 25, 1888, p. 4.

63. “much-talked-of bridge”: The American Architect and Building News, Dec. 8, 1888, p. 267.

64. critical appraisal by Max Am Emde: The Engineer, vol. 67 (1889), p. 411.

65. “Ignorance of it”: EN, July 20, 1889, p. 58. 

66. “the bridge is not intended”: ibid., p. 59.

67. “If English and Scotch railways”: EN, March 8, 1890, p. 228.

68. “take hold of the project”: NYT, Oct. 12, 1889, p. 1.

69. American Association for the Advancement of Science: EN, Nov. 9, 1889, pp. 435–37; Nov. 16, 1889, pp. 464–65; Nov. 23, 1889, pp. 486–87.

70. “Zoölogists tell us”: EN, Nov. 9, 1889, p. 436.

71. “If well maintained”: EN, Nov. 23, 1889, p. 487.

72. “Man is more destructive”: ibid.

73. “Like half a rainbow”: ibid.

74. In the early spring: EN, April 5, 1890, p. 313; July 5, 1890, pp. 12–13.

75. “a few hackfuls”: EN, Jan. 2, 1892, p. 15.

76. two bridge companies: see EN, March 16, 1893, p. 258.

77. “The North River Bridge Co.”: EN, Jan. 2, 1892, p. 15.

78. location of the bridge: cf. Billington (1977), table 1.

79. “near Desbrosses St.”: TASCE, vol. 97 (1933), p. 423.

80. “somewhere between Seventieth and Eightieth”: NYT, Feb. 5, 1888, p. 3.

81. “at about Sixtieth St.”: NYT, March 24, 1888, p. 5.

82. “between 10th and 181st Sts.”: EN, April 14, 1888, p. 283.

83. “between Washington Heights and Spuyten Duyvil”: NYT, July 3, 1888, p. 4.

84. “at Fourteenth-Street”: NYT, July 7, 1888, p. 5.

85. “at Fort Washington”: ibid.

86. “at any point”: NYT, Oct. 16, 1888, p. 3.

87. “near 13th St.”: EN, April 6, 1889, p. 299.

88. “about Forty-second St.”: EN, May 10, 1890, p. 434.

89. “to recommend”: see EN, Sept. 6, 1894, p. 187.

90. Bouscaren: BDACE, vol. I.

91. Burr: ibid.

92. Morison: ibid.; E. E. Morison.

93. Charles Walker Raymond: see “Memoir.”

94. “of the unanimous opinion”: EN, Sept. 6, 1894, p. 187.

95. in favor of a suspension bridge: ibid., p. 192.

96. “the maximum length”: EN, Nov. 22, 1894, p. 423.

97. “for information”: EN, Dec. 6, 1894, p. 465.

98. “one of the most valuable”: EN, Nov. 22, 1894, p. 428; cf. EN, Nov. 1, 1894, p. 364.

99. “attract a traffic”: EN, Nov. 22, 1894, p. 428.

100. Consolidated: EN, Dec. 13, 1894, p. 479.

101. secretary of war: EN, Dec. 20, 1894, p. 503.

102. Traffic on Brooklyn Bridge: see, e.g., EN, Nov. 19, 1887, p. 359.

103. Niagara Gorge Bridge: EN, Dec. 27, 1894, p. 534.

104. “To Mr. Roebling”: ibid.

105. “engineers are only now”: ibid.

106. first prize: EN, June 28, 1894, p. 546.

107. “One design”: ibid., p. 547.

108. “there is no knowing”: EN, Dec. 27, 1894, p. 534.

109. “immense rigid trusses”: EN, June 6, 1895, p. 361. 

110. Charles MacDonald: Shanor, pp. 139–40.

111. “unless something were done”: EN, July 11, 1895, p. 25.

112. a cornerstone: Shanor, p. 141.

113. a tunnel: EN, Feb. 13, 1896, p. 97.

114. “to appreciate the fact”: EN, Nov. 25, 1897, p. 346; cf. Dec. 9, 1897, p. 378.

115. Hudson Tunnel Railroad Company: EN, June 16, 1892, p. 609.

116. John Fowler: EN, Sept. 15, 1892, p. 245.

117. British money: EN, June 16, 1892, p. 609.

118. calls for additional bridges: NYT, May 2, 1883, p. 5; May 14, 1887, p. 8.

119. Frederick Uhlmann: EN, Jan. 30, 1886.

120. Leffert Lefferts Buck: see “Memoir.”

121. plans for the Williamsburg Bridge: EN, July 30, 1896, p. 76.

122. “utterly opposed”: EN, Aug. 20, 1896, p. 126.

123. final price tag: see, e.g., D. McCullough (1972), pp. 506, 509.

124. “judgment, skill”: EN, Jan. 27, 1898, p. 60.

125. “ignorance of the true value”: ibid., p. 60.

126. “An engineer may not”: EN, March 3, 1898, p. 144.

127. “Roughly speaking”: EN, Dec. 17, 1903, p. 535.

128. “the heaviest suspension bridge”: Hungerford, p. 26.

129. “So far as engineering science”: ibid., pp. 26–27.

130. “slipping to Brooklyn”: NYT, Sept. 2, 1906, p. 1.

131. Two additional supports: NYT, Nov. 10, 1909.

132. additional steel: EN, May 14, 1914, p. 1082.

133. “Mr. Buck designed”: NYT, June 9, 1911, p. 7.

134. “perfect condition”: ENR, Dec. 8, 1921, p. 939.

135. Engineering News-Record: see ENR, April 5, 1917; cf. McGraw; Mehren; C. W. Baker.

136. “Such bridges”: ENR, Dec. 8, 1921, p. 924.

137. “dragged woefully”: Hungerford, p. 117.

138. Lindenthal deducted: ibid., p. 118.

139. The Roebling firm: NYT, Sept. 7, 1905, p. 7.

140. excluded by New York politics: see D. McCullough (1972), p. 374.

141. R. S. Buck: EN, Feb. 19, 1903, p. 183; see also TASCE, vol. 40 (1898), p. 160.

142. first semiannual report: EN, Aug. 21, 1902, p. 124.

143. The new plans: EN, Feb. 19, 1903, p. 184.

144. board of five engineers: ibid.

145. “small suspension bridges”: EN, March 12, 1903, p. 229.

146. “one of the most experienced”: ibid., p. 234.

147. “they are to be preferred”: ibid., p. 243.

148. The final report: EN, July 2, 1903, p. 24.

149. “even more disappointing”: EN, July 9, 1903, p. 38.

150. “a chain-bridge”: EN, July 23, 1903, p. 79.

151. The debate over the Manhattan Bridge: see, e.g., EN, July 30, 1903, p. 102; Aug. 6, 1903, p. 124; Aug. 13, 1903, p. 144.

152. editorial stance: EN, Aug. 13, 1903, p. 142.

153. “no greater than”: EN, Oct. 1, 1903, p. 296. 

154. “yet much to learn”: EN, Oct. 29, 1903, p. 392.

155. “the best way”: EN, Dec. 31, 1903, p. 590.

156. “personal spite”: NYT, Dec. 9, 1905, p. 15; cf. p. 8.

157. still advocating a chain: NYT, March 31, 1906, p. 8.

158. Mayor McClellan: NYT, June 16, 1908, p. 5.

159. formally opened: EN, Jan. 6, 1910, p. 27; see also NYT, Dec. 12, 1908, p. 1.

160. “to watch the construction”: NYT, April 12, 1909, p. 5.

161. Ralph Modjeski: see Durand; Current Biography, 1940; DAB, suppl. 2; “Memoir.”

162. “The première tragedienne”: “Memoir” of Modjeski, p. 1624.

163. “someday he would build”: Modjeska, pp. 245–46.

164. student with Ignace Paderewski: Durand, p. 246.

165. “as an honor conferred”: Civil Engineering, March 1931, p. 568; see also Civil Engineering, April 1931, p. 667.

166. “When I was four”: Journal of the Western Society of Engineers, vol. 36, no. 2 (April 1931), p. 73; see also Durand, p. 255.

168. “father of bridge building”: “Memoir” of Modjeski, p. 1624.

169. “It is that”: Journal of the Western Society of Engineers, vol. 36, no. 2 (April 1931), P. 79.

170. “prolonged applause”: ibid., p. 72.

171. His posing: Government Board of Engineers.

172. Delaware River Bridge: Carswell, pp. 37, 39.

173. “a clean bill of health”: NYT, Sept. 14, 1909; see also ENR, Oct. 14, 1909, pp. 401–9.

174. The Manhattan Bridge: see, e.g., Billington (1983), p. 136.

175. Lindenthal actually raised: ENR, April 27, 1911, p. 517.

176. “scheme was rescued”: NYT, July 23, 1880, p. 2.

177. “by enormous passenger elevators”: NYT, March 16, 1887, p. 5.

178. legality of running railroad tracks: NYT, Nov. 8, 1889, p. 3.

179. only one pier: Reier, p. 44.

180. The new location: EN, Nov. 29, 1894, pp. 439, 448.

181. Supreme Court: EN, Nov. 21, 1895, p. 350.

182. In his first report: EN, Aug. 21, 1902, p. 125.

183. Lindenthal’s specifications: EN, Sept. 3, 1903, p. 206.

184. “largest cantilever bridge”: NYT, July 4, 1905, p. 3; see also July 8, 1905, p. 14.

185. “and so weakened”: NYT, Sept. 22, 1906, p. 6.

186. Work gangs: NYT, Feb. 14, 1908, p. 1.

187. dynamite was found: NYT, March 9, 1908, p. 11.

188. “seemed to be defying”: NYT, March 13, 1908, p. 4.

189. Two independent consultants: Burr and Boller & Hodge, p. 3.

190. Burr did recommend: ibid., p. 26.

191. “must not be opened”: NYT, July 30, 1908, p. 12.

192. fearless pedestrians: NYT, Aug. 18, 1908, p. 7.

193. Rudyard Kipling: see “The Bridge-Builders,” in Kipling.

194. “birds in large flocks”: NYT, Dec. 10, 1908, p. 3.

195. “architects and structural engineers”: NYT, Dec. 27, 1908, pt. 5, p. 4. 

196. “unpleasantly suggestive”: NYT, Sept. 6, 1908, pt. 3, p. 4.

197. Miss Elinor Dolbert: NYT, Jan. 6, 1909, p. 3.

198. perhaps Wilbur Wright: NYT, Feb. 1, 1909, p. 1.

199. “veracious press agent”: NYT, Feb. 4, 1909, p. 6.

200. Questions of safety: see, e.g., NYT, March 31, 1909, p. 2.

201. “Dr. Rainey”: NYT, May 13, 1909, p. 1.

202. “new bridge ablaze”: NYT, June 13, 1909, p. 1.

203. Hell Gate: EN, May 30, 1907, p. 583.

204. Henry F. Hornbostel: Buckley, pp. 44, 48.

205. refused to submit new plans: NYT, March 29, 1904, p. 10.

206. “a pair of immense pylons”: EN, May 30, 1907, p. 583.

207. “in Westchester County”: Ammann (1918), p. 1000.

208. leaning toward a scheme: ibid., p. 860.

209. three comparative designs: ibid., p. 865.

210. “a utilitarian structure”: ibid., p. 868.

211. An arch design: ibid., p. 865.

212. Ammann’s list of factors: ibid., pp. 869–70.

213. “more expressive of rigidity”: ibid., p. 871.

214. “massiveness over lightness”: Billington (1983), p. 126.

215. “a slight reversal”: Ammann (1918), pp. 872, 874.

216. “rather a massive frill”: Billington (1983), p. 128.

217. “although not objecting”: Ammann (1918), p. 872.

218. original tower design left a gap: see ibid., fig. 8, facing p. 874.

219. “Lindenthal feared”: Buckley, p. 48.

220. “Mr. Lindenthal conceived”: Ammann (1918), p. 865.

221. “A great work of art”: ibid., p. 863.

222. twice as heavy: EN, Jan. 8, 1914, p. 59.

223. staff of ninety-five: Ammann (1918), p. 985.

224. “with minor architectural changes”: EN, Jan. 8, 1914, p. 59.

225. “The arches could”: EN, Jan. 22, 1914, p. 203.

226. Lindenthal responded: EN, Feb. 5, 1914, p. 316.

227. “objection was made”: Ammann (1918), p. 1032.

228. “Hell Gate Arch Bridge”: EN, Dec. 31, 1914, p. 1311.

229. Federal Express: NYT, March 11, 1917, sect. III, p. 4; ENR, March 15, 1917, P. 453.

230. “chief memorial”: ENR, Aug. 8, 1935, p. 208.

231. The Sciotoville: McClintic-Marshall Company, p. 3.

232. “perhaps the boldest”: quoted in Billington (1983), p. 125

233. “the ultimate expression”: Carl Condit, quoted in Jackson, p. 173.

234. “daring and handsome structure”: in discussion to Lindenthal (1922), p. 963.

235. “genius that originates”: quoted in ibid.; see also p. 912.

236. “the boldest bridge plan”: Waddell (1916), p. 608.

237. “The Sciotoville Bridge”: in discussion to Lindenthal (1922), p. 962.

238. “detailed, although somewhat belated”: Lindenthal (1922), p. 910.

239. Rowland Prize: Civil Engineering, Sept. 1935, p. 594.

240. “in this unusual work”: Lindenthal (1922), p. 953. 

241. Portland, Oregon: Wood, p. 25; ENR, June 26, 1924, p. 1115; cf. Ratigan, pp. 194–95.

242. largest bridges on the West Coast: ENR, Aug. 8, 1935, p. 208.

243. “he never built two”: “Memoir,” p. 1793.

244. “his habit of looking”: ibid.; cf. Leonhardt (1984b), pp. 32–34.

245. “one of the masters”: EN, Dec. 21, 1916, p. 1188.

246. J. A. L. Waddell: see, e.g., Who’s Who in Engineering, 1922–23; BDACE, vol. II; National Cyclopaedia of American Biography vol. XXVII; ENR, March 10, 1938, p. 354; Waddell (1928).

247. “of finding someone”: EN, Dec. 21, 1916, p. 1188.

248. “the fact that parts”: Lindenthal (1916), p. 1175.

249. “too active to find”: TASCE, vol. 105 (1940), p. 1794.

250. Waddell kept his staff employed: Hardesty & Hanover (1987a), no. 1, p. 4.

251. “breezy and often gossipy”: Lindenthal (1916), p. 1175.

252. Hell Gate: Waddell (1916), p. 27.

253. “the noted bridge engineer”: ibid., p. 625.

254. “certainly of aesthetic appearance”: ibid., p. 626.

255. “Gustav Lindenthal, Esq., C.E.”: ibid., p. 126; cf. p. 482.

256. “A New York engineer”: ibid., p. 586.

257. without one’s name: ibid., p. 27.

258. “much valuable information”: ibid., p. 126.

259. “one of the most prominent”: ibid., p. 471.

260. “exceedingly favorable”: ibid., p. 482.

261. “Messrs. Geo. S. Morison”: ibid., p. 660.

262. “made in the late eighties”: ibid., p. 662.

263. Hodge’s plan: ibid., pp. 661–62.

264. Halstead Street Lift-Bridge: Waddell (1895); see also Waddell & Son.

265. series of partnerships: see Hardesty & Hanover (1987b).

266. Waddell & Son catalogue: Waddell & Son.

267. thoughtfully cropped photographs: Strauss Bascule Bridge Company.

268. “possession of a constitution”: Engineering, April 15, 1938, p. 413.

269. “in longhand”: in Waddell (1928), p. 17.

270. “The book”: Lindenthal (1916), p. 1175.

271. “there are few structures”: ibid., p. 1177.

272. “The author’s repeated reference”: ibid., p. 1178.

273. “The great bridges of New York”: from letter quoted in ENR, Jan. 29, 1920, p. 250.

274. “resolutions of remonstrance”: ENR, Feb. 26, 1920, p. 435.

275. Ralph Modjeski was chosen: Carswell, p. 6.

276. “the engineer who thinks”: ENR, Nov. 24, 1921, p. 862.

277. “the finest example”: ibid., p. 861.

278. Joseph Pennell: see, e.g., Fredrich (1993).

279. as early as 1818: Delaware River Bridge, p. 19.

280. In 1843: ibid., p. 20.

281. Waddell & Son: ENR, June 23, 1921, p. 1086.

282. Havana, Cuba: Waddell (1916), pp. 1156–57; fig. 52a, p. 1158. 

283. Warren P. Laird: Delaware River Bridge, p. 23.

284. board of engineers: ibid., p. 6.

285. Suspension and cantilever: ENR, June 23, 1921, p. 1087.

286. “in lieu of”: Delaware River Bridge, p. 24.

287. tolls: see, e.g., ENR, Sept. 3, 1925, p. 399.

288. “under the pressure”: ENR, July 30, 1925, p. 167.

289. “if the outcome”: ENR, Dec. 3, 1925, p. 900; see also July 30, 1925, p. 167.

290. “it probably ranks”: ENR, Sept. 30, 1926, p. 530.

291. “There will be”: Delaware River Bridge, p. 7.

292. “Bridge Engineering”: Lindenthal (1924b).

293. “Engineers are sometimes”: ibid., p. 657.

294. “Bridge construction”: ibid.

295. “exceptionally severe winter”: Lindenthal (1918a), p. 3.

296. “the slowing up and congestion”: ibid., p. 10.

297. “it would be folly”: ibid., p. 14.

298. “Dr. Engr. Gustav Lindenthal”: see Waddell (1916), p. 1626.

299. “Lower Deck”: Lindenthal (1919), p. 6.

300. his earlier pamphlet: ibid., p. 16. The pamphlet referred to is Lindenthal (1918a).

301. “the most backward”: Lindenthal (1933), p. 7.

302. “deduce and predict”: ibid., p. 5.

303. “He waved the inquiry”: NYT, May 22, 1930, p. 29.

304. eighty-first birthday: NYT, May 21, 1931, p. 24.

305. “pigeonholed”: ENR, Aug. 8, 1935, p. 208.

306. “grand old man”: quoted in NYT, Dec. 16, 1932, p. 15.

307. two other engineers were honored: ibid.

308. eighty-fifth birthday: NYT, May 22, 1935, p. 4.

309. he died: see Lindenthal obituaries in Civil Engineering, Sept. 1935, p. 594; ENR, Aug. 8, 1935, p. 208; NYT, Aug. 1, 1935, p. 23.

310. “his dream of forty years”: NYT, Aug. 1, 1935, p. 23.

311. only David Steinman: NYT, Aug. 3, 1935, p. 13.

Chapter 5 Ammann

1. Othmar Hermann Ammann: see, e.g., Durrer; Stüssi; Widmer; Wisehart; see also DAB, suppl. 7; Current Biography, 1963.

2. The river: Durrer, p. 26.

3. descendant of: Consulting Engineer, Feb. 1964, p. 10.

4. sketching pad: MacKaye, p. 23.

5. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology: Wisehart, p. 183.

6. Wilhelm Ritter: Billington (1980), p. 1109.

7. The final span illustrated: Ritter, p. 63.

8. worked one summer: MacKaye, p. 23.

9. Wartmann & Valette: Current Biography, 1963, p. 8.

10. “the engineer has greater”: quoted in Wisehart, p. 183. 

11. “My first serious interest”: quoted in Widmer, pp. 5–6.

12. “Get all the experience”: quoted in Wisehart, p. 183.

13. “the first door”: Durrer, p. 27.

14. Union Bridge Company: Wisehart, p. 184; Widmer, pp. 4–5.

15. “designed twenty-five”: quoted in Wisehart, p. 184.

16. “boss was simply”: letter, Ammann to his parents, Dec. 3, 1904, trans. Margot Ammann Durrer. Courtesy of Margot Ammann Durrer.

17. “very modern”: ibid.

18. Frederic C. Kunz: Widmer, p. 6.

19. “for their able assistance”: Kunz, p. vi.

20. Among the many plates: Kunz, plate XLVIII A, facing p. 373.

21. “the actual boss”: Widmer, p. 6.

22. new Quebec Bridge: see Kunz, plate XLVIII A, facing p. 373.

23. recommended him to Gustav Lindenthal: Wisehart, p. 185.

24. “OHA started position”: reproduced in Widmer, p. 7; see Ammann (1918), p. 985; Widmer, p. 6; Wisehart, p. 185.

25. ninety-five engineers: Ammann (1918), p. 985.

26. left for Switzerland: Widmer, p. 7; MacKaye, p. 24.

27. the last rivet: Widmer, p. 7.

28. Ammann presented: Ammann (1918); see also Buckley, p. 45.

29. “obligation, for permission”: Ammann (1918), p. 854.

30. reports of uncommon clarity: see Miller and Saidla, pp. 235–53.

31. “The paper is”: Quimby discussion to Ammann (1918), p. 1020.

32. “and work on them”: Miller and Saidla, p. 252.

33. “bent over his desk”: letter, Margot Ammann Durrer to Henry Petroski, Nov. 8, 1993.

34. “Whenever I looked over”: quoted in Durrer, p. 29.

35. “peculiar construction”: Lindenthal (1922), p. 912.

36. “in this unusual work”: ibid., p. 953.

37. “A great engineering work”: Ammann (1918), p. 986.

38. “the position was not attractive”: quoted in Widmer, p. 9.

39. turned the situation around: ibid.

40. Standard biographical sketches: see, e.g., Current Biography, 1963; DAB, suppl. 7.

41. North River Bridge Corporation: NYT, Jan. 19, 1921, p. 17; Jan. 22, 1921, p. 14.

42. “to obtain public support”: NYT, April 17, 1921, sect. X, p. 15.

43. vehicular tunnels: see, e.g., ENR, June 20, 1918, p. 1202.

44. “coal famine”: NYT, Jan. 27, 1918, sect. III, p. 8.

45. George Washington Goethals: see “Memoir”; S. R. Watson and Watson, pp. 121–28.

46. Six feet tall: S. R. Watson and Watson, p. 124.

47. “was due almost entirely”: NYT, March 18, 1918, p. 18.

48. Goethals estimated: ibid.; NYT, June 29, 1918, p. 15.

49. The cost of $12 million: NYT, Feb. 25, 1919, p. 11.

50. Clifford M. Holland: NYT, June 5, 1919, p. 28; see also “Memoir.”

51. “the youngest”: NYT, June 15, 1919, sect. IV, p. 13. 

52. “he spent more time underground”: ENR, Oct. 30, 1924, p. 723.

53. “The duties of”: NYT, June 5, 1919, p. 28.

54. salary of $10,000: ibid.

55. Several key appointments: NYT, July 2, 1919, p. 25.

56. “After very careful investigation”: quoted in NYT, Feb. 15, 1920, sect. IV, p. 17.

57. Within days of the release: see ENR, March 25, 1920, pp. 624–26.

58. Goethals wrote: see ENR, April 8, 1920, pp. 729–32.

59. Holland suggested: NYT, Feb. 20, 1920, p. 26.

60. John F. O’Rourke: ENR, Aug. 2, 1934, p. 156.

61. O’Rourke would realize: NYT, Feb. 21, 1920, p. 13.

62. “The proposal to build”: NYT, March 2, 1920, p. 21.

63. devote no more time: NYT, March 10, 1920, p. 16.

64. American Association of Engineers: see Who’s Who in Engineering, 1937, p. xiv.

65. “answers to questions”: NYT, July 16, 1921, p. 13.

66. “There can be no question”: quoted in ENR, July 21, 1921, p. 125.

67. “successful enough to underbid”: NYT, July 31, 1921, sect. II, p. 1.

68. “in the opinion”: NYT, July 27, 1921, p. 5.

69. public debate: NYT, July 29, 1921, p. 17.

70. send Holland to Europe: ENR, July 28, 1921, p. 164.

71. cold-storage plant: see NYT, June 1, 1922, p. 1.

72. delays were estimated: NYT, Nov. 16, 1921, p. 10.

73. capacity of fifteen million: NYT, Dec. 28, 1921, p. 4.

74. experimental circular tunnel: NYT, Oct. 30, 1921, sect. II, p. 1.

75. twenty-foot granite shaft: NYT, Dec. 15, 1921, p. 5.

76. “Mr. Holland took a pick”: NYT, April 1, 1922, p. 16.

77. “Mr. Falconer”: NYT, June 1, 1922, p. 1; cf. NYT, June 7, 1922, p. 5.

78. a private affair: ENR, June 8, 1922, p. 971.

79. “purely commercial”: NYT, Feb. 21, 1923, p. 16.

80. Bergen County: NYT, March 4, 1923, sect. II, p. 1.

81. “the construction of one”: NYT, April 10, 1923, p. 1.

82. Port of New York Authority: NYT, March 6, 1923, p. 16.

83. vetoed two tunnel bills: NYT, May 31, 1923, p. 2.

84. “more wages”: NYT, April 13, 1923, p. 36.

85. Costs were also rising: NYT, July 1, 1923, sect. VIII, p. 1.

86. “who did not come”: NYT, Nov. 4, 1923, sect. 2, p. 8.

87. final cost was estimated: NYT, Jan. 15, 1924, p. 23.

88. Liberty Tunnels: NYT, Jan. 23, 1924, p. 16.

89. accumulated fumes: NYT, May 11, 1924, p. 1.

90. Yandell Henderson: NYT, March 3, 1924, p. 16; cf. NYT, May 18, 1924, p. 23.

91. tunnel sprang a leak: NYT, April 4, 1924, p. 15.

92. another sand-hog strike: NYT, April 10, 1924, p. 38.

93. “the only spot”: NYT, Sept. 27, 1924, sect. I, p. 22.

94. “some of the engineers”: NYT, Oct. 12, 1924, p. 14.

95. President Coolidge: NYT, Oct. 19, 1924, p. 1.

96. “in the depths”: NYT, Oct. 26, 1924, sect. IX, p. 14.

97. The blast occurred: NYT, Oct. 30, 1924, p. 1. 

98. “started working on tunnels”: NYT, Oct. 28, 1924, p. 23.

99. “his continuous devotion”: ibid.

100. “had expected”: NYT, Oct. 30, 1924, p. 1.

101. the name Holland Tunnel: NYT, Nov. 14, 1924, p. 18.

102. “Throughout time”: ENR, April 2, 1925, p. 545.

103. “able lieutenant”: ibid., p. 572; cf. p. 575.

104. “nice controversy”: ENR, Feb. 21, 1924, p. 309; see also March 16, 1922, p. 28.

105. In the 1924 election: NYT, Dec. 3, 1924, p. 13.

106. “the next of the great viaducts”: NYT, Oct. 11, 1908, p. 7.

107. Pennsylvania Station: see, e.g., Goldberger, p. 31.

108. interstate bridge commission: NYT, June 12, 1909, p. 1.

109. “would seriously injure”: NYT, Nov. 1, 1908, pt. 2, p. 8.

110. “the most feasible sites”: NYT, Dec. 6, 1908, sect. II, p. 6.

111. “the steamship and tobacco man”: NYT, June 12, 1909, p. 5.

112. “The problem”: quoted in ibid.

113. relative riverbed conditions: see NYT, Feb. 9, 1909, p. 9; see also NYT, Oct. 5, 1910, p. 20.

114. George F. Kunz: NYT, Oct. 5, 1910, p. 20.

115. McDougall Hawkes: NYT, Oct. 6, 1910, p. 5.

116. Lindenthal wrote a letter: NYT, Oct. 17, 1910, p. 8.

117. charter was running out: NYT, March 16, 1912, p. 16.

118. long letter: NYT, Dec. 9, 1912, p. 20.

119. John F. Stevens: NYT, Dec. 13, 1912, p. 13.

120. Plans prepared by Boller & Hodge: NYT, Dec. 22, 1912, sect. 8, p. 2.

121. Henry Hodge: NYT, Dec. 22, 1919, p. 15; Dec. 24, 1919, p. 13; Jan. 1, 1920, p. 8.

122. “one of the foremost”: NYT, Dec. 22, 1919, p. 15.

123. “The Hudson River”: ENR, Dec. 23, 1920, p. 1246.

124. moving passenger platform: see, e.g., Scientific American, March 26, 1910, p. 257.

125. “in the vicinity”: NYT, Jan. 19, 1921, p. 17.

126. “it was possible to bridge”: NYT, Aug. 22, 1923, p. 15.

127. Ammann had his own stationery: reproduced in Doig (1990), p. 187.

128. considerable detail: see ibid.; see also Doig and Billington.

129. Joseph B. Strauss: see, e.g., van der Zee.

130. “March 22/1923”: reproduced in Widmer, p. 12.

131. “think piece”: Ammann (1923).

132. “In vain”: letter, Ammann to his mother, Dec. 14, 1923, trans. Margot Ammann Durrer. Courtesy of Margot Ammann Durrer.

133. “It is over a year ago”: quoted in Widmer, pp. 12–13.

134. “At the opportune moment”: quoted in Widmer, p. 13.

135. public hearings: Doig (1990), pp. 169–70.

136. “A bridge at Fort Lee”: reproduced in ibid., p. 188.

137. sketch of his suspension bridge: ENR, Jan. 3, 1924, p. 34.

138. “almost unnoticed”: ENR, April 9, 1925, p. 588.

139. “such a man”: quoted in Doig (1990), p. 171.

140. Benjamin F. Cresson, Jr.: ENR, Feb. 1, 1923, p. 223. 

141. died suddenly: ibid.

142. William W. Drinker: ENR, Sept. 27, 1923, p. 531.

143. Since colonial days: City of Bayonne.

144. “the Port Authority ought”: quoted in Doig (1990), p. 172.

145. “anxiously awaiting their decision”: quoted in ibid., p. 174.

146. “We desire to secure”: quoted in ENR, Dec. 18, 1924, p. 991; cf. editorial, p. 981.

147. “It calls for bids”: ENR, Dec. 18, 1924, p. 981.

148. William Burr and George Goethals: see Reier, pp. 112–14.

149. “encouraging interview”: Doig (1990), pp. 174–75.

150. Outerbridge Crossing: Reier, p. 114; Outerbridge and Outerbridge, p. 6.

151. Goethals Bridge: Reier, p. 114; ENR, March 22, 1928, p. 492.

152. group of consulting engineers: ENR, Dec. 13, 1928, pp. 873–77.

153. “the coat-hanger”: Buchanan (1992), caption to Fig. 25.

154. “Lindenthal’s departure”: Reier, p. 61; cf. Freeman, pp. 217–18.

155. modeled the Sydney Harbour Bridge: see Freeman.

156. redundant diagonal member: ibid., p. 220.

157. Kill van Kull arch: see ENR, Dec. 13, 1928, pp. 873–77.

158. “the high regard”: ENR, Dec. 16, 1926, p. 982.

159. five papers: see ENR, Feb. 24, 1927, pp. 336–37.

160. De Witt Clinton: ENR, Aug. 25, 1927, p. 321.

161. “there are compensations”: “Addresses Delivered on the Occasion of Breaking Ground for the Hudson River Bridge,” Port of New York Authority, Sept. 21, 1927, [p. 2].

162. submitted a wire-cable bid: ENR, Oct. 6, 1927, p. 563; Oct. 13, 1927, p. 592; Oct. 20, 1927, p. 648.

163. “esthetic considerations”: ENR, Aug. 11, 1927, p. 215.

164. an early modification: ENR, May 24, 1928, p. 819.

165. model tests: ibid., pp. 819–22.

166. “He fully realizes”: ENR, Nov. 15, 1928, p. 741.

167. The basic idea for the towers: see Ammann (1924).

168. “another important part”: ibid., p. 25.

169. “The opposite extreme”: ibid.

170. “the combination and utilization”: ibid., p. 26.

171. “the architecture of the towers”: ibid.

172. “Not since December 1911”: Civil Engineering, Oct. 1933, pp. 583–84.

173. the Gilbert stonework: see, e.g., Billington (1977), p. 1663; see also Ammann (1933b), fig. 22.

174. “There is no part”: Ammann (1933b), pp. 46–47, 51.

175. “the fact that”: Moisseiff (1933), p. 165.

176. “When your car”: Le Corbusier quoted in a press kit prepared by the Port of New York Authority for the dedication of the opening of the lower deck of the George Washington Bridge, 1962.

177. six months earlier: NYT, Oct. 18, 1931, p. 16.

178. “George Washington Memorial Bridge”: NYT, Jan. 14, 1931, p. 1.

179. “ridiculous name”: NYT, Jan. 20, 1931, p. 22. 

180. would continue to call: NYT, Jan. 22, 1931, p. 22.

181. alternatives suggested: see, e.g., NYT, Feb. 12, 1931, p. 14.

182. “Cleveland Bridge”: NYT, ibid., p. 27.

183. “named to suit”: NYT, Jan. 22, 1931, p. 41.

184. public was now invited: NYT, Jan. 23, 1931, p. 1.

185. “Verrazano Bridge”: NYT, Feb. 9, 1931, p. 39.

186. “volume of letters”: NYT, Feb. 12, 1931, p. 14.

187. decided on “George Washington Bridge”: NYT, April 24, 1931, p. 25.

188. “what the millions”: NYT, April 25, 1931, p. 18.

189. “get its workaday name”: ENR, May 7, 1931, p. 753.

190. “But probably the greatest”: NYT, Oct. 25, 1931, p. 30.

191. “designer of the great”: ibid.

192. “rendered special advice”: Ammann (1933b), p. 65.

193. “Defying the age-old rule”: NYT, Oct. 25, 1931, pp. 1, 30.

194. all the technical ingenuity: Doig and Billington, pp. 12 ff. 1923 article: Ammann (1923).

195. slightly skewed view: see, e.g., ibid., p. 1074.

196. unlikely extreme traffic condition: see Doig and Billington, pp. 15–16.

197. “every dollar spent”: quoted in ibid., p. 10.

198. economic attractiveness: ibid., pp. 17–18.

199. “the stiffening system”: quoted in ibid., p. 21.

200. “The setting”: quoted in Widmer, p. 19.

201. “great monument to Mr. Ammann”: see Ammann (1931b).

202. date of the first tunnels: ibid., p. 9.

203. “In my preliminary studies”: ibid., p. 17.

204. “a man of vast”: ibid., p. 25.

205. “There was one”: ibid., p. 27; cf. Waddell (1916), p. 5, for another version of the story of squaws used in proof testing.

206. engineers who were not in attendance: see Ammann (1931b), p. 3.

207. James Wilkins: Golden, p. 11; Golden Gate Bridge (1994), p. 9.

208. Hetch Hetchy Valley: van der Zee, p. 25; see also NYT, Aug. 5, 1987, pp. 1, 10.

209. Aeroscope: see Anderson, pp. 128–31; cf. U.S. Patent No. 1,235,506.

210. “Alcatraz and the Angel Islands”: Anderson, p. 130.

211. Joseph Baermann Strauss: Who’s Who in Engineering, 1937.

212. “to build the biggest thing”: Golden, p. 3.

213. “$100 and told him”: ibid., p. 5.

214. New Jersey Steel and Iron Company: see Darnell (1984).

215. “element of movement”: Strauss Bascule Bridge Company, p. 4.

216. O’Shaughnessy shared the data: van der Zee, p. 39.

217. It was an ungraceful hybrid: see O’Shaughnessey and Strauss, pp. 3, 5; cf. van der Zee, p. 42.

218. “to help stimulate”: van der Zee, p. 41.

219. An attractive booklet: O’Shaughnessy and Strauss.

220. “new cantilever-suspension type”: ibid., p. 6.

221. “so reasonable”: see ibid., p. 12.

222. Golden Gate Bridge and Highway District: ibid., p. 43. 

223. Charles Alton Ellis: ibid., pp. 48–50; cf. van der Zee and Cone.

224. Moisseiff prepared plans: van der Zee, p. 57.

225. Among the engineers: ibid., p. 78.

226. Ammann had accepted: ibid., pp. 78–84.

227. O’Shaughnessy: see, e.g., ibid., p. 86.

228. newly printed letterhead: see ibid., p. 72.

229. “the lowest ever written”: ibid., p. 85.

230. Strauss sued: ENR, Nov. 19, 1936, p. 732.

231. Early plans: van der Zee, p. 94.

232. It was Ellis who assured: ibid., p. 100.

233. “the stepped-off type”: ibid., p. 114.

234. John Eberson: ibid., pp. 114–15.

235. He produced a design: see ibid., p. 124.

236. Irving F. Morrow: ibid., p. 115.

237. “the Golden Gate Bridge”: ENR, May 28, 1931, p. 877.

238. The university’s president: van der Zee, p. 125.

239. “Mr. Strauss gave me”: ibid., p. 126.

240. “who stands high”: ibid., p. 128.

241. “even if Mr. Strauss:” ibid.

242. “a problem of this nature”: ibid., p. 110; cf. van der Zee and Cone.

243. “the structure was nothing unusual”: van der Zee, p. 142.

244. “vexed” even Moisseiff: ibid., p. 155.

245. “without diagonals”: ENR, Jan. 25, 1934, p. 125.

246. “in protest over”: van der Zee, p. 156.

247. “principal engineer”: Golden Gate Bridge (c. 1987).

248. a plaque: van der Zee, p. 295.

249. Strauss’s final report: Strauss.

250. Pedestrian Day: see van der Zee, pp. 296–98.

251. fiftieth anniversary: see, e.g., Kuesel, pp. 58, 59.

252. known among engineers: see, e.g., Ketchum and Heldermon.

253. $128-million project: ENR, Jan. 6, 1992, p. 12.

254. disagreements over liability: ENR, Jan. 4, 1993, p. 19.

255. “At last the mighty task”: San Francisco News, May 26, 1937, Golden Gate Bridge and Fiesta Section, p. 4; cf. Golden Gate Bridge (c. 1987).

256. It is known that Ellis: van der Zee and Cone.

257. “When Telford planned”: Ammann (1933a), p. 429.

258. Triborough Bridge Authority: see, e.g., Caro, pp. 657–59.

259. Tammany engineers: Caro, p. 391.

260. The proposed design: see Shanor, pp. 149–56.

261. “so that the structure”: Embury (1938c), p. 265.

262. “It is now well established”: Ammann (1939), p. 218.

263. “in no small degree”: ibid., p. 217.

264. architect to the elite: Caro, p. 365.

265. “had the good fortune”: Embury (1938b), p. 85.

266. worked with Dana de novo: ibid.

267. “wanted the anchorages”: ibid., p. 86. 

268. “until traffic conditions”: ibid., p. 87.

269. “an anachronism”: ibid., p. 88.

270. “how often do engineers”: Embury (1938a), p. 4.

271. “a reversal of function”: Embury (1938b), p. 89.

272. “it is always easier”: ibid.

273. “pendulum action”: ENR, Dec. 5, 1940, pp. 54–55.

274. Golden Gate moved sideways: Vincent, pp. 1817–1–1817–2.

275. Two much shorter suspension bridges: see Billington (1977), pp. 1667–68.

276. stranded on Deer Isle: NYT, May 31, 1978, p. 16.

277. “We have had to deal with”: ENR, Dec. 5, 1940, p. 56.

278. Leon Solomon Moisseiff: see “Memoir”; DAB, suppl. 3, pp. 530–31.

279. “Although he did not”: DAB, suppl. 3, p. 531.

280. Tacoma Narrows Bridge: see Ammann et al.

281. traffic over the bridge: ENR, Aug. 1, 1940, p. 139.

282. “Unless there are”: Moisseiff, in Ammann et al., p. II-1.

283. “raise the west end”: Moisseiff, in ibid., p. II-2.

284. “result in a neat”: Moisseiff, in ibid., p. II-4.

285. “be about one cent per lb. less”: Moisseiff, in ibid., p. II-6.

286. In a second part: ibid.

287. “height of the towers”: Moisseiff, in ibid., p. II-7.

288. Theodore L. Condron: NYT, Apr. 14, 1955, p. 29.

289. identified the board: Condron, in Ammann et al., p. IV-1.

290. “full confidence in Mr. Moisseiff”: quoted in ibid., p. IV-6.

291. Condron’s tabulation: ibid., p. IV-5.

292. “certain tests had been made”: Condron, in ibid., p. IV-3.

293. “Moisseiff and Lienhard”: quoted in ibid., p. IV-3.

294. “there seems to be some question”: Condron, in ibid., p. IV-4.

295. “In view of”: Condron, in ibid., p. IV-3.

296. Freudian slipping: cf. Moisseiff and Lienhard.

297. “gratifying”: Derleth, in discussion of Moisseiff and Lienhard, p. 1123.

298. “had its inception,” ibid., p. 1122.

299. “With regard to the super-structure”: Condron, in Ammann et al., p. IV-5.

300. “the Bridge was undulating”: Cone, in ibid., p. IX-1.

301. “It might seem”: quoted in Ammann et al., p. IV-6.

302. Construction bids: see Farquharson, pt. 1, p. 17.

303. Even before the bridge was completed: see, e.g., Ammann et al.

304. on November 7, 1940: see ibid.; cf. NYT, Nov. 8, 1940, pp. 1, 5.

305. “felt an obligation”: Pagon (1934a), p. 348.

306. a series of eight articles: Pagon (1934a through 1935d).

307. “must reading”: Farquharson, pt. 1, p. 14.

308. The letter: ENR, Nov. 21, 1940, p. 40.

309. Theodore von Kármán: Current Biography, 1955; NYT, May 18, 1963, p. 39.

310. “an eccentric study”: NYT, May 18, 1963, p. 39.

311. The committee’s report: Ammann et al.

312. “the Tacoma Narrows Bridge”: ibid., “Summary of Conclusions,” n.p.

313. bombastic autobiography: von Kármán. 

314. “the bridge was built correctly”: ibid., p. 212.

315. “took home from Cal Tech”: ibid., p. 213.

316. “long standing of the prejudices”: ibid., p. 215.

317. “difference in thinking”: ibid.

318. “more complete theory”: Woodruff, p. 214.

319. “The most perfect system”: ibid., p. 215.

320. “analyze all the assumptions made”: ibid., p. 214.

321. “probably induced”: Ammann et al., “Summary of Conclusions,” n.p.

322. Professor Farquharson: see Farquharson.

323. consulting board: see ibid., introduction.

324. “came as such a shock”: ibid., p. 13.

325. “bridges severely damaged”: ibid., p. 14.

326. J. Kip Finch: see Finch (1941).

327. “This time the problem”: ibid., p. 407.

328. “the modern bridge engineer”: ENR, March 27, 1941, p. 459.

329. John Roebling: see J. A. Roebling (1841).

330. J. Scott Russell: see Russell.

331. “It is also a mistake”: Finch (1941), p. 459.

332. “assisting in the solution”: ENR, Sept. 23, 1943, p. 451.

333. obituary: ENR, Sept. 9, 1943, p. 373.

334. unusual number of letters: ENR, Sept. 23, 1943, pp. 74–75.

335. “The one great disappointment”: ibid., p. 75.

336. memoir of Moisseiff: see “Memoir.”

337. “one of the best informed”: “Memoir,” p. 1509.

338. Charles S. Whitney: Cohen, p. 734.

339. Ammann & Whitney: Widmer, p. 20.

340. “the unprecedented increase”: Port of New York Authority and Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority, p. 6.

341. The consulting engineer: ibid., p. 62.

342. “to help him”: Dunham, pp. 90–91.

343. “While the truss members”: Ammann (1946).

344. “inadequate vertical stiffness”: ibid., p. 102.

345. motor-vehicle registration: Port of New York Authority and Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority, pp. 11, 13.

346. “masterpiece of traffic relief”: NYT, Aug. 29, 1962, p. 31.

347. “small man”: Durrer, p. 32. (Note that a typographical error has Ammann as only “4 feet, 6 inches” tall.) “it took a few minutes”: NYT, Aug. 30, 1962, p. 59.

348. bust of Ammann: see ENR, Sept. 6, 1962, p. 24.

349. “reflect favorably”: NYT, Aug. 29, 1962, p. 59.

350. “no one man designed”: NYT, Aug. 30, 1962, p. 28.

351. “one of America’s outstanding engineers”: NYT, Sept. 11, 1962, p. 32.

352. “anyone who would take”: NYT, Aug. 29, 1962, p. 59.

353. statue of chief engineer Strauss: ENR, Dec. 7, 1939, p. 735; Feb. 1, 1940, p. 143;June 5, 1941, p. 862.

354. Clarence Dunham: see Dunham, p. 90. 

355. Charles Worthington: NYT, Nov. 13, 1910, pt. 7, p. 2.

356. “mercantile development”: ibid.

357. “Every one of them”: Rensselaer, Dec. 1992, p. 7.

358. Milton Brumer: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Distinguished Service Award, 1972, program.

359. “and it was on Milton Brumer”: Cohen, p. 736.

360. “his simply styled office”: NYT, Aug. 29, 1962, p. 59.

361. also kept an apartment: see NYT, March 26, 1964, p. 37.

362. “lucky”: NYT, March 26, 1964, p. 38; cf. Katz, p. 36.

363. “at a thinly disguised”: NYT, Oct. 23, 1964, p. 26.

364. Italy also issued a stamp: NYT, Nov. 29, 1964, sect. II, p. 35.

365. “a brave vagrant”: NYT, Nov. 3, 1964, p. 30.

366. ever-popular numbers: Cohen, p. 739.

367. “the success of”: Joseph Gies, quoted in Talese, p. 38.

368. Cornelius Vanderbilt: Réthi, pp. 8, 10.

369. “the most important link”: ibid., foreword.

370. long-established neighborhoods: see Talese, ch. 2.

371. “essentially the application”: Ammann, in preface to Réthi.

372. upper and lower decks: Talese, p. 45.

373. The opening ceremonies: Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority, Verrazano-Narrows Bridge Dedication, Nov. 21, 1964, program.

374. Robert Moses rode: see NYT, Nov. 22, 1964, p. 30.

375. “the careers of two men”: ibid., sect. IV, p. 8.

376. “Through the bound cable strands”: quoted in ibid.; see The Bridge, sect. viii, “Atlantis,” in Crane, p. 55.

377. Talese had written: Talese.

378. “generals, admirals”: NYT, Nov. 22, 1964, p. 30.

379. “I now ask”: ibid.

380. “It’s Ed Sullivan”: Durrer, p. 32.

381. “reshaping the skyline”: Blum, p. B1.

382. “The rain was coming down”: Trump, quoted in ibid.

383. “dreamer in steel”: “Remarks of Robert Moses on the Occasion of the Dedication of the Othmar Ammann College,” Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority, February 18, 1968, program.

Chapter 6 Ammann

384. David Bernard Steinman: see Ratigan; see also Current Biography, 1957.

385. “his father lashed him”: Ratigan, p. 23.

386. “softly weeping”: ibid., p. 17.

387. “He could rattle off”: ibid., pp. 21–22.

388. A boxed charlotte russe: ibid., p. 22.

389. Talk about building a new bridge: NYT, May 2, 1883, p. 5.

390. “steel wire suspension bridge”: EN, March 7, 1895, p. 145.

391. Leffert Buck had had: EN, Feb. 13, 1896, p. 103; June 18, 1896, p. 393. 

392. bare steel towers: EN, Aug. 20, 1896, p. 126; Aug. 4, 1898, p. 66.

393. He climbed upon the steelwork: S. R. Watson and Watson, p. 145.

394. Morrill Land Grant Act: see Grayson, p. 43.

395. “The most deserving case”: quoted in Current Biography, 1957, p. 527.

396. “built by a troop”: EN, Sept. 25, 1913, p. 614.

397. Steinman personally calculated: Ratigan, p. 101.

398. Steinman reported the results: Steinman (1918).

399. “special acknowledgement”: ibid., p. 1042.

400. “able paper”: Lindenthal, in discussion to ibid., pp. 1089–90.

401. unspecified “suggestions”: Steinman (1918), p. 1072.

402. “The analysis”: Ammann, in discussion to ibid., p. 1106.

403. “the expense”: ibid., p. 1108.

404. In his closure: Steinman (1918), p. 1131.

405. deliberately introduced titles: ibid., p. 1132.

406. “wedding present”: Ratigan, p. 101.

407. “commissioned him to write”: ibid., p. 103.

408. biographer Ratigan: see Ratigan, [p. 460].

409. “Steinman, bridge engineering is easy”: Ratigan, pp. 103–5.

410. service under Lindenthal: see, e.g., Who’s Who in Engineering, 1959.

411. “in the slums”: Daley, p. 33.

412. Irene Hoffmann: Ratigan, pp. 100–101.

413. he would be identified: see M. Davis.

414. “active in Presbyterian affairs”: Daley, p. 33.

415. “a man who modestly”: “Memoir” of Robinson, p. 1532.

416. He went into private practice: S. R. Watson and Watson, p. 147; cf. Daley, P. 33.

417. “a drafting table”: “Memoir,” p. 1533.

418. Holton Duncan Robinson: see “Memoir.”

419. “he suffered excruciatingly”: ibid., p. 1533.

420. “Even in his last years”: ibid., p. 1535.

421. Steinman’s article: Steinman (1924).

422. “most pleasing outline”: ibid., p. 779.

423. “for better appearance”: ENR, Nov. 27, 1924, p. 883.

424. The review itself: ENR, Dec. 21, 1922, pp. 1080–81.

425. Carquinez Strait Bridge: see Steinman (1927).

426. “to take the Island”: see Robinson & Steinman.

427. “the desire to secure”: ENR, Feb. 13, 1930, p. 272.

428. The towers were designed: S. R. Watson and Watson, p. 148.

429. “on a gusty, rainy day”: “Memoir” of Robinson, p. 1536.

430. “professionally connected”: ibid., p. 1535.

431. “helped to design”: see, e.g., Current Biography, 1957, p. 528.

432. bridge to Oakland: see, e.g., Purcell et al.; United States Steel (1936).

433. “the greatest bridge”: ENR, July 20, 1933, p. 89.

434. Charles H. Purcell: Smith et al., p. 242.

435. “among the lightest”: Jackson, p. 264.

436. “studies and investigations”: United States Steel (1936), p. 8. 

437. The board of consulting engineers: Purcell, pp. 183, 187.

438. In an article: Purcell et al.

439. “consider the large number”: ibid., p. 376.

440. two distinct bridges: United States Steel (1936), pp. 11–12.

441. Joshua A. Norton: ibid., p. 86.

442. “We, Norton I”: reproduced in ibid., p. 87.

443. “Who is bold enough”: ibid., p. 86.

444. “Your length”: Andrade (unpaged).

445. Conde Balcom McCullough: Smith et al., pp. 242–43; see also Jackson, p. 304.

446. “Outstanding Practice Problems”: Steinman (1925), p 851.

447. American Society of Civil Engineers and Architects: see C. W. Hunt, p. 17.

448. founder societies: see, e.g., Wisely, p. 308. The American Institute of Chemical Engineers became the fifth “founder society” in 1958.

449. “to address the social”: Robbins, p. 3.

450. professional ethics: see, e.g., Wisely, pp. 128 ff.

451. codes of ethics: ibid. p. 127.

452. “neither satisfactorily formulated”: ENR, May 21, 1925, p. 839.

453. “In plain words”: ibid.

454. “to further the public welfare”: Robbins, p. 5.

455. “engineering on a par”: Steinman (1935b), p. 877.

456. “The public needs”: ibid. pp. 877–78.

457. “nontechnical concerns”: Robbins, pp. 5–6.

458. “Why, I thought”: Hoover, pp. 131–32.

459. “The four-year course”: ENR, Jan. 14, 1932, p. 65.

460. issue of what form: see Florman.

461. “Engr. D. B. Steinman”: ENR, Feb. 13, 1936, p. 257.

462. “Engineers above all”: ENR, Jan. 2, 1936, p. 25.

463. “Mexican engineer”: ENR, April 23, 1936, p. 607; cf. Jan. 2, 1936, p. 25; Feb. 13, pp. 256–57; May 21, p. 749.

464. “Liberty Bridge”: Daley, p. 33; cf. Steinman (c. 1929).

465. Robinson & Steinman brochure: Robinson & Steinman.

466. “I expect Liberty Bridge”: NYT, Sept. 20, 1948, p. 27, as quoted in Current Biography, 1957.

467. late 1940s bridges brochure: Steinman (c. 1947).

468. “the hands of Dr. Steinman”: see also The Bent of Tau Beta Pi, Dec. 1957, p. 23.

469. As late as 1957: Current Biography, 1957.

470. After the George Washington Bridge: see Billington (1977).

471. separate articles: Steinman (1941a); Ammann (1941).

472. “elaborate tests”: Steinman (1941a).

473. response from Ammann: Ammann (1941).

474. “competitors”: ENR, June 25, 1959, p. 58.

475. “Eminence Grade”: Wisely, p. 105; see also pp. 106–109.

476. Sara Ruth Watson: Ratigan, p. 262.

477. American Toll Bridge Association: ibid., p. 219.

478. “I can’t write”: ibid.

479. This new book project: Steinman (1950). 

480. “To spark the things”: Steinman (1959), p. 55.

481. “A boy grew up”: Steinman (1950), p. vii.

482. “She grasped her husband’s ideas”: Steinman (1954b), p. 26.

483. “to the heroic contribution”: Steinman (1950), p. 420.

484. Writing after the war: Steinman (1948).

485. “guesswork expressed”: ENR, Feb. 27, 1941, p. 317.

486. He modeled with mathematical formulas: Steinman (1943).

487. “What this area needs”: Ratigan, p. 278.

488. “In the land of Hiawatha”: Steinman (1959), p. 16.

489. Inter-Peninsula Communications Commission: Steinman (1957), pp. 23–24.

490. recommending both: ibid., p. 25.

491. “perfectly safe suspension bridge”: ibid., p. 27.

492. “not been sufficient”: quoted in Advisory Board on the Investigation of Suspension Bridges, p. 777.

493. Bankers evidently let it be known: Ratigan, p. 283.

494. critical wind velocity: see, e.g., Steinman, in Rubin, p. 17.

495. open-grid roadway: see Steinman (1943), p. 472; von Kármán, p. 215.

496. when drawn to scale: Steinman (1957), p. 166, fig. 17; cf. Rubin, p. 20.

497. “The Mackinac Bridge”: Steinman, in Rubin, p. 18.

498. Among those who were central: Steinman (1957), p. 188.

499. “Since 1921”: Steinman, Boynton, Gronquist & London, p. 3.

500. “Here is Dr. Steinman’s”: ibid., p. 4.

501. Italian Steel Institute: NYT Magazine, Oct. 11, 1953, p. 62.

502. According to the consulting firm’s: Steinman, Boynton, Gronquist & London, p. 26.

503. “Suspension Bridges”: Steinman (1954c).

504. Another article: Steinman (1954e).

505. His obituary: NYT, Aug. 23, 1960, p. 29.

506. An editorial: NYT, Aug. 25, 1960, p. 28.

507. “regarded as”: Civil Engineering, Sept. 1960, p. 75.

508. “Men and Jobs”: ENR, June 25, 1959, pp. 57–59.

509. “An Artist in Steel Design”: ENR, May 15, 1958, pp. 136, 139–40.

510. “We may lack”: quoted in ibid., p. 139.

511. “rugged individualist”: ibid., p. 140.

512. “What Measure for This Man?”: ENR, June 25, 1959, pp. 57–59.

513. “The Doctor”: ibid, p. 59.

514. “Editorial offices”: ibid.

515. “Dave Steinman”: ENR, Sept. 1, 1960, p. 84.

Chapter 7 Realize

516. one out of every five: Secretary of Transportation, p. 5.

517. “born of a dare”: NYT, Aug. 19, 1987, p. 12.

518. radically different: see Bruschi and Koglin, p. 122.

519. “restringing a pearl necklace”: NYT, Aug. 19, 1987, p. 12. 

520. “a case study”: ibid.

521. “a great engineering miracle”: Buckley, p. 59.

522. “disinvesting in the American plant”: ibid.

523. “the least famous”: NYT, Nov. 30, 1991, pp. 1, 31.

524. “an entirely new color”: The New Yorker, April 27, 1992, pp. 30–32.

525. “a sort of vermilion”: ibid., p. 32.

526. as much as 2 percent: Munich Reinsurance Company, p. 85.

527. “bridge-maintenance artist”: ENR, Nov. 16, 1992, p. 23.

528. “Forth Bridge red”: Grant, in Paxton, ed., p. 95.

529. twenty-four painters: ibid., p. 105.

530. “a pale buff color”: ENR, April 22, 1920, p. 807.

531. “a light-greenish tint”: Ratigan, p. 191.

532. “a pleasing shade of verde green”: Steinman (c. 1947), p. 11.

533. “patina green”: ibid., p. 12.

534. “a two-color combination”: Ratigan, p. 300.

535. something Waddell: see ASCE calendar, 1991, caption for February.

536. “joshed about”: Ratigan, p. 300.

537. “using an orange-red”: van der Zee, p. 206.

538. “emphasized”: ibid., p. 219.

539. red-orange rock: ibid., p. 265.

540. “red lead”: Brown, p. 105.

541. “iron-oxide red”: DeLony (1993), p. 143.

542. “International Orange”: Golden Gate Bridge (c. 1987).

543. “the world’s largest Art Deco”: Brown, p. 105.

544. forty-eight months to complete: Golden Gate Bridge (c. 1987).

545. “free bridges”: Strauss, p. 71.

546. toll rate: see van der Zee, p. 306; cf. O’Shaughnessy and Strauss, p. 12; Golden Gate Bridge (1994), p. 36.

547. one billion cars: Golden Gate Bridge (1994), p. 65.

548. one-way tolls: ibid., p. 64.

549. “maintenance, repairs”: Golden Gate Bridge (c. 1987).

550. Nimitz Freeway: see, e.g., Levy and Salvadori, pp. 95, 105.

551. “Since the structure”: Purcell, p. 187.

552. encase the steel piers: Civil Engineering, May 4, 1992, p. C-84.

553. “had not yet pinpointed”: ENR, Jan. 31, 1994, p. 16.

554. “the costliest”: New Civil Engineer, Feb. 3, 1994, p. 7.

555. large vertical motions: New Civil Engineer, Jan. 20, 1994, p. 1; ENR, Jan. 31, 1994, p. 16.

556. “You can’t design”: New Civil Engineer, Jan. 20, 1994, p. 3.

557. piece of scholarship: Sibly; Sibly and Walker; see also Petroski (1994), Ch. 10.

558. “a communication gap”: Sibly and Walker, p. 208.

559. Cable-stayed bridges: see, e.g., Ito et al., eds.

560. “perfectly” possible: New Civil Engineer, Aug. 1, 1991, p. 8.

561. “Proficiency in any art”: Tyrrell (1911), p. 3.

562. “one of the world’s”: New Civil Engineer, Aug. 1, 1991, p. 8; cf. O’Neill.

563. structural artists: see Billington (1983). 

564. Maillart’s great concrete bridges: see Billington (1979); Billington (1990).

565. Interstate 5: see Science News, May 15, 1993, p. 319.

566. Santiago Calatrava: see, e.g., Harbison.

567. Alamillo Bridge: Webster, p. 74.

568. “to win back”: Metz, p. 60.

569. “to conceive the form”: ENR, Jan. 11, 1993, p. 15.

570. computer-generated image: see Austin, pp. 41–42.

571. “federal funds”: Minneapolis Star-Tribune, Nov. 17, 1993.

572. unrealized Calatrava proposal: Webster, pp. 72–73.

573. “pedestrian amenities”: Minneapolis Star-Tribune, Dec. 23, 1993.