Breakthrough!: How the 10 Greatest Discoveries in Medicine Saved Millions and Changed Our View of the World - Jon Queijo (2010)

Appendix B. References and Additional Reading

Chapter 1

Anaxagoras Fragments and Commentary. Fairbanks A., ed. and trans. The First Philosophers of Greece. London, UK: Paul, Trench, Trubner. 1898:235–262 from Hanover Historical Texts Project,

Bujalkova, M. 2001. Hippocrates and his principles of medical ethics. Bratislavské lekárske listy 102(2):117–120.

Burnham, John. 2005. What Is Medical History? Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.

Chang A., E.M. Lad, and S.P. Lad. 2007. Hippocrates’ influence on the origins of neurosurgery. Neurosurgical Focus 23(1) (July): 1–3.

Conrad, Lawrence I., Michael Neve, Vivian Nutton, Roy Porter, and Andrew Wear. 1995. The Western Medical Tradition: 800 BC to AD 1800. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Katsambas, A. and S.G. Marketos. 2007. Hippocratic messages for modern medicine (the vindication of Hippocrates). Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 21:859–861.

Longrigg, James. 1998. Greek Medicine: From the Heroic to the Hellenistic Age. London: Gerald Duckworth & Co. Ltd.

Nutton, Vivian. 2004. Ancient Medicine. London: Routledge.

Orfanos, C.E. 2007. From Hippocrates to modern medicine. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology 21:852–858.

Simopoulos, A.P. 2001. The Hippocratic concept of positive health in the 5th century BC and in the new millennium. Simopoulos, A.P. and K.N. Pavlou, ed. Nutrition and Fitness: Diet, Genes, Physical Activity and Health. Basel: Karger, 89:1–4.

Taylor, Henry Osborn. 1922. Greek Biology and Medicine. Boston: Marshall Jones Company,

U.S. National Library of Medicine. 2002. Greek Medicine. National Institutes of Health,

Chapter 2

Bentivoglio, M. and P. Pacini. 1995. Filippo Pacini: A determined observer. Brain Research Bulletin 38(2):161–165.

Cameron, D. and I.G. Jones. 1983. John Snow, the Broad Street pump, and modern epidemiology. International Journal of Epidemiology 12:393–396.

The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, and General Information. “Cholera.” 11th ed. Volume VI. 1910. New York: The Encyclopæ dia Britannica Company.

Eyler, J.M. 2004. The changing assessments of John Snow’s and William Farr’s cholera studies. A. Morabia, ed. A History of Epidemiologic Methods and Concepts. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhäuser Verlag.

Halliday, S. 2001. Death and miasma in Victorian London: An obstinate belief. British Medical Journal 323 (December): 1469–1471.

Hamlin, C. and S. Sheard. 1998. Revolutions in public health: 1848 and 1998. British Medical Journal 317 (August): 587–591.

Howard-Jones, N. 1984. Robert Koch and the cholera vibrio: A centenary. British Medical Journal 288 (February): 379–381.

The Medical Times and Gazette: A Journal of Medical Science, Literature, Criticism, and News. 1853. The Cholera, Volume 7. London: John Churchill.

Melosi, Martin. 2000. The Sanitary City: Urban Infrastructure in America from Colonial Times to the Present. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Newsom, S.W.B. 2006. Pioneers in infection control: John Snow, Henry Whitehead, the Broad Street pump, and the beginnings of geographical epidemiology. Journal of Hospital Infection 64:210–216.

Paneth, N. 2004. Assessing the contributions of John Snow to epidemiology 150 years after removal of the broad street pump handle. Epidemiology September 15(5):514–516.

Peterson, J.A. 1979. The impact of sanitary reform upon American urban planning, 1840–1890. Journal of Social History 13(1):83–103.

Reidl, J. and K.E. Klose. 2002. Vibrio cholerae and cholera: Out of the water and into the host. FEMS Microbiology Reviews 26:125–139.

Sack, D.A., R.G. Sack, G. Nair, and A.D. Siddique. 2004. Cholera. The Lancet 363 (January): 223–233.

Sellers, D. 1997. Hidden Beneath Our Feet: The Story of Sewerage in Leeds. Leeds: Leeds City Council, Department of Highways and Transportation (October).

Smith, C.E. 1982. The Broad Street pump revisited. International Journal of Epidemiology 11:99–100.

Snow, J. 1855. Mode of Communication of Cholera. London: John Churchill,

Snow, John website. Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles,

Winterton, W.R. 1980. The Soho cholera epidemic 1854. History of Medicine (March/April): 11–20.

Zuckerman, J.N., L. Rombo, and A. Fisch. 2007. The true burden and risk of cholera: Implications for prevention and control. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 7:521–30.

Chapter 3

Bardell, D. 1982. The roles of sense and taste and clean teeth in the discovery of bacteria by Antoni van Leeuwenhoek. Microbiological Reviews 47(1) (March): 121–126.

Barnett, J.A. 2003. Beginnings of microbiology and biochemistry: The contribution of yeast research. Microbiology 149:557–567.

Baxter, A.G. 2001. Louis Pasteur’s beer of revenge. Nature Reviews Immunology 1 (December): 229–232.

Blaser, M.J. 2006. Who are we? Indigenous microbes and the ecology of human diseases. European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) Reports 7(10):956–960.

Carter, K. Codell. 1981. Semmelweis and his predecessors. Medical History 25:57–72.

Carter, K. Codell. 1985. Koch’s postulates in relation to the work of Jacob Henle and Edwin Klebs. Medical History 29:353–374.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Estimates of Healthcare–Associated

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guideline for Hand Hygiene in HealthCare Settings. 2002. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 51(RR-16) (October): 1–33.

Dunlop, D.R. 1927. The life and work of Louis Pasteur. The Canadian Medical Association Journal (November): 297–303.

Dunn, P.M. 2005. Ignac Semmelweis (1818–1865) of Budapest and the prevention of puerperal fever. Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition 90:F345–F348.

Elek, S.D. 1966. Semmelweis and the Oath of Hippocrates. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 59(4) (April): 346–352.

The Encyclopædia Britannica: A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, Literature, and General Information. 11th ed. Volume XVI. 1911. “Lister, Joseph.” New York: The Encyclopædia Britannica Company.

Fleming, A. 1947. Louis Pasteur. British Medical Journal (April): 517–522.

Fleming, J.B. 1966. Puerperal fever: The historical development of its treatment. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 59 (April): 341–345.

Fred, E.B. 1933. Antony van Leeuwenhoek: On the three-hundredth anniversary of his birth. Journal of Bacteriology 25(1):1–18.

Godwin, William. 1928. Memoirs of Mary Wollstonecraft. London: Constable and Co.,

Goldmann, D. 2006. System failure versus personal accountability—The case for clean hands. The New England Journal of Medicine 355(2) (July): 121–123.

Gordon, J.I., R.E. Ley, R. Wilson, et al. Extending our view of self: The human gut microbiome initiative (HGMI)

Kaufmann, S.H.E. 2005. Robert Koch, the Nobel Prize, and the ongoing threat of tuberculosis. The New England Journal of Medicine 353(23) (December): 2423–2426.

Kaufmann, S.H.E. and U.E. Schaible. 2005. 100th anniversary of Robert Koch’s Nobel Prize for the discovery of the tubercle bacillus. Trends in Microbiology 13(10) (October): 469–475.

Klevens, R.M., J.R. Edwards, C.S. Richards, Jr., et al. 2007. Estimating health care-associated infections and deaths in U.S. hospitals, 2002. Public Health Reports 122 (March–April): 160–166.

Krasner, R.I. 1995. Pasteur: High priest of microbiology. ASM News 61(11): 575–578.

Louden, Irvine. The Tragedy of Childbed Fever. Oxford University Press,

National Institutes of Health. NIH Launches Human Microbiome Project. December 19, 2007, Robert Koch: The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1905

Nuland, Sherwin B. 1979. The enigma of Semmelweis—an interpretation. Journal of the History of Medicine (July): 255–272.

Pasteur, Louis. On Spontaneous Generation. Address delivered at the Sorbonne Scientific Soiree, April 7, 1864. Revue des cours scientifics 1 (April 23, 1864): 257–264.

Porter, J.R. 1961. Louis Pasteur: Achievements and disappointments, 1861. Pasteur Award Lecture 25:389–403.

Porter, J.R. 1976. Antony van Leeuwenhoek: Tercentenary of his discovery of bacteria. Bacteriological Reviews 40(2) (June): 260–269.

Semmelweis, Ignaz. 1983. The Etiology, Concept, and Prophylaxis of Childbed Fever. Trans. K. Codell Carter. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press.

Tomes, N.J. 1997. American attitudes toward the germ theory of disease: Phyllis Allen Richmond revisited. Journal of the History of Medicine 52 (January): 17–50.

Ullmann, A. 2007. Pasteur-Koch: Distinctive ways of thinking about infectious diseases. Microbe 2(8):383–387.

Chapter 4

Adams, A.K. 1996. The delayed arrival: From Davy (1800) to Morton (1846). Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 89 (February): 96P–100P.

Bigelow, H.J. 1846. Insensibility during surgical operations produced by inhalation. Boston Medical and Surgical Journal 35:309–317.

Burney, Fanny. Eyewitness: Major Surgery Without an Anaesthetic, 1811. Letters and journals of Fanny Burney,

Caton, Donald. 1999. What a Blessing She Had Chloroform: The Medical and Social Response to the Pain of Childbirth From 1800 to the Present. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Clark, R.B. 1997. Fanny Longfellow and Nathan Keep. American Society of Anesthesiologists Newsletter 61(9) (September): 1–3.

Collins, Vincent J. 1993. Principles of Anesthesiology, 3rd edition. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.

Davy, Humphry. 1800. Researches, Chemical and Philosophical; Chiefly Concerning Nitrous Oxide or Dephlogisticated Nitrous Air, and Its Respiration. Bristol: Biggs and Cottle.

Desai, S.P., M.S. Desai, and C.S. Pandav. 2007. The discovery of modern anaesthesia—Contributions of Davy, Clarke, Long, Wells, and Morton. Indian Journal of Anaesthesia 51(6):472–476.

Greene, N.M. 1971. A consideration of factors in the discovery of anesthesia and their effects on its development. Anesthesiology 35(5) (November): 515–522.

Jacob, M.C. and M.J. Sauter. 2002. Why did Humphry Davy and associates not pursue the pain-alleviating effects of nitrous oxide? Journal of the History of Medicine 57 (April): 161–176.

Larson, M.D. 2005. History of Anesthetic Practice. Miller, R.D., ed. Miller’s Anesthesia, 6th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.

Morgan, G.E., M.S. Mikhail, M.J. Murray, eds. 2002. Clinical Anesthesiology, 3rd edition. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional.

Orser, B.A. 2007. Lifting the fog around anesthesia. Scientific American (June): 54–61.

Rudolph, U. and B. Antkowiak. 2004. Molecular and neuronal substrates for general anaesthetics. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience 5 (September): 709–720.

Smith, W.D.A. 1965. A history of nitrous oxide and oxygen anaesthesia, Part I: Joseph Priestley to Humphry Davy. British Journal of Anaesthesia 37:790–798.

Snow, John. 1847. On the Inhalation of the Vapour of Ether in Surgical Operations: Containing a Description of the Various States of Etherization. London: John Churchill.

Terrell, R.C. 2008. The invention and development of enflurane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane. Anesthesiology 108:531–533.

Thatcher, Virginia S. 1984. History of Anesthesia, With Emphasis on the Nurse Specialist. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc.

Thoreau, H.D. This Date, from Henry David Thoreau’s Journal: 1851

Thornton, J.L. John Snow, Pioneer Specialist-Anaesthetist. John Snow website. Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles,

Trevor, A.J. and P.F. White. 2004. General anesthetics. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, 9th ed. Katzung, B.G., ed. New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill.

Chapter 5

American Institute of Physics website. Marie Curie and the Science of

Assmus, A. 1995. Early History of X-Rays. BeamLine 25(2) (Summer): 10–24.

Bowers, Brian. 1970. X-rays: Their Discovery and Applications. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.

Brecher, Ruth and Edward Brecher. 1969. The Rays: A History of Radiology in the United States and Canada. Baltimore: The Williams and Wilkins Company.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2007. Mammography. National Center for Health Statistics (Health, United States, Table 87),

Daniel, T.M. 2006. Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen and the advent of thoracic radiology. The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 10(11):1212–1214.

Doris, C.I. 1995. Diagnostic imaging at its centennial: The past, the present, and the future. Canadian Medical Association Journal 153(9) (November): 1297–1300.

Frame, P. Coolidge X-ray

Frankel, R.I. 1996. Centennial of Röntgen’s discovery of X-rays. Western Journal of Medicine 164:497–501.

Glasser, Otto. 1934. Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen and the Early History of the Roentgen Rays. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Hessenbruch, A. 1995. X-rays for medical use. Physics Education 30(6) (November): 347–355.

Kogelnik, H.D. 1997. Inauguration of radiotherapy as a new scientific specialty by Leopold Freund 100 years ago. Radiotherapy and Oncology 42:203–211.

Lentle, B. and J. Aldrich. 1997. Radiological sciences, past and present. The Lancet 350 (July): 280–85.

Linton, O.W. 1995. Medical applications of X Rays. BeamLine 25(2) (Summer): 25–34.

Mettler, Fred A., Jr. 2005. Essentials of Radiology, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders.

Mould, R.F. 1995. The early history of X-ray diagnosis with emphasis on the contributions of physics, 1895–1915. Physics in Medicine and Biology 40:1741–1787.

New York Times. 1921. Dangers of x-ray: new investigation, following recent deaths, to insure scientists’ protection. May 15. Allan M. Cormack: The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1979 Godfrey N. Hounsfield: The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1979 Max von Laue: The Nobel Prize in Physics1914 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen: The Nobel Prize in Physics, 1901

Posner, E. 1970. Reception of Röntgen’s discovery in Britain and U.S.A. British Medical Journal 4 (November): 357–360.

Roentgen, W.C. 1896. On a new kind of rays. Nature 53:274–277.

Schedel, A. 1995. An unprecedented sensation—Public reaction to the discovery of x-rays. Physics Education 30(6) (November): 342–347.

Suits, C.G. William David Coolidge: Inventor, Physicist, Research

Sumner, D. 1995. X-rays—Risks versus benefits. Physics Education 30(6) (November): 338–342.

Wesolowski, J.R. and M.H. Lev. 2005. CT: History, Technology, and Clinical Aspects. Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MRI 26:376–379.

Chapter 6

André, F.E. 2001. The future of vaccines, immunization concepts and practice. Vaccine 19:2206–2209.

André, F.E. 2003. Vaccinology: Past achievements, present roadblocks, and future promises. Vaccine 21:593–595.

Atkinson, W., J. Hamborsky, L. McIntyre, and C. Wolfe, eds. 2008. Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases, 10th ed. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (February).

Barquet, N. and D. Pere. 1997. Smallpox: The triumph over the most terrible of the ministers of death. Annals of Internal Medicine 127:635–642.

Baxter, D. 2007. Active and passive immunity, vaccine types, excipients and licensing. Occupational Medicine 57:552–556.

Bazin, Hervé. 2000. The Eradication of Smallpox. San Diego: Academic Press.

Bazin, Hervé. 2003. A brief history of the prevention of infectious diseases by immunizations. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology & Infectious Diseases 26:293–308.

Behbehani, A.M. 1983. The smallpox story: Life and death of an old disease. Microbiological Reviews 47 (December): 455–509.

Broome, C.V. 1998. Testimony on eradication of infectious diseases. Delivered to the U.S. House Committee on International Relations. May 20,

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smallpox

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Some common misconceptions about vaccination and how to respond to

Clark, P.F. 1959. Theobald Smith, Student of Disease (1859–1934). Journal of the History of Medicine (October) 490–514.

Dunlop, D.R. 1928. The life and work of Louis Pasteur. The Canadian Medical Association Journal 18(3) (March): 297–303.

Fleming, A. 1947. Louis Pasteur. British Medical Journal (April 19): 517–522.

Hammarsten, J.F., W. Tattersall, and J.E. Hammarsten. 1979. Who discovered smallpox vaccination? Edward Jenner or Benjamin Jesty? Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association 90:44–55.

Hilleman, M.R. 2000. Vaccines in historic evolution and perspective: A narrative of vaccine discoveries. Vaccine 18:1436–1447.

Huygelen, C. 1997. The concept of virus attenuation in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Biologicals 25:339–345.

Jenner, Edward. 1798. An Inquiry Into the Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae, Or

Kaufmann, S.H.E. 2008. Immunology’s foundation: The 100-year anniversary of the Nobel Prize to Paul Ehrlich and Elie Metchnikoff. Nature Immunology 9(7) (July): 705–712.

Krasner, R. 1995. Pasteur: High priest of microbiology. The American Society for Microbiology. ASM News 61(11):575–578.

Li, Y., D.S. Carroll, S.N. Gardner, et al. 2007. On the origin of smallpox: Correlating variola phylogenics with historical smallpox records. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104(40) (October): 15,787–15,792.

Mullin, D. 2003. Prometheus in Gloucestershire: Edward Jenner, 1749–1823. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 112(4) (October): 810–814. Emil von Behring: The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1901 Ilya Mechnikov: The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1908 Paul Ehrlich: The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 1908

Offit, P.A. 2007. Thimerosal and vaccines—A cautionary tale. The New England Journal of Medicine 357(13) (September): 1278–1279.

Pasteur, M. 1881. An address on vaccination in relation to chicken cholera and splenic fever. The British Medical Journal (August) 283–284.

Pead, P.J. 2003. Benjamin Jesty: New light in the dawn of vaccination. The Lancet 362 (December): 2104–2109.

Plotkin, S.A. 2005. Vaccines: Past, present, and future. Nature Medicine Supplement 11(4) (April): S5–S11.

Plotkin, S.A., W.A. Orenstein, and P.A. Offit, eds. 2004. Vaccines, 4th edition. Philadelphia: Saunders.

Schwartz, M. 2001. The life and works of Louis Pasteur. Journal of Applied Microbiology 91:597–601.

Stern, A.M. and H. Markel. 2005. The history of vaccines and immunization: Familiar patterns, new challenges. Health Affairs 24(3) (May/June): 611–621.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2007. FDA Approves New Smallpox Vaccine, September 4, 2007,

Chapter 7

Arias, C.A. and B.E. Murray. 2009. Antibiotic-resistant bugs in the 21st century—A clinical super-challenge. The New England Journal of Medicine 360 (January 29): 439–443.

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Bentley, S.D., K.F. Chater, A.M. Cerdeño-Tárraga, et al. 2002. Complete genome sequence of the model actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Nature 417 (May 9): 141–147.

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Capasso, L. 2007. Infectious diseases and eating habits at Herculaneum (1st Century AD, Southern Italy). International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 17:350–357.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Healthcare-Associated Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA)

Chain, E. and H.W. Florey. 1944. The discovery of the chemotherapeutic properties of penicillin. British Medical Bulletin 2(1):5–6.

Chain, E.B. 1946. The chemical structure of the penicillins. Nobel Lecture (March 20),

Chain, E.B. 1979. Fleming’s contribution to the discovery of penicillin. Trends in Biochemical Sciences (TIBS) (June): 143–144.

Chater, K.F. 2006. Streptomyces inside-out: A new perspective on the bacteria that provide us with antibiotics. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 361:761–768.

Davies, J. 2007. Microbes have the last word. European Molecular Biology Organization. EMBO Reports 8(7):616–621.

Diggins, F.W.E. 1999. The true history of the discovery of penicillin, with refutation of the misinformation in the literature. British Journal of Biomedical Science 56(2):83–93.

Fleming, A. 1944. The discovery of penicillin. British Medical Bulletin 2(1):4–5.

Fleming, A. 1945. Penicillin. Nobel Lecture (December 11, 1945),

Fleming, A. 1946. Penicillin: Its Practical Application. Philadelphia: The Blakiston Company.

Fraser-Moodie, W. 1971. Struggle against infection. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine 64 (January): 87–94.

Fridkin, S.K., J.C. Hagerman, M. Morrison, et al. 2005. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus disease in three communities. The New England Journal of Medicine 352 (April 7): 1436–1444.

Grossman, C.M. 2008. The first use of penicillin in the United States. Annals of Internal Medicine 149:135–136.

Hare, R. 1982. New light on the history of penicillin. Medical History 26:1–24.

Henderson, J.W. 1997. The yellow brick road to penicillin: A story of serendipity. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 72:683–687.

Hobby, G.L. 1951. Microbiology in relation to antibiotics. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences VI (Summer): 369–387.

Hopwood, D.A. 1999. Forty years of genetics with Streptomyces: From in vivo through in vitro to in silico. Microbiology 145:2183–2202.

Kingston, W. 2000. Antibiotics, invention, and innovation. Research Policy 29(6) (June): 679–710.

Moellering, R.C., Jr. 1995. Past, present, and future of antimicrobial agents. The American Journal of Medicine 99(suppl 6A) (December 29): 11S–18S.

Murray, J.F. 2004. A century of tuberculosis. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 169:1181–1186.

Mycek, M.J., R.A. Harvey, P.C. Champe, et al., eds. 2000. Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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Otten, H. 1986. Domagk and the development of the sulphonamides. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 17:689–690.

Peláez, F. 2006. The historical delivery of antibiotics from microbial natural products—Can history repeat? Biochemical Pharmacology 71(7) (March 30): 981–90.

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Saxon, W. 1999. Anne Miller, 90, first patient who was saved by penicillin. The New York Times (June 9).

Wainwright, M. and H.T. Swan. 1986. C.G. Paine and the earliest surviving clinical records of penicillin therapy. Medical History 30:42-56.

Wainwright, M. 1987. The history of the therapeutic use of crude penicillin. Medical History 31:41–50.

Wainwright, M. 2006. Moulds in ancient and more recent medicine (January 20),

Waksman, S.A. 1952. Streptomycin: Background, isolation, properties, and utilization. Nobel Lecture (December 12).

Waksman, S. and D.M. Schullian, eds. 1973. History of the word “antibiotic.” Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences (July): 284–286.

Watve, M.G., R. Tickoo, M.M. Jog, and B.D. Bhole. 2001. How many antibiotics are produced by the genus Streptomyces? Archives of Microbiology 176:386–390.

Wennergren, G. 2007. One sometimes finds what one is not looking for (Sir Alexander Fleming): The most important medical discovery of the 20th century. Acta Paediatrica 96:141–144.

Wiedemann, H.R. 1990. Gerhard Domagk. European Journal of Pediatric 149:379.

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Chapter 8

Avery, O.T., C.M. MacLeod, and M. McCarty. 1944. Studies on the chemical nature of the substance inducing transformation of pneumococcal types. The Journal of Experimental Medicine 79(2) (February 1): 137–158.

Brush, S.G. 1978. Nettie M. Stevens and the discovery of sex determination by chromosomes. Isis 69(247) (June): 163–172.

Crow, E.W. and J.F. Crow. 2002. 100 years ago: Walter Sutton and the chromosome theory of heredity. Genetics 160 (January): 1–4.

Dahm, R. 2005. Friedrich Miescher and the discovery of DNA. Developmental Biology 278(2):274–288.

Dahm, R. 2008. Discovering DNA: Friedrich Miescher and the early years of nucleic acid research. Human Genetics 122:565–581.

Dunn, L.C. 1965. Mendel, his work and his place in history. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 109(4) (August): 189–198.

Fairbanks, D.J. 2001. A century of genetics. USDA Forest Service Proceedings RMRS-P-21 42–46.

Feinberg, A.P. 2008. Epigenetics at the epicenter of modern medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association 299(11) (March 19): 1345–1350.

Fuller, W. 2003. Who said “helix?” Right and wrong in the story of how the structure of DNA was discovered. Nature 424 (August 21): 876–878.

Galton, D.J. 2008. Archibald E. Garrod (1857–1936). Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease 31:561–566.

Glass, B. 1965. A century of biochemical genetics. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 109(4) (August): 227–236.

Glass, B. 1974. The long neglect of genetic discoveries and the criterion of prematurity. Journal of the History of Biology 7(1) (Spring): 101–110.

Goldstein, D.B. 2009. Common genetic variation and human traits. The New England Journal of Medicine 360(17) (April 23): 1696–1698.

Harper, P.S. 2005. William Bateson, human genetics and medicine. Human Genetics 118:141–151.

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