Breakthrough!: How the 10 Greatest Discoveries in Medicine Saved Millions and Changed Our View of the World - Jon Queijo (2010)

Appendix A. The Milestones, by Discovery

Chapter 1: Hippocrates and the Discovery of Medicine

Milestone #1: Getting real: diseases have natural causes

Milestone #2: It’s the patient, stupid: the creation of clinical medicine

Milestone #3: A code of ethics that stands the test of time

Milestone #4: Acting the part: professionalizing the practice of medicine

Milestone #5: The enigmatic Corpus: 60 books and a wealth of medical firsts

Milestone #6: Where the two worlds meet: a holistic approach to medicine

Chapter 2: The Discovery of Sanitation

Milestone #1: The first epidemic: a lesson from the depths of a coal mine

Milestone #2: Casting aside miasma to envision a new kind of killer

Milestone #3: The invention of epidemiology and the disabling of a deadly pump

Milestone #4: A new “Poor Law” raises hackles—and awareness

Milestone #5: A grand report creates a wealth of ideas and a will to act

Milestone #6: The long, slow birth of a public health revolution

Chapter 3: The Discovery of Germs and How They Cause Disease

Milestone #1: The tragic loss of a friend (and a brilliant gain of insight)

Milestone #2: A simple solution: wash your hands and save a life

Milestone #3: From fermentation to pasteurization: the germination of germ theory

Milestone #4: The “spontaneous generation of life” finally meets its death

Milestone #5: The critical link: germs in the world of insects, animals, and people

Milestone #6: Antiseptics to the rescue: Joseph Lister and the modern age of surgery

Milestone #7: One step closer: Robert Koch and the secret life of anthrax

Milestone #8: Sealing the deal: discovery of the cause of tuberculosis

Milestone #9: Guidelines for convicting a germ: Koch’s four famous postulates

Chapter 4: The Discovery of Anesthesia

Milestone #1: From philanthropy to frivolity: the discovery (and dismissal) of nitrous oxide

Milestone #2: 25 years of “jags” and “frolics” culminate in public humiliation—and hope

Milestone #3: Anesthesia at last: the discovery of Letheon (er, make that “ether”)

Milestone #4: Coming of age: a new anesthetic and a controversial new use

Milestone #5: From lint and gloves to modern pharmacology: the birth of a science

Chapter 5: The Discovery of X-rays

Milestone #1: How one man working alone at night discovered a remarkable “new kind of ray”

Milestone #2: A one-year firestorm and those “naughty, naughty” rays

Milestone #3: Mapping the unknown country: X-rays revolutionize diagnostic medicine

Milestone #4: From hairy birthmarks to deadly cancer: a new form of treatment

Milestone #5: A darker side is exposed: the deadly dangers of X-rays

Milestone #6: A leap into the modern age: Coolidge’s hot tube

Milestone #7: A final secret revealed: the true nature of X-rays

Chapter 6: The Discovery of Vaccines

Milestone #1: What the milkmaid knew: a daring experiment in a cow pasture

Milestone #2: From folklore to modern medicine: Jenner discovers the science of vaccination

Milestone #3: A long holiday and a neglected experiment lead to a new concept in vaccines

Milestone #4: A new “killed” vaccine for the birds (not to mention cholera, typhoid, and plague)

Milestone #5: The power of passivity: new vaccines to fight diphtheria and tetanus

Milestone #6: An emergence of understanding—and the birth of immunology

Chapter 7: The Discovery of Antibiotics

Milestone #1: “That’s funny”: the strange and serendipitous discovery of penicillin

Milestone #2: Like nobody’s business: the first successful (but forgotten) cures

Milestone #3: Prontosil: a forgotten drug inspires a world-changing breakthrough

Milestone #4: From bedpans to industrial vats: the revolution finally arrives

Milestone #5: “Black magic”: the first patient to be saved by penicillin

Milestone #6: The battle in the soil: discovery of the second antibiotic (and third and fourth and...)

Chapter 8: The Discovery of Heredity, Genetics, and DNA

Milestone #1: From peas to principles: Gregor Mendel discovers the rules of heredity

Milestone #2: Setting the stage: a deep dive into the secrets of the cell

Milestone #3: The discovery—and dismissal—of DNA

Milestone #4: Born again: resurrection of a monastery priest and his science of heredity

Milestone #5: The first genetic disease: kissin’ cousins, black pee, and a familiar ratio

Milestone #6: Like beads on a necklace: the link between genes and chromosomes

Milestone #7: A transformational truth: the rediscovery of DNA and its peculiar properties

Milestone #8: Like a child’s toy: the secrets of DNA and heredity finally revealed

Milestone #9: The great recount: human beings have how many chromosomes?

Milestone #10: Breaking the code: from letters and words to a literature of life

Chapter 9: The Discovery of Drugs for Madness, Sadness, and Fear

Milestone #1: Sickness, seizure, surgery, and shock: the first medical treatments for mental illness

Milestone #2: Mastering mania: lithium takes on the “worst patient on the ward”

Milestone #3: Silencing psychosis: chlorpromazine transforms patients and psychiatry

Milestone #4: Recovering the ability to laugh: the discovery of antidepressants

Milestone #5: More than “mother’s little helper”: a safer and better way to treat anxiety

Chapter 10: The Rediscovery of Alternative Medicine

Milestone #1: The birth of traditional medicine: when caring was curing

Milestone #2: Enlightenment: 1,200 years of tradition overturned and a new course for medicine

Milestone #3: The birth of scientific medicine: when curing began to overshadow caring

Milestone #4: The birth of alternative medicine: a healing touch and a disdain for “heroic” medicine

Milestone #5: Battle for the body: scientific medicine’s blinding quest to conquer “quackery”

Milestone #6: Prescription for an epidemic (of frustration): the rediscovery of alternative medicine