Deadly Choices: How the Anti-Vaccine Movement Threatens Us All - Paul A. Offit (2010)

NOTES

Prologue

ix Parents choose not to vaccinate their children: G. L. Freed, S. J. Clark, A. T. Butchart, et al. “Parental Vaccine Safety Concerns in 2009,” Pediatrics 125 (2010): 1-6; P. J. Smith, S. G. Humiston, Z. Zhao, et al., “Association Between Delayed or Refused Vaccination Doses and Timely Vaccination Coverage,” abstract presented at the Pediatric Academic Society’s annual meeting, Vancouver, British Columbia, May 4, 2010.

ix Percentage of unvaccinated children has more than doubled: S. B. Omer, W.K.Y. Pan, N. A. Halsey, et al., “Nonmedical Exemptions to School Immunization Requirements: Secular Trends and Association of State Policies with Pertussis Incidence,” Journal of the American Medical Association 296 (2006): 1757-1763.

ix Doctors refuse to see unvaccinated children: E. A. Flanagan-Klygis, L. Sharp, and J. E. Frader, “Dismissing the Family Who Refuses Vaccines: A Study of Pediatrician Attitudes,” Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine159 (2005): 929-934.

Introduction

xi Robert Bazell: NBC Nightly News, February 17, 2009.

xi Minnesota outbreak: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Invasive Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Disease in Five Young Children—Minnesota, 2008,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 58 (2008): 1-3.

xi Parent of child with Hib: NBC Nightly News, February 17, 2009.

xii Hib outbreaks: D. Sapatkin, “A Fatal Link in Vaccine Shortage,” Philadelphia Inquirer, April 1, 2009.

xii Hib disease: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Invasive Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Disease in Five Young Children—Minnesota, 2008,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 58 (2008): 1-3.

xii Whooping cough before vaccine: J. Cherry, P. Brunnel, and G. Golden, “Report of the Task Force on Pertussis and Pertussis Immunization,” Pediatrics 81 (suppl.) (1988): 933-984.

xii Whooping cough today: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Preventing Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Among Adolescents: Use of Tetanus Toxoid, Reduced Diphtheria Toxoid and Acellular Pertussis Vaccines,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 55 (2006): 1-42.

xii Vashon Island: K. Rietberg, C. DeBolt, N. Heimann, et al., “School Exemption Data and Geocoding as Tools for Assessing Relationships of Pertussis Clusters to High Immunization Exemption Rates,” http://cdc.confex.com/cdc/nic2002/recordingredirect.cgi/id/1446; “Public Health Skepticism,” November 30, 2002, http://medpundit.blogspot.com/2002_11_24_medpundit_archive.html.

xiii Whooping cough symptoms: K. M. Edwards and M. D. Decker, “Pertussis Vaccines,” in Vaccines, 5th ed., eds. S. A. Plotkin, W. A. Orenstein, and P. A. Offit (London: Elsevier/Saunders, 2008).

xiii El Sobrante: H. K. Lee, “Whooping Cough Outbreak Closes Private School in El Sobrante,” http://sfgate.com/cgibin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/05/10/BAN310JQVL. DTL; “East Bay School Opens After Whooping Cough Outbreak,” http://cbs5.com/local/whooping.cough.pertussis.2.722073.html.

xiii Rudolf Steiner: R. Steiner, Fundamentals of Anthroposophical Medicine (Toronto: Mercury Press, 1986).

xiii “Karmic development”: Open Waldorf.comhttp://www.openwaldorf.com/health.html.

xiii Nationwide whooping cough outbreaks: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Pertussis Outbreak in an Amish Community—Kent County, Delaware, September 2004-February 2005,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 55 (2006): 817-821; Illinois Department of Public Health, “Pertussis Outbreak Prompts Public Health Warning: At Least 69 Sickened in Four Chicago-Area Counties,” http://www.idph.state.il.us/public.press04/6.18.04.htm, June 18, 2004; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Use of Mass Tdap Vaccination to Control an Outbreak of Pertussis in a High School—Cook County, Illinois, September 2006- January 2007,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 57 (2008): 796- 799; Mississippi State Department of Health, “State Health Officials, CDC Studying Pertussis Outbreak in Mississippi,” http://msdh.ms.gov/msdhsite/index.cfm/23,5373,279.html, August 30, 2007; “Pertussis Outbreak Reaches 500 Cases Statewide,” Arizona Department of Health Services, http://www.asdhs.gov/news/2005-all/pout.htm; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “School-Associated Pertussis Outbreak—Yavapai County, Arizona, September 2002-February 2003,” Journal of the American Medical Association 291 (2004): 1952-1954; “Pertussis Outbreak Points to the Importance of Vaccination,” Oregon Department of Human Services News Release, http://www.oregon.gov/DHS/news/2008news/2008-0117.shtml; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Pertussis Outbreak—Vermont, 1996,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 46 (1997): 822-826; “CDC Reported Highest Number of Whooping Cough Cases in Nearly Forty Years,” http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/15220.php; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Pertussis—United States, 1997-2000,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 51 (2002): 73-76.

xiv Delaware pertussis outbreak: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Pertussis Outbreak in an Amish Community—Kent County, Delaware, September 2004-February 2005,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 55 (2006): 817-821.

xiv Ashland, Oregon: S. Robinson, A. Timmons, and L. Duncan, “School Exemptions and Disease Risk in Ashland, Oregon,” http://www.co.jackson.or.us/files/school%20exemptions%20and%20disease%20risk%20-%20final.pdf.

xiv Indiana measles outbreak: A. A. Parker, W. Staggs, G. H. Dayan, et al., “Implications of a 2005 Measles Outbreak in Indiana for Sustained Elimination of Measles in the United States,” New England Journal of Medicine 355 (2006): 447-455; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Import-Associated Measles Outbreak—Indiana, May-June 2005,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 54 (2005): 1073-1075.

xv Measles complications: P. M. Strebel, M. J. Papania, G. H. Dayan, and N. A. Halsey, “Measles Vaccine,” in Vaccines, 5th ed., eds. S. A. Plotkin, W. A. Orenstein, and P. A. Offit (London: Elsevier/Saunders, 2008).

xv CDC warnings: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Update: Measles—United States, January-July 2008,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 57 (2008): 893-896.

xv San Diego outbreak: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Outbreak of Measles—San Diego, California, January-February 2008,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 57 (2008): 203-206; R. G. Lin II, “Rise in Measles Cases Worries Health Officials,” Los Angeles Times, May 2, 2008.

xv California vaccination rates: R. G. Lin II, “California Schools’ Risks Rise as Vaccinations Drop,” Los Angeles Times, March 29, 2009.

xvi Nationwide measles outbreak, 2008: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Update: Measles—United States, January-July 2008,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 57 (2008): 893-896.

xvi International measles epidemics: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Measles Outbreaks in the United States: Public Health Preparedness, Control and Response in Healthcare Settings and the Community,” http://www2a.cdc.gov/HAN/ArchiveSys/ViewMstV.asp?AlertNum=00273; R. G. Lin II, “Rise in Measles Cases Worries Health Officials,” Los Angeles Times, May 2, 2008; S. van den Hof, M.A.E. Conyn-van Spaendonck, and J. E. van Steenbergen, “Measles Epidemic in the Netherlands, 1999-2000,” Journal of Infectious Diseases 186 (2002): 1483-1486.

xvi Decline in measles immunization rates in certain communities: D. A. Salmon, M. Haber, E. J. Gangarosa, et al., “Health Consequences of Religious and Philosophical Exemptions from Immunization Laws: Individual and Societal Risks of Measles,” Journal of the American Medical Association 281 (1999): 47-53; D. R. Feikin, D. C. Lezotte, R. F. Hamman, et al., “Individual and Community Risks of Measles and Pertussis Associated with Personal Exemptions to Immunization,” Journal of the American Medical Association 284 (2000): 3145-3150.

xvi Mumps outbreak: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Update: Mumps Outbreak—New York and New Jersey, June 2009-January 2010,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 59 (2010): 125-129.

xvii Herd immunity: P.E.M. Fine and K. Mulholland, “Community Immunity,” in Vaccines, 5th ed., eds. S. A. Plotkin, W. A. Orenstein, and P. A. Offit (London: Elsevier/Saunders, 2008).

xviii Tammam Aloudat and Walter Orenstein regarding polio in Africa and the United States: Quoted in “Heightened Awareness, Renewed Commitment Needed to Eradicate Polio,” Infectious Diseases in Children, June 2009.

xviii Vaccine-preventable diseases in 1900s: S. A. Plotkin, W. A. Orenstein, and P. A. Offit, eds., Vaccines, 5th ed. (London: Elsevier/Saunders, 2008).

1. The Birth of Fear

Wiseman’s life: Frederick Wiseman, U.S. documentary filmmaker, http://museum.tv/archives/etv/W.htmlW/wisemanfred/wisemanfred.htm.

Titicut Follies: Zipporah Films, Bridgewater Film Company, 1967.

Reviews of Titicut Follies: Benson and Anderson, Reality Fictions, 55; V. Canby, “Titicut Follies Observes Life in Modern Bedlam,” New York Times, October 4, 1967; “Trials: Banned in Massachusetts,” Time, January 19, 1968.

Theatrical poster for Titicut Follies: http://www.zipporah.com.

Judge’s ruling on Titicut Follies: Benson and Anderson, Reality Fictions, xxiii.

Titicut Follies ban: Ibid., xxiv.

DPT: Vaccine Roulette: WRC-TV, Washington, D.C., April 19, 1982. All documentary-related quotes and graphics subsequently cited in this chapter were obtained from this source.

Doctors’ response to DPT: Vaccine Roulette: E. R. González, “TV Report on DTP Galvanizes US Pediatricians,” Journal of the American Medical Association 248 (1982): 12-22.

Parents’ response to DPT: Vaccine Roulette: Ibid; Hearings before the Subcommittee on Investigations and General Oversight of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, U.S. Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session to Examine Adverse Drug Reactions from Immunization, Federal Efforts in Preventive Medicine, and Characteristics of Certain Diseases, May 7, 1982, Written Testimony of Vincent A. Fulginiti, M.D., Chairman, Committee on Infectious Diseases, American Academy of Pediatrics.

Switchboard melting: Author interview with Alan Hinman, December 7, 2009.

Kathi Williams regarding son’s reaction to DTP: First International Conference on Vaccination, National Vaccine Information Center, 1997.

Jeff Schwartz regarding daughter’s reaction to DTP: Quoted in Allen, Vaccine, 252-253.

Barbara Loe Fisher regarding son’s reaction to DTP: B. L. Fisher, “In the Wake of Vaccines,” Mothering, September 1, 2004.

Paula Hawkins, Lea Thompson, and Dan Mica: Allen, Vaccine, 254- 255.

10 Hawkins’s testimony: Hearings before the Subcommittee on Investigations and General Oversight of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, U.S. Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session to Examine Adverse Drug Reactions from Immunization, Federal Efforts in Preventive Medicine, and Characteristics of Certain Diseases, May 7, 1982.

10 Williams’s testimony: Ibid.

10 AAP at Hawkins hearing: Ibid.

11 Edward Mortimer and vaccine harm: Ibid.

11 Thompson’s career: Lea Thompson, “Dateline NBC Correspondent,” http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3949442.

12 Thompson recalls DPT: Vaccine Roulette: First International Public Conference on Vaccination, National Vaccine Information Center, 1997.

2. This England

14 John Wilson at Royal Society: B. Deer, “The Vanishing Victims,” Sunday Times (London), November 1, 1998.

14 Wilson describes cases of vaccine harm: M. Kulenkampff, J. S. Schwartz-man, and J. Wilson, “Neurological Complications of Pertussis Inoculation,” Archives of Disease in Childhood 49 (1974): 46-49.

14 Madsen paper: T. Madsen, “Vaccination Against Whooping Cough,” Journal of the American Medical Association 101 (1933): 187-188.

14 Werne and Garrow paper: J. Werne and I. Garrow, “Fatal Anaphylactic Shock: Occurrence in Identical Twins Following Second Injection of Diphtheria Toxoid and Pertussis Antigen,” Journal of the American Medical Association 131 (1946): 730-735.

14 Byers and Moll paper: R. K. Byers and F. C. Moll, “Encephalopathies Following Prophylactic Pertussis Vaccine,” Pediatrics 1 (1948): 437-457.

14 Ström paper, 1960: J. Ström, “Is Universal Vaccination Against Pertussis Always Justified?” British Medical Journal 2 (1960): 1184-1186.

14 Ström paper, 1967: J. Ström, “Further Experience of Reactions, Especially of a Cerebral Nature, in Conjunction with Triple Vaccination: A Study Based on Vaccinations in Sweden 1959-65,” British Medical Journal 4 (1967): 320-323.

14 Wilson’s background: B. Deer, “The Vanishing Victims,” Sunday Times (London), November 1, 1998.

15 British television program: Ibid.

15 “Risks Concealed”: “Whooping Cough Vaccine Risks Concealed, Say Victims’ Parents,” Sunday Times (London), September 22, 1974.

15 “Vaccine Call”: “Vaccine Call Is Attacked,” Sunday Times (London), June 26, 1977.

15 “Should Be Abandoned”: “Whooping Cough Vaccine ‘Should Be Abandoned, ’” The Times (London), February 13, 1978.

15 “New Campaign”: P. Healy, “New Campaign to Win State Help for the Vaccine-Damaged,” The Times (London), January 15, 1980.

15 “Shot in the Dark”: G. Stewart, “Dangers of a Shot in the Dark,” The Times (London), September 8, 1982.

15 “Boy’s Brain Damaged”: “Boy’s Brain Damaged in Vaccine Experiment,” Sunday Times (London), May 30, 1976.

15 Dick paper: G. Dick, “Letter: Whooping-Cough Vaccine,” British Medical Journal 4 (1975): 161.

15 Stewart editorial: G. Stewart, “Dangers of a Shot in the Dark,” The Times (London), September 8, 1982.

15 David Kerridge: Quoted in “Whooping Cough Vaccine ‘Should Be Abandoned, ’” The Times (London), February 13, 1978.

15 Health officials concerned: “Family Doctors Split over Whooping Cough Vaccine Dangers,” Sunday Times (London), March 13, 1977.

16 Editorial describes outbreak of fear: “Whooping-Cough Vaccination,” British Medical Journal 4 (1975): 186-187.

16 Pertussis in England in late 1970s: J. P. Baker, “The Pertussis Vaccine Controversy in Great Britain, 1974-1986,” Vaccine 21 (2003): 4003- 4010; E. R. González, “TV Report on DTP Galvanizes US Pediatricians,” Journal of the American Medical Association 248 (1982): 12-22.

16 Salisbury on pertussis epidemic: Author interview with David Salisbury, November 30, 2009.

16 Pertussis in Japan: E. J. Gangarosa, A. M. Galazka, C. R. Wolfe, et al., “Impact of Anti-Vaccine Movements on Pertussis Control: The Untold Story,” The Lancet 351 (1998): 356-361.

16 Rosemary Fox: B. Deer, “The Vanishing Victims,” Sunday Times (London), November 1, 1998.

17 Cherry regarding pertussis outbreak in England: Author interview with James Cherry, November 27, 2009.

17 Survey of general practitioners: O. Gillie, “Family Doctors Split over Whooping Cough Vaccine Dangers,” Sunday Times (London), March 13, 1977.

17 Pertussis deaths in the United Kingdom: J. D. Cherry, “The Epidemiology of Pertussis and Pertussis Immunization in the United Kingdom and the United States: A Comparative Study,” Current Problems in Pediatrics 14 (1984): 7-77.

17 Pertussis deaths classified as SIDS: Author interview with James Cherry, November 27, 2009; A. Nicoll and A. Gardner, “Whooping Cough and Unrecognized Postperinatal Mortality,” Archives of Disease in Childhood 63 (1988): 41-47.

18 Miller study: D. L. Miller, E. M. Ross, R. Alderslade, et al., “Pertussis Immunization and Serious Acute Neurological Illness in Children,” British Medical Journal 282 (1981): 1595-1599; D. Miller, N. Madge, J. Diamond, et al., “Pertussis Immunization and Serious Acute Neurological Illness in Children,” British Medical Journal 307 (1993): 1171-1176.

18 Lea Thompson and lawyers: DPT: Vaccine Roulette, WRC-TV, Washington, D.C., April 19, 1982.

18 Increased number of DTP lawsuits: A. R. Hinman, “DTP Vaccine Litigation,” American Journal of Diseases in Children 140 (1986): 528-530.

19 Tyler White: White v. Wyeth Laboratories, 40 Ohio St. 3d 390.

19 Michelle Graham: Graham v. Wyeth Laboratories, 666 F. Supp. 1483

19 Michelle Graham award: Allen, Vaccine, 272.

19 Melanie Tom award: Ibid.

19 Other DTP awards: W. A. Check, “How to Remedy Possible Harm to a Few Persons from Vaccines That Could Benefit Entire Society?” Journal of the American Medical Association 252 (1984): 2942-2946.

19 Increase in monetary value of lawsuits: A. R. Hinman, “DTP Vaccine Litigation,” American Journal of Diseases in Children 140 (1986): 528-530.

19 Increased cost of lawsuits: Ibid.

19 Decreased number of companies making DTP vaccine: Letter from H. M. Meyer, director of the Bureau of Biologics to Dr. Bruce Dull of the Centers for Disease Control, December 1, 1975. This letter was generously provided by Dr. Bruce Weninger, CDC.

19 Three companies making DTP in 1982: A. R. Hinman, “DTP Vaccine Litigation,” American Journal of Diseases in Children 140 (1986): 528-530.

19 Wyeth drops out: Allen, Vaccine, 283.

19 Connaught drops out: M. H. Smith, “National Childhood Vaccine Injury Compensation Act,” Pediatrics 82 (1988): 264-269.

20 James Mason testifies: Testimony before the Subcommittee on Health and the Environment, Committee on Energy and Commerce, U.S. House of Representatives, December 19, 1984.

20 AAP emergency meeting: “DTP Vaccine Shortage,” Summary of February 12, 1985, meeting hosted by the AAP; summary generously provided by Dr. Bruce Weninger, CDC.

20 Kevin Toner: Toner v. Lederle Laboratories, 112 Idaho 328.

20 Lederle drops out: M. H. Smith, “National Childhood Vaccine Injury Compensation Act,” Pediatrics 82 (1988): 264-269.

21 Companies stop making other vaccines: Ibid.

21 Congress passes National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act: Allen, Vaccine, 286.

21 Reagan signs bill into law: Ibid., 287.

21 Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: E. W. Kitch, G. Evans, and R. Gopin, “U.S. Law,” in Vaccines, 3rd ed., eds. S. A. Plotkin and W. A. Orenstein (Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1999).

21 Edward Brandt: Quoted in Allen, Vaccine, 281.

22 AMA dissatisfied: Ibid., 282.

22 Henry Waxman: Quoted in Colgrove, State of Immunity, 215.

22 Decline in lawsuits: E. W. Kitch, G. Evans, and R. Gopin, “U.S. Law,” in Vaccines, 3rd ed., eds. S. A. Plotkin and W. A. Orenstein (Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1999).

3. A Crude Brew

25 Gordon Stewart regarding crude brew: DPT: Vaccine Roulette, WRC-TV, Washington, D.C., April 19, 1982.

25 Kendrick and Eldering vaccine: P. Kendrick, G. Eldering, and A. Borowski, “A Study in Active Immunization Against Pertussis,” American Journal of Hygiene 29 (1939): 133-153.

26 Pertussis proteins: K. M. Edwards and M. D. Decker, “Pertussis Vaccines,” in Vaccines, 5th ed., eds. S. A. Plotkin, W. A. Orenstein, and P. A. Offit (London: Elsevier/Saunders, 2008).

26 Immunological challenges in vaccines: P. A. Offit, J. Quarles, M. A. Gerber, et al., “Addressing Parents’ Concerns: Do Multiple Vaccines Overwhelm or Weaken the Infant’s Immune System?” Pediatrics 109 (2002): 124-129.

27 Larry Baraff regarding reason for study: DPT: Vaccine Roulette, WRC-TV, Washington, D.C., April 19, 1982.

27 Baraff study: C. L. Cody, L. J. Baraff, J. D. Cherry, et al., “Nature and Rates of Adverse Reactions Associated with DTP and DT Immunizations in Infants and Children,” Pediatrics 68 (1981): 650-660.

28 Baraff regarding safer vaccine: DPT: Vaccine Roulette, WRC-TV, Washington, DC, April 19, 1982.

29 Geier paper: M. R. Geier, H. Stanboro, and C. R. Merril, “Endotoxin in Commercial Vaccine,” Applied Environmental Microbiology 36 (1978): 445-449.

29 Endotoxin: T. Gutsmann, A. B. Schromm, and K. Brandenburg, “The Physicochemistry of Endotoxins in Relation to Bioactivity,” International Journal of Medical Microbiology 297 (2007): 341-352; S. M. Opal, “The Host Response to Endotoxin, Antilipopolysaccharide Strategies, and the Management of Severe Sepsis,” International Journal of Medical Microbiology 297 (2007): 365-377; S. F. Lowry, “Human Endotoxemia: A Model for Mechanistic Insight and Therapeutic Targeting,” Shock 24 (2005): 94-100.

29 Medical Research Council study: S. Bedson et al., “Vaccination Against Whooping Cough: Report to the Medical Research Council,” British Medical Journal 2 (1956): 454-462.

29 EEG study: B. Hellström, “Electroencephalographic Studies in Triple-Immunized Infants,” British Medical Journal 2 (1962): 1089-1091.

29 North West Thames Region study: T. M. Pollack and J. Morris, “A 7-Year Survey of Disorders Attributed to Vaccination in North West Thames Region,” The Lancet 1 (1983): 753-757.

30 Neuropathological study: J.A.N. Corsellis, I. Janoti, and A. K. Marshall, “Immunization Against Whooping Cough: A Neuropathological Review,” Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 9 (1983): 261-270.

30 Denmark study: W. D. Shields, C. Nielson, D. Buch, et al., “Relationship of Pertussis Immunization to the Onset of Neurologic Disorders: A Retrospective Epidemiologic Study,” Journal of Pediatrics 113 (1988): 801-805.

30 Group Health Cooperative study: A. M. Walker, H. Jick, D. R. Perera, et al., “Neurologic Events Following Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Immunization,” Pediatrics 81 (1988): 345-349.

30 Griffin study: M. R. Griffin, W. A. Ray, E. A. Mortimer, et al., “Risk of Seizures and Encephalopathy After Immunization with the Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine,” Journal of the American Medical Association 263 (1990): 1641-1645.

30 British Pediatric Association and Canadian National Advisory Committee on Immunization: J. D. Cherry, “Pertussis Vaccine Encephalopathy: It Is Time to Recognize It as the Myth That It Is,” Journal of the American Medical Association 263 (1990): 1679-1680; Canadian National Advisory Committee on Immunization, Minister of National Health and Welfare, National Advisory Committee on Immunization, Canadian Immunization Guide, 3rd ed. (Ottawa, Canada: Minister of National Health and Welfare, Health Protection Branch, 1989), 78-83.

31 Copenhagen study: T. Madsen, “Vaccination Against Whooping Cough,” Journal of the American Medical Association 101 (1933): 187-188.

31 Golden review: G. S. Golden, “Pertussis Vaccine and Injury to the Brain,” Journal of Pediatrics 116 (1990): 854-861. Italics added for emphasis.

31 James Cherry and myth: J. D. Cherry, “Pertussis Vaccine Encephalopathy: It Is Time to Recognize It as the Myth That It Is,” Journal of the American Medical Association 263 (1990): 1679-1680.

31 Institute of Medicine report: Institute of Medicine, Adverse Effects of Pertussis and Rubella Vaccines: A Report of the Committee to Review the Adverse Consequences of Pertussis and Rubella Vaccines (Washington D.C.: National Academies Press, 1991).

31 Child Neurology Society report: Ad Hoc Committee for the Child Neurology Consensus Statement on Pertussis Immunization and the Central Nervous System, “Pertussis Immunization and the Central Nervous System,” Annals of Neurology 29 (1991): 458-460.

31 University of Washington/CDC study: J. L. Gale, P. B. Thapa, S.G.F. Wassilak, et al., “Risk of Serious Acute Neurological Illness After Immunization with Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A Population-Based Case-Control Study,” Journal of the American Medical Association 271 (1994): 37-41.

31 Revision of VICP table: G. Evans, E. M. Levine, and E. H. Saindon, “Legal Issues,” in Vaccines, 5th ed., eds. S. A. Plotkin, W. A. Orenstein, and P. A. Offit (London: Elsevier/Saunders, 2008); 60 Fed. Reg. 7678, 7691 (February 8, 1995).

32 Computerized records study: W. E. Barlow, R. L. Davis, J. W. Glasser, et al. for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Vaccine Safety DataLink Working Group, “The Risk of Seizures After Receipt of Whole-Cell Pertussis or Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccine,” New England Journal of Medicine 345 (2001): 656-661.

32 Febrile seizures: M. D. Blumstein and M. J. Friedman, “Childhood Seizures,” Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America 25 (2007): 1061-1086.

32 Miller study: D. L. Miller, E. M. Ross, R. Alderslade, et al., “Pertussis Immunization and Serious Acute Neurological Illness in Children,” British Medical Journal 282 (1981): 1595-1599.

33 Bonthrone trial: “Parents Fail in Whooping Cough Vaccination Test Case,” The Times (London), August 31, 1985.

33 Johnnie Kinnear’s symptoms: B. Deer, “The Vanishing Victims: Can Whooping Cough Jabs Cause Brain Damage in Children?” Sunday Times Magazine (London), November 1, 1998.

34 Kinnear lawsuit: “The Law Tries to Decide Whether Whooping Cough Vaccine Causes Brain Damage: Professor Gordon Stewart Gives Evidence,” British Medical Journal 292 (1986): 1264-1266.

34 Judge Stuart-Smith: “Other Major Cases That Brought Him in the Spotlight: Hillsborough,” http://www.parliament.the-stationery-office.co.uk/pa/cm199798/cmhansrd/vo980218/debtext/80218-21.htm.

34 Stuart-Smith and the Hillsborough soccer tragedy: D. Conn, “Hillsborough: How Stories of Disaster Police Were Altered,” The Guardian, April 13, 2009.

34 Stewart at Kinnear trial: “The Law Tries to Decide Whether Whooping Cough Vaccine Causes Brain Damage: Professor Gordon Stewart Gives Evidence,” British Medical Journal 292 (1986): 1264-1266.

34 Kinnear hospital records: B. Deer, “The Vanishing Victims: Can Whooping Cough Jabs Cause Brain Damage in Children?” Sunday Times Magazine (London), November 1, 1998.

34 Stuart-Smith regarding mother’s testimony in Kinnear trial: Stuart-Smith, Lord Justice, Judgment 30 March 1988, Loveday v. Renton and the Wellcome Foundation Ltd., Chilton Vint & Co, 24 Chauncery Lane, London, WC2.

35 Stewart misrepresents Miller study: “The Law Tries to Decide Whether Whooping Cough Vaccine Causes Brain Damage: Professor Gordon Stewart Gives Evidence,” British Medical Journal 292 (1986): 1264- 1266.

35 Levine and Wenk quote: Ibid.

35 Machin-Stewart interchange: B. Deer, “The Vanishing Victims: Can Whooping Cough Jabs Cause Brain Damage in Children?” Sunday Times Magazine (London), November 1, 1998.

35 “An evidential liability”: Stuart-Smith, Lord Justice, Judgment 30 March 1988, Loveday v. Renton and the Wellcome Foundation Ltd., Chilton Vint & Co, 24 Chauncery Lane, London, WC2.

35 Loveday trial: Stuart-Smith, Lord Justice, Judgment 30 March 1988, Loveday v. Renton and the Wellcome Foundation Ltd., Chilton Vint & Co, 24 Chauncery Lane, London, WC2.

35 Susan Loveday’s story: C. Dyer, “Whooping Cough Vaccine on Trial Again,” British Medical Journal 295 (1987): 1053-1054.

36 Loveday’s story unravels: B. Deer, “The Vanishing Victims: Can Whooping Cough Jabs Cause Brain Damage in Children?” Sunday Times Magazine (London), November 1, 1998.

36 Loveday trial: C. Bowie, “Lessons from the Pertussis Vaccine Court Trial,” The Lancet 335 (1990): 397-399; all quotes from the Loveday trial were obtained from Stuart-Smith, Lord Justice, Judgment 30 March 1988, Loveday v. Renton and the Wellcome Foundation Ltd., Chilton Vint & Co, 24 Chauncery Lane, London, WC2.

39 David Miller’s study falls apart: J. D. Cherry, “The Epidemiology of Pertussis and Pertussis Immunization in the United Kingdom and the United States: A Comparative Study,” Current Problems in Pediatrics 14 (1984): 7-77; J. D. Cherry, “Recurrent Seizures After Diphtheria, Tetanus, and Pertussis Immunization,” American Journal of Diseases in Children 138 (1984): 904-907; J. D. Cherry, P. A. Brunell, G. S. Golden, and D. T. Karzon, “Report of the Task Force on Pertussis and Pertussis Immunization—1988,” Pediatrics 81 (1988): 933-984; J.B.P. Stephenson, “A Neurologist Looks at Neurological Disease Temporally Related to DTP Immunization,” Tokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine 13 (1988): 157-164.

39 Salisbury on Stuart-Smith verdict: Author interview with David Salisbury, November 30, 2009.

39 Canadian verdict: Rothwell v. Connaught Laboratories, Supreme Court of Ontario, June 17, 1988.

40 Seizures in childhood: M. D. Blumstein and M. J. Friedman, “Childhood Seizures,” Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America 25 (2007): 1061-1086.

40 Seizure types and genetics: R. Nabbout and O. Dulac, “Epileptic Syndromes in Infancy and Childhood,” Current Opinion in Neurology 21 (2008): 161-166; L. Deprez, A. Jansen, and P. De Jonghe, “Genetics of Epilepsy Syndromes Starting in the First Year of Life,” Neurology 72 (2009): 273-281.

41 Berkovic on Dravet’s Syndrome: Author interview with Samuel Berkovic, November 27, 2009.

42 Berkovic study: S. F. Berkovic, L. Harkin, J. M. McMahon, et al., “De-Novo Mutations of the Sodium Channel Gene SCN1A in Alleged Vaccine Encephalopathy: A Retrospective Study,” Lancet Neurology 5 (2006): 488-492.

42 Berkovic regarding reaction to study: Author interview with Samuel Berkovic, November 27, 2009.

43 Marge Grant at Hawkins hearing: Hearings before the Subcommittee on Investigations and General Oversight of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, U.S. Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session to Examine Adverse Drug Reactions from Immunization, Federal Efforts in Preventive Medicine, and Characteristics of Certain Diseases, May 7, 1982 (emphasis in original text). All Grant quotes below come from this source.

44 Berkovic study: S. F. Berkovic, L. Harkin, J. M. McMahon, et al., “De-Novo Mutations of the Sodium Channel Gene SCN1A in Alleged Vaccine Encephalopathy: A Retrospective Study,” Lancet Neurology 5 (2006): 488-492.

44 Shorvon and Berg editorial: S. Shorvon and A. Berg, “Pertussis Vaccination and Epilepsy—An Erratic History, New Research and the Mismatch Between Science and Social Policy,” Epilepsia 49 (2008): 219-225.

44 Media coverage of Berkovic paper: Author interview with Samuel Berkovic, November 27, 2009.

4. Roulette Redux

45 Lea Thompson’s statement of purpose: DPT: Vaccine Roulette, WRC-TV, Washington, D.C., April 19, 1982. All Thompson quotes in the section are from this program; italics added for emphasis.

45 Baraff study: C. L. Cody, L. J. Baraff, J. D. Cherry, et al., “Nature and Rates of Adverse Reactions Associated with DTP and DT Immunizations in Infants and Children,” Pediatrics 68 (1981): 650-660.

46 Pertussis vaccine and SIDS: C. P. Howson and H. V. Fineberg, “Adverse Events Following Rubella and Pertussis Vaccines: Summary of a Report of the Institute of Medicine,” Journal of the American Medical Association 267 (1992): 392-396.

46 Infantile spasms study: J. C. Melchior, “Infantile Spasms and Early Immunization Against Whooping Cough: Danish Survey from 1970 to 1975,” Archives of Disease in Childhood 52 (1977): 134-137.

46 Studies confirming Denmark study: M. H. Bellman, E. M. Ross, and D. L. Miller, “Infantile Spasms and Pertussis Immunization,” The Lancet 1 (1983): 1031-1033; C. T. Lombroso, “A Prospective Study of Infantile Spasms: Clinical and Therapeutic Correlations,” Epilepsia 24 (1983): 135-158.

47 Pertussis in 1982: K. M. Edwards and M. D. Decker, “Pertussis Vaccines,” in Vaccines, 5th ed., eds. S. A. Plotkin, W. A. Orenstein, and P. A. Offit (London: Elsevier/Saunders, 2008).

47 William Foege regarding DPT: Vaccine Roulette: Hearings before the Subcommittee on Investigations and General Oversight of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, U.S. Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session to Examine Adverse Drug Reactions from Immunization, Federal Efforts in Preventive Medicine, and Characteristics of Certain Diseases, May 7, 1982.

48 Robert Mendelsohn’s medical affiliations: E. R. González, “TV Report on DTP Galvanizes US Pediatricians,” Journal of the American Medical Association 248 (1982): 12-22.

48 Mendelsohn on vaccines and other treatments: http://whale.to/v/mendelsohn.html.

48 Mendelsohn on doctors: http://whale.to/vaccine/quotes20.html.

48 Mendelsohn on surgeons: Foreword by Robert S. Mendelsohn, M.D., to Hans Ruesch’s Slaughter of the Innocent (London: Civitas Publications, 1983).

49 Mendelsohn and “apple pie”: E. R. González, “TV Report on DTP Galvanizes US Pediatricians,” Journal of the American Medical Association 248 (1982): 12-22.

49 Bobby Young’s affiliations: Ibid.

49 Seizures and brain damage: M. D. Blumstein and M. J. Friedman, “Childhood Seizures,” Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America 25 (2007): 1061-1086; J. H. Ellenberg, D. G. Hirtz, and K. B. Nelson, “Do Seizures Cause Intellectual Deterioration?” New England Journal of Medicine 314 (1986): 1085-1088.

49 Thompson on journalistic integrity: E. R. González, “TV Report on DTP Galvanizes US Pediatricians,” Journal of the American Medical Association 248 (1982): 12-22.

49 Edward Mortimer on Vaccine Roulette: Ibid.

50 Gordon Stewart’s affiliations: Ibid.

50 Stewart regarding pertussis vaccine efficacy: G. T. Stewart, “Vaccination Against Whooping Cough: Efficacy Versus Risks,” The Lancet 1 (1977): 234-237.

50 Pertussis control by vaccine: E. J. Gangarosa, A. M. Galazka, C. R. Wolfe, et al., “Impact of Anti-Vaccine Movements on Pertussis Control: The Untold Story,” The Lancet 351 (1998): 356-361.

50 Stewart regarding upcoming pertussis outbreak: “Vaccine Call Is Attacked,” Sunday Times (London), June 26, 1977.

50 Pertussis epidemic in England: J. D. Cherry, “The Epidemiology of Pertussis and Pertussis Immunization in the United Kingdom and the United States: A Comparative Study,” Current Problems in Pediatrics 14 (1984): 7-77.

51 Luc Montagnier discovers HIV: F. Barré-Sinoussi, J. C. Chermann, F. Rey, et al., “Isolation of a T-Lymphotropic Retrovirus from a Patient at Risk for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS),” Science 220 (1983): 868-871.

51 Stewart and sperm: G. T. Stewart, “The Epidemiology and Transmission of AIDS: A Hypothesis Linking Behavioural and Biological Determinants to Time, Person, and Place,” Genetica 95 (1995): 173-193.

51 Stewart and yeast: E. Papadopulos-Eleopulos, V. G. Turner, J. M. Papadimitriou, et al., “HIV Antibodies: Further Questions and a Plea for Clarification,” Current Medical Research and Opinion 13 (1997): 627-634.

51 Stewart and rock stars: G. Stewart, “AIDS, the Myths and Martyrdom,” Daily Mail (London), April 5, 1993.

51 Stewart and behavior of victim: Ibid.

51 Stewart and AZT: G. T. Stewart, “The Epidemiology and Transmission of AIDS: A Hypothesis Linking Behavioural and Biological Determinants to Time, Person, and Place,” Genetica 95 (1995): 173-193.

53 John Stossel interviews Allen McDowell: “Scared Stiff: Worry in America,” ABC News: 20/20, February 23, 2007.

53 Anthony Colantoni: C. McHugh, “Ex-Lawyer Accused of $1.4 Million Fraud,” Chicago Daily Law Bulletin, November 15, 1993; J. F. Rooney, “Converted Children’s Compensation: Ex-Lawyer Admits,” Chicago Daily Law Bulletin, November 22, 1993.

54 Thompson in 1997: First International Conference on Vaccination, National Vaccine Information Center, 1997.

54 Yellow fever vaccine and hepatitis: J. P. Fox, C. Manso, H. A. Penna, and M. Para, “Observations on the Occurrence of Icterus in Brazil Following Vaccination Against Yellow Fever,” American Journal of Hygiene 36 (1942): 68-116; M. V. Hargett and H. W. Burruss, “Aqueous-Based Yellow Fever Vaccine,” Public Health Reports 58 (1943): 505-512; W. A. Sawyer, K. F. Meyer, M. D. Eaton, et al., “Jaundice in Army Personnel in the Western Region of the United States and Its Relation to Vaccination Against Yellow Fever,” American Journal of Hygiene 40 (1944): 35- 107; L. B. Seeff, G. W. Beebe, J. H. Hoofnagle, et al., “A Serologic Follow-Up of the 1942 Epidemic of Post-Vaccination Hepatitis in the United States Army,” New England Journal of Medicine 316 (1987): 965-970.

55 War ended: G. Williams, Virus Hunters (New York: Alfred Knopf, 1960), 315.

55 Cutter Laboratories tragedy: Offit, Cutter.

55 Lubeck disaster: F. Luelmo, “BCG Vaccination,” American Review of Respiratory Diseases 125 (1982): 70-72.

5. Make the Angels Weep

57 Praise for A Shot in the Dark: P. Holt, “Shedding Light on a Drug Controversy,” San Francisco Chronicle, February 8, 1985.

58 Sabin’s vaccine: Oshinsky, Polio.

59 Egg protein allergy: B. Ratner and S. Untracht, “Egg Allergy in Children,” American Journal of Diseases of Children 83 (1952): 309-316.

59 Gelatin allergy: M. Sakaguchi, T. Nakayama, and S. Inouye, “Food Allergy to Gelatin in Children with Systemic Immediate-Type Reactions, Including Anaphylaxis, to Vaccines,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 98 (1996): 1058-1061; M. Sakaguchi, T. Yamanaka, K. Ikeda, et al., “IgE-Mediated Systemic Reactions to Gelatin Included in the Varicella Vaccine,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 99 (1997): 263-264.

61 Hib vaccine licensed: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Haemophilus B Conjugate Vaccines for Prevention of Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Disease Among Infants and Children Two Months of Age and Older: Recommendations of the ACIP,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 40 (1991): 1-7.

61 Barbara Loe Fisher on TV: World News Tonight with Peter Jennings, February 16, 1998.

61 Fisher and chronic diseases: H. L. Coulter and B. L. Fisher, A Shot in the Dark: Why the P in the DPT Vaccination May Be Hazardous to Your Children’s Health (Garden City Park, N.Y.: Avery Publishing, 1991).

61 Classen patents: http://www.vaccines.net/patentin.htm.

61 Classen Hib study: D. C. Classen and J. B. Classen, “The Timing of Pediatric Immunization and the Risk of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus,” Infectious Diseases Clinical Practitioner 6 (1997): 449-454.

61 Classen on TV: World News Tonight with Peter Jennings, February 16, 1998.

62 First Hib vaccine-diabetes study in American children: S. B. Black, E. Lewis, H. Shinefield, et al., “Lack of Association Between Receipt of Conjugate Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Vaccine (HbOC) in Infancy and Risk of Type 1 (Juvenile Onset) Diabetes: Long-Term Follow-Up of the HbOC Efficacy Trial Cohort,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 21 (2002): 568-569.

62 Second Hib vaccine-diabetes study in American children: F. DeStefano, J. P. Mullooly, C. A. Okoro, et al., “Childhood Vaccinations, Vaccination Timing, and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus,” Pediatrics 108 (2001), http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/108/6/e112.

62 Follow-up Hib vaccine-diabetes study in Finnish children: Institute for Vaccine Safety Diabetes Workshop Panel, “Childhood Immunizations and Type 1 Diabetes: Summary of an Institute for Vaccine Safety Workshop,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 18 (1999): 217-222.

62 Heather Whitestone: http://bhamwiki.com/w/Heather_Whitestonehttp://www.heatherwhitestone.com/site.content/bio.shtmlhttp://www.heatherwhitestone.com/site/content/faqs.shtml.

62 Fisher regarding Whitestone: S. Evans, “How Safe Are Mandatory Immunizations? Doctors Stress That Dangers of Childhood Diseases Far Outweigh Risks of Shots,” Washington Post, September 27, 1994.

63 Ted Williams and Whitestone illness: Ibid.

63 Fisher regarding conspiracy: National Vaccine Information Center Archives, volume 1, number 1, March 1995.

64 Hepatitis B disease in the United States: E. E. Mast and J. W. Ward, “Hepatitis B Vaccines,” in Vaccines, 5th ed., eds. S. A. Plotkin, W. A. Orenstein, and P. A. Offit (London: Elsevier/Saunders, 2008).

65 Hepatitis B vaccine policy in the United States: Ibid.

65 Hepatitis B vaccine discussed on 20/20: ABC News 20/20, January 22, 1999.

67 Fisher regarding hepatitis B virus infections in children: S. H. Trudeau, “Is There a Risk to Vaccines?” Copley News Service, January 12, 1998.

67 Hepatitis B disease in children: G. L. Armstrong, E. E. Mast, M. Wojczynski, and H. S. Margolis, “Childhood Hepatitis B Virus Infections in the United States Before Hepatitis B Immunization,” Pediatrics 108 (2001 ): 1123-1128.

67 Risk of cirrhosis and liver cancer following childhood infection: E. E. Mast and J. W. Ward, “Hepatitis B Vaccines,” in Vaccines, 5th ed., eds. S. A. Plotkin, W. A. Orenstein, and P. A. Offit (London: Elsevier/Saunders, 2008).

67 Risk of chronic disease: Ibid.

67 Belkin holding CDC accountable: “Vaccine Safety Group Endorses Government Action to Eliminate Mercury in Childhood Vaccines and Roll Back Hepatitis B Vaccination for Most Newborn Infants,” PR Newswire, July 8, 1999.

68 Belkin regarding junkies and homosexuals: M. Benjamin, “UPI Investigates: The Vaccine Conflict,” United Press International, July 20, 2003.

68 Studies exonerate hepatitis B vaccine as cause of SIDS: E. A. Mitchell, A. W. Stewart, and M. Clements, “Immunisation and the Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: New Zealand Cot Death Study Group,” Archives of Diseases of Childhood 73 (1995): 498-501; M. T. Niu, M. E. Salive, and S. S. Ellenberg, “Neonatal Deaths and Hepatitis B Vaccine: The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, 1991-1998,” Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine153 (1999): 1279-1282; E. M. Eriksen, J. A. Perlman, A. Miller, et al., “Lack of Association Between Hepatitis B Birth Immunization and Neonatal Death: A Population-Based Study from the Vaccine Safety DataLink Project,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 23 (2004): 656-662.

68 Biological arguments against hepatitis B vaccine as a cause of multiple sclerosis: P. A. Offit and C. J. Hackett, “Addressing Parents’ Concerns: Do Vaccines Cause Allergic or Autoimmune Diseases?” Pediatrics 111 (2003): 653-659.

68 Studies exonerating hepatitis B vaccine as a cause of multiple sclerosis: A. Ascherio, S. M. Zhang, M. A. Hernan, et al., “Hepatitis B Vaccination and the Risk of Multiple Sclerosis,” New England Journal of Medicine 344 (2001): 327-332; C. Confavreux, S. Suissa, P. Saddier, et al., “Vaccinations and the Risk of Relapse in Multiple Sclerosis,” New England Journal of Medicine 344 (2001): 319-326.

68 Experience with hepatitis B vaccine: E. E. Mast and J. W. Ward, “Hepatitis B Vaccines,” in Vaccines, 5th ed., eds. S. A. Plotkin, W. A. Orenstein, and P. A. Offit (London: Elsevier/Saunders, 2008).

69 Pneumococcal vaccine study: S. Black, H. Shinefield, B. Fireman, et al., “Efficacy, Safety, and Immunogenicity of Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Children: Northern California Kaiser Permanente Study Center Group,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 19 (2000): 183-186.

69 TV report on pneumococcal vaccine: “New Pneumococcal Vaccine for Children,” World News Tonight with Peter Jennings, September 25, 1998.

70 Pneumococcal disease: S. Black, J. Eskola, C. Whitney, and H. Shinefield, “Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and Pneumococcal Common Protein Vaccines,” in Vaccines, 5th ed., eds. S. A. Plotkin, W. A. Orenstein, and P. A. Offit (London: Elsevier/Saunders, 2008).

71 Daum and “giant step”: L. Richwine, “FDA Panel Deems New Vaccine Safe: Experts Called It Effective on Resistant Bacteria That Kill a Million Youths a Year,” Philadelphia Inquirer, November 6, 1999.

71 Fisher and not enough evidence: Ibid.

71 Fisher and “post-marketing experiment”: “FDA Advisers Back Safety and Efficacy of Wyeth’s Pneumococcal Vaccine for Children,” Reuters, November 8, 1999.

71 Effect of pneumococcal vaccine: S. Black, J. Eskola, C. Whitney, and H. Shinefield, “Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine and Pneumococcal Common Protein Vaccines,” in Vaccines, 5th ed., eds. S. A. Plotkin, W. A. Orenstein, and P. A. Offit (London: Elsevier/Saunders, 2008); T. Pillshvili, C. Lexau, M. M. Farley, et al., “Sustained Reductions in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in the Era of Conjugate Vaccine,” Journal of Infectious Diseases 201 (2010): 32-41.

72 Rotavirus vaccine and disease: H. F. Clark, P. A. Offit, R. I. Glass, and R. M. Ward, “Rotavirus Vaccines,” in Vaccines, 5th ed., eds. S. A. Plotkin, W. A. Orenstein, and P. A. Offit (London: Elsevier/Saunders, 2008).

72 VAERS reports of intussusception following rotavirus vaccine: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Intussusception Among Recipients of Rotavirus Vaccine—United States, 1998-1999,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 48 (1999): 577-581.

72 Rotavirus vaccine causes intussusception: T. V. Murphy, P. M. Garguillo, M. S. Massoudi, et al., “Intussusception Among Infants Given an Oral Rotavirus Vaccine,” New England Journal of Medicine 344 (2001): 564- 572; P. Kramarz, E. K. France, F. DeStefano, et al., “Population-Based Study of Rotavirus Vaccination and Intussusception,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 20 (2001): 410-416.

73 HPV disease: J. T. Schiller, I. H. Frazer, and D. R. Lowry, “Human Papillomavirus Vaccines,” in Vaccines, 5th ed., eds. S. A. Plotkin, W. A. Orenstein, and P. A. Offit (London: Elsevier/Saunders, 2008).

73 HPV vaccine: Ibid.

73 Fisher regarding flawed science: “Merck’s Gardasil Vaccine Not Proven Safe for Little Girls; National Vaccine Information Center Criticizes FDA for Fast-Tracking Licensure,” PR Newswire, June 27, 2006.

74 Fisher and “death by Vioxx”: “HPV Vaccine Now, HIV Vaccine Next,” posted by Barbara Loe Fisher, August 16, 2006, http://www.vaccineawakening.blogspot.com.

74 Fisher and “the slut shot”: “The Slut Shot,” posted by Barbara Loe Fisher, August 17, 2006, http://www.vaccineawakening.blogspot.com.

74 Fisher and “the ‘cheaters’ vaccine”: “The ‘Cheaters’ Vaccine: HPV,” posted by Barbara Loe Fisher, October 3, 2006, http://www.vaccineawakening.blogspot.com.

74 Epidemiology of HPV in American women: H. Richardson, G. Kelsall, P. Tellier, et al., “Natural History of Type-Specific Human Papillomavirus Infections in Female University Students,” Cancer Epidemiology Bio-markers and Prevention 12 (2003): 485-490; R. L Winer, S. K. Lee, J. P. Hughes, et al., “Genital Human Papillomavirus Infection: Incidence and Risk Factors in a Cohort of Female University Students,” American Journal of Epidemiology157 (2003): 218-226.

74 Fisher on TV: CBS News Sunday Morning, April 1, 2007.

74 CDC evaluates HPV vaccine safety: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccinesafety.vaers.gardasil.htm.

74 HPV vaccine and GBS: Ibid.; S. L. Block, D. R. Brown, A. Chatterjee, et al., “Clinical Trial and Post-Licensure Safety Profile of a Prophylactic Human Papillomavirus (Types 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 Virus-Like Particle Vaccine,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 29 (2010): 95-101.

75 Fisher discounts coincidence: “Gardasil Vaccine: The Damage Continues,” posted by Barbara Loe Fisher, August 15, 2008, http://www.vaccineawakening.blogspot.com.

75 Fisher and HPV vaccine causing cancer: “Vaccine Safety Group Releases Gardasil Reaction Reports,” PR Newswire, February 21, 2007.

75 Fisher and chickenpox vaccine: S. H. Trudeau, “Is There a Risk to Vaccines?” Copley News Service, January 12, 1998.

75 Chickenpox: A. A. Gershon, M. Takahashi, and J. F. Seward, “Varicella Vaccine,” in Vaccines, 5th ed., eds. S. A. Plotkin, W. A. Orenstein, and P. A. Offit (London: Elsevier/Saunders, 2008).

75 Fisher and shifting burden of chickenpox by vaccine: S. H. Trudeau, “Is There a Risk to Vaccines?” Copley News Service, January 12, 1998.

75 Chickenpox vaccine efficacy: A. A. Gershon, M. Takahashi, and J. F. Seward, “Varicella Vaccine,” in Vaccines, 5th ed., eds. S. A. Plotkin, W. A. Orenstein, and P. A. Offit (London: Elsevier/Saunders, 2008).

76 Fisher and herd immunity: H. Collins, “Life Giver or Life Taker: A Debate on the Value of Vaccines, Special Report, Immunizations: A Public Health Staple Comes Under Siege,” Philadelphia Inquirer, October 3, 1999.

76 Measles outbreak in the Netherlands: S. von den Hof, M.A.E. Conyn-van Spaendonck, and J. E. van Steenbergen, “Measles Epidemic in the Netherlands: 1999-2000,” Journal of Infectious Diseases 186 (2002): 1483-1486.

76 Fisher and unrealistic fear of disease: K. G. Goff, “Measles Makes Unwelcome Return,” Washington Times, May 6, 2009.

76 Measles: P. M. Strebel, M. J. Papania, G. H. Dayan, and N. A. Halsey, “Measles Vaccine,” in Vaccines, 5th ed., eds. S. A. Plotkin, W. A. Orenstein, and P. A. Offit (London: Elsevier/Saunders, 2008).

76 Fisher on virtue of natural influenza infection: “Using Religion to Promote Flu Vaccine,” posted by Barbara Loe Fisher, January 20, 2007, http://www.vaccineawakening.blogspot.com.

76 Deaths from pandemic influenza, 2009: www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/update.htm.

77 Berkovic regarding guilt: Author interview with Samuel Berkovic, November 27, 2009.

77 John Salamone’s background: National Italian-American Foundation: John Salamone, http://www.niaf.org/about/board_officers.asp.

78 Salamone on son: “Injected Polio Vaccine Winning Support,” Baltimore Sun, March 29, 1999.

78 Salamone and drunken sailor: Ibid.

78 Salamone on son’s diagnosis: Author interview with John Salamone, December 4, 2009. All other quotes from John Salamone in this chapter were obtained from this interview.

81 Fisher quotes Shakespeare: H. L. Coulter and B. L. Fisher, A Shot in the Dark: Why the P in the DPT Vaccination May Be Hazardous to Your Children’s Health (Garden City Park, N.Y.: Avery Publishing, 1991).

81 Fisher accuses health officials of deception: “Babies Die After MMR,” posted by Barbara Loe Fisher, June 19, 2006, http://www.vaccineawakening.blogspot.com.

82 Fisher accuses experts of not caring: “Real Life Experience of a Vaccine Reaction,” posted by Barbara Loe Fisher, May 1, 2006, http://www.vaccineawakening.blogspot.com.

82 Fisher and Nazi Germany: “Doctors Want Power to Kill Disabled Babies,” posted by Barbara Loe Fisher, November 5, 2006, http://www.vaccineawakening.blogspot.com.

83 Fisher and pencil pushers: “Pencil Pushers Deny Vaccine/Optic Neuritis Link,” posted by Barbara Loe Fisher, June 19, 2006, http://www.vaccineawakening.blogspot.com.

83 Fisher and “bloodbath”: Wingspread meeting headed by Dr. Roger Bernier, July 2002; personal communication from Dr. Deborah Wexler, April 9, 2010.

6. Justice

86 VICP: G. Evans, E. M. Levine, and E. H. Saindon, “Legal Issues,” in Vaccines , 5th ed., eds. S. A. Plotkin, W. A. Orenstein, and P. A. Offit (London: Elsevier/Saunders, 2008).

86 Rett Syndrome: Ibid.

86 SIDS and vaccines: Ibid.

86 DTP vaccine and attention deficit disorder: Allen, Vaccine, 287.

86 Lawyer admission: Ibid.

86 Dog gets stupider: Ibid.

86 VICP change: G. Evans, E. M. Levine, and E. H. Saindon, “Legal Issues,” in Vaccines, 5th ed., eds. S. A. Plotkin, W. A. Orenstein, and P. A. Offit (London: Elsevier/Saunders, 2008).

86 Fisher regarding VICP change: Barbara Loe Fisher testimony before the U.S. House Government Reform Committee, “Vaccines: Finding a Balance Between Public Safety and Personal Choice,” August 3, 1999; and testimony before the House Subcommittee on Criminal Justice Drug Policy and Human Resources, House Government Reform Civil Service Compensation for Vaccine Injuries, September 28, 1999.

86 Margaret Althen: Althen v. Department of Health and Human Services, 418 F.3d 1274 (Fed. Cir. 2005).

87 Vaccine and demyelinating diseases: J. Tuttle, R. T. Chen, H. Rantala, et al., “The Risk of Guillain-Barré Syndrome After Tetanus-Toxoid-Containing Vaccines in Adults and Children in the United States,” American Journal of Public Health 87 (1997): 2045-2048; T. Verstraeten, R. Davis, F. DeStefano, and the Vaccine Safety DataLink Team, “Decreased Risk of Demyelinating Disease Following Tetanus Immunization [abstract],” American Journal of Epidemiology 155 (2002): S52; C. Confavreux, S. Suissa, P. Saddier, et al., “Vaccinations and the Risk of Relapse in Multiple Sclerosis,” New England Journal of Medicine 344 (2001): 319-326.

87 Rose Capizzano: Capizzano v. Department of Health and Human Services , 440 F.3d 1317 (Fed. Cir. 2006) (quotations regarding the case are from this document); G. Evans, E. M. Levine, and E. H. Saindon, “Legal Issues,” in Vaccines, 5th ed., eds. S. A. Plotkin, W. A. Orenstein, and P. A. Offit (London: Elsevier/Saunders, 2008).

87 Hepatitis B vaccine and rheumatoid arthritis: E. E. Mast and J. W. Ward, “Hepatitis B Vaccines,” in Vaccines, 5th ed., eds. S. A. Plotkin, W. A. Orenstein, and P. A. Offit (London: Elsevier/Saunders, 2008).

87 Hepatitis B vaccine and paralysis: Stevens v. Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services, March 30, 2001.

87 Hib vaccine and paralysis: Camerlin v. Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services, October 29, 2003.

87 MMR and epilepsy: Cusati v. Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services, September 22, 2005.

87 MMR and fibromyalgia: Zatuchni v. Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services, February 12, 2008.

87 Hepatitis B vaccine and Guillain-Barré Syndrome: Peugh v. Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services, April 21, 2006.

87 Rubella vaccine and chronic arthritis: P. E. Slater, T. Ben Zvi, A. Fogel, et al., “Absence of an Association Between Rubella Vaccination and Arthritis in Underimmune Post-Partum Women,” Vaccine 13 (1995): 1529-1532; P. Ray, S. Black, H. Shinefield, et al., “Risk of Chronic Arthropathy Among Women After Rubella Vaccination,” Journal of the American Medical Association 278 (1997): 551-556.

87 Evidence exonerating vaccines as cause of paralysis, epilepsy, and arthritis: Ibid.; E. E. Mast and J. W. Ward, “Hepatitis B Vaccines,” in Vaccines, 5th ed., eds. S. A. Plotkin, W. A. Orenstein, and P. A. Offit (London: Elsevier /Saunders, 2008).

88 Werderitsch decision: Werderitsch v. Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services, May 26, 2006.

88 Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis and hepatitis B virus infections: E. E. Mast and J. W. Ward, “Hepatitis B Vaccines,” in Vaccines, 5th ed., eds. S. A. Plotkin, W. A. Orenstein, and P. A. Offit (London: Elsevier/Saunders, 2008).

88 Hepatitis B vaccine not a cause of multiple sclerosis: A. Ascherio, S. M. Zhang, M. A. Hernan, et al., “Hepatitis B Vaccination and the Risk of Multiple Sclerosis,” New England Journal of Medicine 344 (2001): 327- 332; C. Confavreux, S. Suissa, P. Saddier, et al., “Vaccinations and the Risk of Relapse in Multiple Sclerosis,” New England Journal of Medicine 344 (2001): 319-326.

89 Rorke-Adams’s background and training: L. B. Rorke-Adams, “Lucy Balian Rorke-Adams, MD: An Autobiography,” Journal of Child Neurology 23 (2008): 674-682.

90 Rorke-Adams on her experiences in the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Author interview with Lucy Rorke-Adams, April 28, 2009.

90 Rorke-Adams on John Shane: Ibid.; additional Rorke-Adams quotes are from this interview.

90 Rorke-Adams’s expertise on embryonic neuronal cells: An extensive publication list can be found in L. B. Rorke, “Embryonal Tumors of the Central Nervous System,” in Principles and Practice of Neuropathology, 2nd ed., eds. J. S. Nelson, H. Mena, J. E. Parisi, and S. S. Schochet (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003).

91 Rorke-Adams’s monograph on myelination: L. B. Rorke and H. E. Riggs, Myelination of the Brain in the Newborn (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1969).

91 Karoly and Shane indictment: United States of America v. John P. Karoly, Jr., John J. Shane, and John P. Karoly, III, filed in U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, September 25, 2008.

91 Laurie Magid on Karoly-Shane indictment: Press release, U.S. Department of Justice, U.S. Attorney, Eastern District of Pennsylvania, “Allentown Attorney and Two Others Indicted for Fraud Involving Couple Killed in Plane Crash,” September 25, 2008.

91 Karoly and tax evasion: “Allentown Attorney Charged with Defrauding Charity and Church in $500,000 Scheme,” Department of Justice Press Release, United States Attorney’s Office, Eastern District of Pennsylvania, March 12, 2009; B. Theodore, “Allentown Lawyer John Karoly Jr. Pleads Guilty to Tax Evasion, Could Face Prison Time,” LehighValleyLive. com, July 6, 2009; M. Birkbeck, “‘We Trusted John Karoly,’ Says Former Local Pastor,” The Morning Call, September 16, 2009; United States of America v. John P. Karoly, Jr., “Government’s Guilty Plea Memorandum,” United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, Criminal No. 08-592-01.

91 Fisher on autism: H. L. Coulter and B. L. Fisher, A Shot in the Dark: Why the P in the DPT Vaccination May Be Hazardous to Your Children’s Health (Garden City, N.Y.: Avery Publishing, 1991).

92 Wakefield paper: A. J. Wakefield, S. H. Murch, A. Anthony, et al., “Ileal-Lymphoid-Nodular Hyperplasia, Non-Specific Colitis, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder in Children,” The Lancet 351 (1998): 637-641.

92 Salisbury on fears of pertussis and MMR vaccine: Author interview with David Salisbury, November 30, 2009.

92 Measles outbreaks: N. Gould, “The Town Divided by a Deadly Disease,” Belfast Telegraph, November 14, 2004; “Fall in MMR Vaccine Coverage Reported as Further Evidence of Vaccine Safety Is Published,” CDR Weekly, June 25, 1999; B. Lavery, “As Vaccination Rates Decline in Ireland, Cases of Measles Soar,” New York Times, February 8, 2003; T. Peterkin, “Alert over 60 Percent Rise in Measles,” London Daily Telegraph, May 12, 2003; N. Begg, M. Ramsey, J. White, and Z. Bozoky, “Media Dents Confidence in MMR Vaccine,” British Medical Journal 316 (1998): 561; B. Deer, “Schoolboy, 13, Dies as Measles Makes a Come-back,” Sunday Times (London), April 2, 2006; K. Mansey, “MMR Link to Mumps Cases,” Daily Post, January 16, 2006; S. Boseley, “MMR Vaccinations Fall to New Low,” The Guardian, September 24, 2004; E. K. Mulholland, “Measles in the United States, 2006,” New England Journal of Medicine 355 (2006): 440-443; J. McBrien, J. Murphy, D. Gill, et al., “Measles Outbreak in Dublin,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 22 (2003): 580-584; P. A. Brunell, “More on Measles and the Impact of the Lancet Retraction,” Infectious Diseases in Children, May 2004; B. Deer, “MMR Scare Doctor Faces List of Charges,” The Times (London), September 11, 2005; S. Hastings, “Doctor at Sharp End of MMR Controversy,” Yorkshire Post, June 14, 2006.

92 Parents in United States refuse MMR vaccine: M. J. Smith, L. M. Bell, S. E. Ellenberg, and D. M. Rubin, “Media Coverage of the MMR-Autism Controversy and Its Relationship to MMR Immunization Rates in the United States,” Pediatrics 121 (2008): e836-e843.

93 Measles virus and intestines of autistic children: M. Hornig, T. Briese, T. Buie, et al., “Lack of Association Between Measles Virus Vaccine and Autism with Enteropathy: A Case-Control Study,” PLoS ONE 3 (2008): e3140.

93 MMR vaccine does not cause intestinal inflammation: H. Peltola, A. Patja, P. Leinikki, et al., “No Evidence for Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccine-Associated Inflammatory Bowel Disease or Autism in a 14-Year Prospective Study,” The Lancet 351 (1998): 1327-1328; R. L. Davis, P. Kramarz, B. Kari, et al., “Measles-Mumps-Rubella and Other Measles-Containing Vaccines Do Not Increase the Risk for Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Case-Control Study from the Vaccine Safety DataLink Project,” Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 155 (2002): 354- 359; B. Taylor, E. Miller, R. Lingam, et al., “Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccination and Bowel Problems or Developmental Regression in Children with Autism: Population Study,” British Medical Journal 324 (2002): 393-396; E. Fombonne and E. H. Cook, Jr., “MMR and Autistic Enterocolitis: Consistent Epidemiological Failure to Find an Association,” Molecular Psychiatry 8 (2003): 133-134.

93 Autism and brain-damaging (encephalopathic) proteins: K. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Ma, et al., “Common Genetic Variants on 5p14.1 Associate with Autism Spectrum Disorders,” Nature 459 (2009): 528-533.

93 Epidemiological studies exonerate MMR vaccine: B. Taylor, E. Miller, C. P. Farrington, et al., “Autism and Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccine: No Epidemiological Evidence for a Causal Association,” The Lancet 353 (1999): 2026-2029; F. DeStefano and R. T. Chen, “Negative Association Between MMR and Autism,” The Lancet 353 (1999): 1986- 1987; E. Fombonne, “Are Measles Infections or Measles Immunizations Linked to Autism?” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 29 (1999): 349-350; J. A. Kaye, M. Melero-Montes, and H. Jick, “Mumps, Measles, and Rubella Vaccine and the Incidence of Autism Recorded by General Practitioners: A Time Trend Analysis,” British Medical Journal 322 (2001): 460-463; L. Dales, S. J. Hammer, and N. J. Smith, “Time Trends in Autism and in MMR Immunization Coverage in California,” Journal of the American Medical Association285 (2001): 1183-1185; C. P. Farrington, E. Miller, and B. Taylor, “MMR and Autism: Further Evidence Against a Causal Association,” Vaccine 19 (2001): 3632-3635; E. Fombonne and S. Chakrabarti, “No Evidence for a New Variant of Measles-Mumps-Rubella-Induced Autism,” Pediatrics 108 (2001), http://www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full.108/4/e58; N. A. Halsey and S. L. Hyman, “Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine and Autistic Spectrum Disorder: Report from the New Challenges in Childhood Immunization Conference Convened in Oak Brook, Illinois, June 12, 2000,” Pediatrics 107 (2001), www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/107/5/e84; K. M. Madsen, A. Hviid, M. Vestergaard, et al., “A Population-Based Study of Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccination and Autism,” New England Journal of Medicine 347 (2002): 1477-1482; A. Mäkela, J. P. Nuorti, and H. Peltola, “Neurologic Disorders After Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination,” Pediatrics 110 (2002): 957-963; P. A. Offit and S. E. Coffin, “Communicating Science to the Public: MMR Vaccine and Autism,” Vaccine 22 (2003): 1-6; F. DeStefano, T. K. Bhasin, W. W. Thompson, et al., “Age at First Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination in Children with Autism and School-Matched Control Subjects: A Population-Based Study in Metropolitan Atlanta,” Pediatrics 113 (2004): 259-266; K. Wilson, E. Mills, C. Ross, et al., “Association of Autistic Spectrum Disorder and the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Vaccine,” Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 157 (2003): 628-634; H. Honda, Y. Shimizu, and M. Rutter, “No Effect of MMR Withdrawal on the Incidence of Autism: A Total Population Study,” Journal of Child Psychiatry and Psychology 46 (2005): 572-579.

93 Brian Deer on Andrew Wakefield’s conflicts: B. Deer, “MMR: The Truth Behind the Crisis,” Sunday Times (London), February 22, 2004.

94 Wakefield’s co-authors withdraw names from paper: R. Horton, MMR Science and Fiction: Exploring the Vaccine Crisis (London: Granta Books, 2004).

94 Nicholas Chadwick: Omnibus Autism Proceeding, Federal Claims Court, Washington, D.C., www.uscfc.uscourt.gov/OSM/OSMAutism.htm.

94 Wakefield wins “Courage in Science Award”: L. Reagan, “Vaccine Conference Exclusive Report,” http://www.hpakids.org/holistic-health/articles/187/1/Vaccine-Conference-Exclusive-Report.

94 Fisher on Madsen study: Quoted in “Autism: Study Finds No Connection to MMR Vaccine,” American Health Line, November 7, 2002.

94 Fisher on Institute of Medicine: M. Fox, “Study Says Vaccine Not Cause of Autism,” Philadelphia Inquirer, May 19, 2004.

94 General Medical Council chastises Wakefield: N. Triggle, “MMR Doctor ‘Broke Research Rules,’” BBC News, January 28, 2010; B. Deer, “‘Callous, Unethical, and Dishonest’: Dr. Andrew Wakefield,” TimesON-LINE, Sunday Times (London), January 31, 2010, http://timesonline.co.uk; Press Association, “MMR Doctor Failed to Act in Interests of Children,” The Guardianhttp://guardian.co.uk/science/2010/jan/28/mmr-doctor-fail.children-gmc/print.

95 Fisher defends Wakefield after General Medical Council rebuke: B. L. Fisher, “Vaccines: Doctor Judges and Juries Hanging Their Own,” http://ageofautism.com/2010/01/vaccines-doctor-judges-juries-hanging-their-own.html.

95 The Lancet retracts Wakefield paper: Editors of The Lancet, “Retraction: Ileal-Lymphoid-Nodular Hyperplasia, Non-Specific Colitis, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder in Children,” The Lancet, February 2, 2010.

95 Fisher responds to The Lancet’s retraction: T. Miller, “Journal Retracts Study Backing Vaccine-Autism Link,” PBS News Hourhttp://pbs.org/newshour/updates/europe/jan-june10/lancet_0204html.

96 William Sawyer and yellow fever vaccine: W. A. Sawyer, K. F. Meyer, M. D. Eaton, et al., “Jaundice in Army Personnel in the Western Region of the United States and Its Relation to Vaccination Against Yellow Fever,” American Journal of Hygiene 40 (1944): 35-107.

96 Neil Nathanson and polio vaccine: N. Nathanson and A. D. Langmuir, “The Cutter Incident: Poliomyelitis Following Formaldehyde-Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccination in the United States During the Spring of 1955. I. Background,” American Journal of Hygiene 78 (1963): 16-28.

96 Trudy Murphy and rotavirus vaccine: T. V. Murphy, P. M. Garguillo, M. S. Massoudi, et al., “Intussusception Among Infants Given an Oral Rotavirus Vaccine,” New England Journal of Medicine 344 (2001): 564- 572.

96 Wakefield resigns: M. A. Roser, “British Doctor Resigns as Head of Austin Autism Center,” Austin American-Statesman, February 18, 2010.

96 GMC revokes Wakefield’s medical license: K. Kelland, “UK Doctor at Heart of Vaccine Row Banned from Practice,” Reuters, May 24, 2010.

96 AAP and CDC call for removal of thimerosal: P. A. Offit, “Thimerosal and Vaccines: A Cautionary Tale,” New England Journal of Medicine 357 (2007): 1278-1279.

96 Epidemiological studies of thimerosal and autism: P. Stehr-Green, P. Tull, M. Stellfeld, et al., “Autism and Thimerosal-Containing Vaccines: Lack of Consistent Evidence for an Association,” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 25 (2005): 101-106; K. M. Madsen, M. B. Lauritsen, C. B. Pedersen, et al., “Thimerosal and the Occurrence of Autism: Negative Ecological Evidence from Danish Population-Based Data,” Pediatrics 112 (2003): 604-606; A. Hviid, M. Stellfeld, J. Wohlfahrt, and M. Melbye, “Association Between Thimerosal-Containing Vaccine and Autism,” Journal of the American Medical Association 290 (2003): 1763-1766; J. Heron and J. Golding, “Thimerosal Exposure in Infants and Developmental Disorders: A Prospective Cohort Study in the United Kingdom Does Not Support a Causal Association,” Pediatrics 114 (2004): 577-583; N. Andrews, E. Miller, A. Grant, et al., “Thimerosal Exposure in Infants and Developmental Disorders: A Retrospective Cohort Study in the United Kingdom Does Not Support a Causal Association,” Pediatrics 114 (2004): 584-591; E. Fombonne, R. Zakarian, A. Bennett, et al., “Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Montreal, Quebec, Canada: Prevalence and Links with Immunization,” Pediatrics 118 (2006): 139-150; W. W. Thompson, C. Price, B. Goodson, et al., “Early Thimerosal Exposure and Neuropsychological Outcomes at 7 to 10 Years,” New England Journal of Medicine 357 (2007): 1281-1292; R. Schechter and J. Grether, “Continuing Increases in Autism Reported to California’s Development Services System,” Archives of General Psychiatry 65 (2008): 19-24.

96 Autism rates continued to climb: R. Schechter and J. Grether, “Continuing Increases in Autism Reported to California’s Development Services System,” Archives of General Psychiatry 65 (2008): 19-24.

97 Gary Golkiewicz regarding workload: Speech to the Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines, March 6, 2008.

97 Special master regarding workload: Theresa Cedillo and Michael Cedillo v. Secretary of Health and Human Services, filed February 12, 2009.

98 Golkiewicz regarding goal of VICP: Speech to the Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines, March 6, 2008.

99 Special master regarding subjective belief: Colten Snyder, Kathryn Snyder, and Joseph Snyder v. Secretary of Health and Human Services, filed February 12, 2009. Italics added for emphasis.

99 Special master regarding sentiment: Rolf and Angela Hazelhurst and William Yates Hazelhurst v. Secretary of Health and Human Services, filed February 12, 2009. Italics added for emphasis.

99 Vote unanimous: Theresa Cedillo and Michael Cedillo v. Secretary of Health and Human Services, filed February 12, 2009; Rolf and Angela Hazelhurst and William Yates Hazelhurst v. Secretary of Health and Human Services, filed February 12, 2009; Colten Snyder, Kathryn Snyder, and Joseph Snyder v. Secretary of Health and Human Services, filed February 12, 2009.

99 Special master regarding bad scienceColten Snyder, Kathryn Snyder, and Joseph Snyder v. Secretary of Health and Human Services, filed February 12, 2009. Italics added for emphasis.

99 Special master and “White Queen”: Ibid.

99 Special master regarding quality of experts: Ibid.

100 Special master on Marcel Kinsbourne’s professional testimony: Colten Snyder, Kathryn Snyder, and Joseph Snyder v. Secretary of Health and Human Services, filed February 12, 2009.

100 Special master on Kinsbourne’s statement regarding measles and autism: Ibid.

100 Special master on Vera Byers: Ibid.

101 Special master on Arthur Krigsman: Theresa Cedillo and Michael Cedillo v. Secretary of Health and Human Services, filed February 12, 2009.

101 Special master on Jeff Bradstreet’s profit: Ibid.

102 Verdict on thimerosal cases: www.uscfc.uscourts.gov.

102 Special master regarding Krigsman’s medical misjudgment: Theresa Cedillo and Michael Cedillo v. Secretary of Health and Human Services, filed February 12, 2009.

102 Lawyers’ compensation: K. Seidel, “Autism-Vaccine Attorney Bill Tops $2 Million,” http://www.neurodiversity.com/weblog/article/180.

103 Special master regarding maturing science: Colten Snyder, Kathryn Snyder, and Joseph Snyder v. Secretary of Health and Human Services, filed February 12, 2009.

104 Vaccine shortages: J. Cohen, “U.S. Vaccine Supply Falls Seriously Short,” Science 295 (2002): 1998-2001; National Vaccine Advisory Committee, “Strengthening the Supply of Routinely Recommended Vaccines in the United States: Recommendations of the National Vaccine Advisory Committee,” Journal of the American Medical Association 290 (2003): 3122- 3128.

7. Past Is Prologue

105 Rotting flesh: Tucker, Scourge, 2.

105 Smallpox disease and spread: Ibid., 2.

106 British historian: Quoted in Ibid., 3.

106 Smallpox deaths: Ibid., 3.

106 Monarchs and rulers died from smallpox: Ibid., 12.

106 Native Americans died from smallpox: Ibid., 12.

106 Edward Jenner and the smallpox vaccine: Ibid., 23.

107 Jenner’s publication and acceptance of smallpox vaccine: Brunton, Politics of Vaccination, 13-14.

108 Epidemiological Society of London: Durbach, Bodily Matters, 22; Brunton, Politics of Vaccination, 40.

108 “Light of modern science”: Durbach, Bodily Matters, 22.

108 Epidemiological Society’s political role: Brunton, Politics of Vaccination, 40.

108 Epidemiological Society’s reason for vaccination: Durbach, Bodily Matters , 23.

108 Bill of 1853: Brunton, Politics of Vaccination, 41.

108 Smallpox epidemic of 1852: Ibid.

108 “A damp squib”: Ibid., 39.

108 Act of 1867: Durbach, Bodily Matters, 8-9.

109 “Ignorance and prejudice”: Brunton, Politics of Vaccination, 43.

109 Richard Butler Gibbs and the Anti-Compulsory Vaccination League: Durbach, Bodily Matters, 38.

109 Growth of the ACVL: Ibid.

109 Formation of other anti-vaccination leagues: Ibid.

109 Richard Butler Gibbs quote regarding Britannia: Brunton, Politics of Vaccination, 92.

109 The Vaccination Vampire: Durbach, Bodily Matters, 138.

109 Vaccinators as ravens: Ibid.

109 Vaccination as sacrifice to the devil: Ibid., 81.

109 “Savage African tribe”: Ibid.

110 Claim that vaccine contains animal products and transforms children into monsters: Durbach, Bodily Matters, 114.

110 Rallies at public auctions: Ibid., 53.

110 Rally in 1887: Ibid.

110 Rally in 1885: Ibid., 63.

110 Mothers hide children from vaccination officers: Ibid., 65.

111 John Gibbs regarding doctors: Ibid., 13.

111 Fisher and doctors killing babies: “Doctors Want Power to Kill Disabled Babies,” posted by Barbara Loe Fisher, November 5, 2006, http://www.vaccineawakening.blogspot.com.

111 Leicester rally of 1885: Durbach, Bodily Matters, 51.

112 “Perfect carnival”: Ibid., 50.

112 Anti-vaccine rally: Witnessed by the author, June 2006.

112 Bill of 1853 passed under darkness: Ibid., 118.

112 Fisher at Maryland courthouse: “Police with Dogs: Vaccinating Kids in Maryland,” posted by Barbara Loe Fisher, November 19, 2007, http://www.vaccineawakening.blogspot.com.

113 Jane Orient on Nightline: “Vaccines and Their Risks,” Nightline, October 14, 1999.

114 James Gillray’s cartoon: Durbach, Bodily Matters, 124-125.

114 “Ox-faced boy or children”: Brunton, Politics of Vaccination, 61.

114 “Horn-like excrescences”: Durbach, Bodily Matters, 125.

114 Madhouses: Ibid.

114 “Low and browse”: Ibid.

115 George Gibbs regarding smallpox vaccine: Ibid., 3.

115 Claim that smallpox vaccine causes children to change race: Ibid., 135.

115 Claim that smallpox vaccine causes diphtheria: Ibid., 183.

115 Claim that smallpox vaccine causes polio: H. Emerson, A Monograph on the Epidemic of Poliomyelitis (Infantile Paralysis) (New York: Arno Press, 1977).

116 “Right to be pure and unpolluted”: Durbach, Bodily Matters, 71.

116 Avoiding smallpox: Ibid., 121.

116 McCarthy at “Green Our Vaccines” rally: Jenny McCarthy, “Green Our Vaccines” Rally, June 4, 2008, http://www.generationrescue.org/news-press/green-our-vaccines/jenny-mccarthy-transcript.

117 Frightened by germs: Durbach, Bodily Matters, 160.

118 “This infection scare is a sham”: Ibid.

118 “The real enemy of the human race: dirt”: Ibid., 164.

118 Early history of chiropractic: J. B. Campbell, J. W. Busse, and H. S. Injeyan, “Chiropractors and Vaccination: A Historical Perspective,” Pediatrics , www.pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/105/4/e43. All quotes from Daniel and B. J. Palmer were obtained from this source.

118 Nature paper: K. Wang, H. Zhang, M. Deqiong, et al., “Common Genetic Variants on 5p14.1 Associate with Autism Spectrum Disorders,” Nature 459 (2009): 528-533.

120 Walter Hadwin regarding Elie Metchnikoff: Durbach, Bodily Matters, 168.

121 “Pharaoh’s daughter”: Durbach, Bodily Matters, 62.

121 “Herodian decree”: Ibid.

121 Vaccines and anti-Christ: Ibid., 118.

122 Jenner or Christ?: Ibid.

122 Mary Hume-Rothery: Ibid.

122 Debi Vinnedge: Offit, Vaccinated, 90.

122 Vinnedge and the Pontifical Academy for Life: Ibid., 91.

122 Mass-marketing of anti-vaccine message in Victorian England: Durbach, Bodily Matters, 47-48.

123 Ernest Hart regarding anti-vaccine rhetoric: Ibid., 50.

123 Rahul Parikh and modern-day messaging: R. K. Parikh, “Fighting for the Reputation of Vaccines: Lessons from American Politics,” Pediatrics 121 (2008): 621-622.

124 Working-class resistance to vaccination: Durbach, Bodily Matters, 92.

124 Socioeconomic background of parents who refuse vaccines: P. J. Smith, S. Y. Chu, and L. E. Barker, “Children Who Have Received No Vaccines: Who Are They and Where Do They Live?” Pediatrics 114 (2004): 187-195.

124 Fisher and Kerensky: National Vaccine Information Center, “President Bush Extends Filing Deadline on Compensation for Parents Under the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Fund,” Southwest Newswire, November 8, 1990.

124 Links to personal-injury lawyers: www.nvic.org, April 2010.

125 Conscientious-objection law: Durbach, Bodily Matters, 171.

125 Vaccination rates in England, late 1890s: Ibid., 10.

127 Vaccination rates in England versus Ireland and Scotland: Brunton, Politics of Vaccination, 122-162.

8. Tragedy of the Commons

127 “The most important Supreme Court case”: Gostin, Public Health Law, 116.

127 Cited in other Supreme Court decisions: Ibid., 125.

127 Smallpox outbreak in Boston: L. O. Gostin, “Jacobson v. Massachusetts at 100 Years: Police Power and Civil Liberties in Tension,” American Journal of Public Health 95 (2005): 576-581.

127 Cambridge ordinance: Gostin, Public Health Law, 118.

128 Vaccination vs. salvation: “Editorial Points,” Boston Daily Globe, November 19, 1901.

128 Smallpox epidemic in Massachusetts: W. E. Parmet, R. A. Goodman, and A. Farber, “Individual Rights vs. the Public Health—100 Years After Jacobson v. Massachusetts,” New England Journal of Medicine 352 (2005): 652-654.

128 Edwin Spencer: Colgrove, State of Immunity, 38.

128 Life of Henning Jacobson: Ibid., 38-39; W. E. Parmet, R. A. Goodman, and A. Farber, “Individual Rights vs. the Public Health—100 Years After Jacobson v. Massachusetts,” New England Journal of Medicine 352 (2005): 652-654.

128 Jacobson’s case in local courts: Colgrove, State of Immunity, 40.

128 Henry Ballard and James Pickering: W. E. Parmet, R. A. Goodman, and A. Farber, “Individual Rights vs. the Public Health—100 Years After Jacobson v. Massachusetts,” New England Journal of Medicine 352 (2005): 652-654.

129 “Sacred Cow”: Ibid., 654.

129 George Williams: Colgrove, State of Immunity, 41.

129 Williams’s brief regarding civil liberty: Gostin, Public Health Law, 121.

129 Williams’s brief regarding filth and disease: W. E. Parmet, R. A. Goodman, and A. Farber, “Individual Rights vs. the Public Health—100 Years After Jacobson v. Massachusetts,” New England Journal of Medicine 352 (2005): 652-654.

130 Harlan ruling: Jacobson v. Massachusetts, 197 U.S. 11 (1905).

130 Harlan regarding social compact: Colgrove, State of Immunity, 42.

130 Zucht ruling: Zucht v. King, 260 U.S. 174 (1922).

130 Mary Mallon: The story of Mary Mallon, including all details and quotes, can be found in Leavitt, Typhoid Mary.

133 Editorial on Jacobson v. Massachusetts: New York Times, February 22, 1905.

133 McCauley incident: Colgrove, State of Immunity, 22.

134 New York Times on McCauley incident: “Quarantined Family Escapes,” New York Times, March 23, 1894.

134 Brooklyn Compulsory Anti-Vaccination League: Colgrove, State of Immunity , 26.

134 Massachusetts Compulsory Anti-Vaccination Association: Ibid., 41.

134 Anti-Vaccination League of America: Ibid., 52.

134 John Pitcairn regarding tyranny: Ibid., 52.

134 Anti-Vaccination League of America pamphlets: Ibid., 54.

134 Citizens’ Medical Reference Bureau: Ibid., 54-55.

134 Lora Little and the American Medical Liberty League: Allen, Vaccine, 99; Colgrove, State of Immunity, 56.

135 Lora Little and “foul business”: Colgrove, State of Immunity, 60-61.

135 Raggedy Ann doll: Allen, Vaccine, 99.

136 Decline of anti-vaccine groups: Colgrove, State of Immunity, 74.

136 CDC launches measles vaccine initiative: Ibid., 149.

136 Measles: W. A. Orenstein and A. R. Hinman, “The Immunization System in the United States—The Role of School Immunization Laws,” Vaccine 17 (1999): S19-S24.

136 U.S. measles cases in early 1970s: Colgrove, State of Immunity, 166-167.

136 Joseph P. Kennedy Foundation: Ibid., 175-176.

137 Measles and encephalitis: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Update: Measles—United States, January-July 2008,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 57 (2008): 893-896.

137 Betty Bumpers and the Childhood Immunization Initiative: Colgrove, State of Immunity, 199-200.

138 Increased number of states requiring vaccines: Ibid., 177.

138 Measles outbreak in Alaska: W. A. Orenstein and A. R. Hinman, “The Immunization System in the United States—The Role of School Immunization Laws,” Vaccine 17 (1999): S19-S24.

138 Measles outbreak in Los Angeles County: Ibid.

138 Texarkana: P. J. Landrigan, “Epidemic Measles in a Divided City,” Journal of the American Medical Association 221 (1972): 567-570.

138 School entry requirements in fifty states: Colgrove, State of Immunity, 177.

138 Incidence of measles in United States, 1998: W. A. Orenstein and A. R. Hinman, “The Immunization System in the United States—The Role of School Immunization Laws,” Vaccine 17 (1999): S19-S24.

139 Orenstein regarding Los Angeles mandates: Author interview with Walter Orenstein, December 18, 2009.

139 Prince case: Prince v. Massachusetts, 321 U.S. 158 (1944). Italics added for emphasis.

140 Wright case: Wright v. DeWitt High School, 385 S.W. 2d 644 (Ark. 1965).

140 McCartney case: McCartney v. Austin, 293 N.Y.S. 2d 188 (1968).

140 Avard case: Avard v. Manchester Board of School Committee et al., 376 F. Supp. 479 (1974).

140 Brown case: Brown v. Stone, 378 So. 2d 218 (1979).

140 Davis case: Davis v. Maryland, 294 Md. 370 (1982).

140 New York State bill regarding mandatory polio vaccine: S. H. Schanberg, “Assembly Votes Polio-Shots Bill: Vaccination Would Be Made Compulsory for Pupils,” New York Times, June 21, 1966.

141 Mary Baker Eddy regarding smallpox: Eddy, Science and Health, 153.

141 Diphtheria in Christian Scientist child: Fraser, Perfect Child, 303.

141 Measles outbreak at Principia College: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Outbreak of Measles Among Christian Science Students—Missouri and Illinois, 1994,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, July 1, 1994.

141 Orenstein regarding measles outbreak among Christian Scientists: R. Goodrich, “Test Results Awaited in Causes of Deaths in Measles Outbreak,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, March 4, 1985; Fraser, Perfect Child, 302.

141 Polio in Connecticut: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Follow-Up on Poliomyelitis,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 21 (1972): 365-366; F. M. Foote, G. Kraus, M. D. Andrews, and J. C. Hart, “Polio Outbreak in a Private School,” Connecticut Medicine, December 1973.

141 Health commissioner responds to polio outbreak: S. W. Ferguson, “Mandatory Immunization,” New England Journal of Medicine 288 (1973): 800.

142 Maier case: Maier v. Besser, 73 Misc. 2d 241 (1972).

142 Dalli case: Dalli v. Board of Education, 358 Mass. 753 (1971).

142 Sherr/Levy case: Sherr v. Northport-East Northport Union Free School District, 672 F. Supp. 81 (E.D.N.Y 1987).

142 Philosophical exemptions: Welsh v. United States, 398 U.S. 333, 90 S.Ct. 1792 (1970).

143 Salmon study: D. A. Salmon, M. Haber, E. J. Gangarosa, et al., “Health Consequences of Religious and Philosophical Exemptions from Immunization Laws: Individual and Societal Risk of Measles,” Journal of the American Medical Association 281 (1999): 47-53.

143 Feikin study: D. R. Feikin, D. C. Lezotte, R. F. Hamman, et al., “Individual and Community Risks of Measles and Pertussis Associated with Personal Exemptions to Immunization,” Journal of the American Medical Association 284 (2000): 3145-3150.

143 Omer study: S. B. Omer, W.K.Y. Pan, N. A. Halsey, et al., “Nonmedical Exemptions to School Immunization Requirements: Secular Trends and Association of State Policies with Pertussis Incidence,” Journal of the American Medical Association 296 (2006): 1757-1763.

143 Glanz study: J. M. Glanz, D. L. McClure, D. J. Magid, et al., “Parental Refusal of Pertussis Vaccination Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Pertussis Infection in Children,” Pediatrics 123 (2009): 1446-1451.

144 International impact of anti-vaccine activism: E. J. Gangarosa, A. M. Galazka, C. R. Wolfe, et al., “Impact of Anti-Vaccine Movements on Pertussis Control: The Untold Story,” The Lancet 351 (1998): 356- 361.

144 Garrett Hardin essay: G. Hardin, “The Tragedy of the Commons,” Science 162 (1968): 1243-1248. All Hardin quotes are from this essay.

146 Stephanie Tatel: S. Tatel, “A Pox on You,” http://www.slate.com/toolbar.aspx?action=print&id=2232977. All Tatel quotes are from this essay.

147 Hardin’s second essay: G. Hardin, “Extension of ‘The Tragedy of the Commons,’” Science 280 (1998): 682-683.

9. The Mean Season

150 Jenny McCarthy and Crystal children: J. McCarthy, Louder Than Words: A Mother’s Journey in Healing Autism (New York: Dutton, 2007), 178.

150 Crystal children: D. Virtue, The Care and Feeding of Indigo Children (Carlsbad: Hay House, 2001).

151 McCarthy regarding MMR causing autism: Oprah, September 18, 2007.

151 McCarthy dramatizes son’s illness: K. Chetry, “McCarthy Claims Autism ‘Cure,’” American Morning, CNN, October 1, 2008.

151 McCarthy asks officials and companies to stop hurting kids: Ibid.

152 McCarthy on toxins in vaccines: Green Our Vaccines Rally, Washington, D.C., June 4, 2008, http://www.generationrescue.org/news-press/green-our-vaccines/jenny-mccarthy-transcript.

152 McCarthy on Botox: S. Negovan, “The New McCarthyism,” Michigan Avenue Magazinehttp://www.michiganavemag.com/MA_MA09_084_NEW.html.

152 Jeffrey Kluger interviews McCarthy: J. Kluger, “Jenny McCarthy Talks About Autism,” Time, April 1, 2009.

153 McCarthy video on treating autism: http:///www.youtube.com/watch?v=nDe_PAltC1Ahttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0mBqta02d68&feature=related. Other McCarthy quotes are from this video.

153 Relative sizes of vaccine and nutritional supplement industries: J. Groopman, “No Alternative,” Wall Street Journal, August 7, 2006; “Infectious Diseases Vaccine Market Overview: Key Companies and Strategies,” www.datamonitor.com, December 2008.

154 McCarthy and Generation Rescue Web site: “Jenny McCarthy and Jim Carrey Discuss Autism: Medical Experts Weigh In,” Larry King Live, CNN, April 3, 2009.

154 Chelation death: K. Kane and V. Linn, “Boy Dies During Autism Treatment,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, August 25, 2006.

154 Generation Rescue mission statement: Generation Rescue, Inc., 2007 Return of Organization Exempt from Income Tax, Form 990.

154 Ad regarding mercury poisoning: New York Times, June 8, 2005.

154 Ad regarding increase in autism: USA Today, April 6, 2006.

154 Ad regarding Bailey Banks: USA Today, February 25, 2009.

155 Handley/McCarthy interchange with Dr. Travis Stork: The Doctors, May 6, 2009.

156 Handley and “knuckleheads”: J. B. Handley, “Dr. Steve Novella: Why Is This So Hard to Understand?” Age of Autism Web log, April 22, 2009.

157 David Tayloe’s letter to Lisa Williams: Provided by Susan Martin, American Academy of Pediatrics.

158 Nancy Minshew’s quote in newspaper: M. Roth, “Pitt Expert Goes Public to Counter Fallacy on Autism,” Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, January 31, 2008.

158 Handley counters Minshew: Blog entry, Age of Autism, “While Minshew Shrieks, Autism Squeaks,” February 8, 2008.

158 Amanda Peet and Cookie magazine: J. Tung, “Amanda Peet: The Actress Discusses the Vaccination Debate,” Cookie, August 2008.

158 Handley counters Peet: Blog entry, Age of Autism, “From Dr. Paul Offit’s Lips to Amanda Peet’s Ears, We’re All Parasites,” July 15, 2008.

158 Handley attacks ECBT: Blog entry, “Every Child by Two: A Front Group for Wyeth,” August 4, 2008.

159 Handley counters Dawson: Blog entry, Age of Autism, “Is Autism Speaks’ Geri Dawson a Blithering Idiot?” September 10, 2008.

159 Handley counters Snyderman: Blog entry, Age of Autism, “Keep On Self-Incriminatin’,” October 30, 2008.

159 Harris article: G. Harris and A. O’Connor, “On Autism’s Causes: It’s Parents vs. Research,” New York Times, June 25, 2005.

159 Handley counters Harris: Blog entry, Age of Autism, “Some New York Times Reporters Are Just Ignorant,” December 15, 2008.

159 Wired article: A. Wallace, “An Epidemic of Fear,” Wired, November 2009.

159 Handley and date rape: “Readers Respond to An Epidemic of Fear: Part 1,” Wiredhttp://www.wired.com/magazine/2009/10/readers-respond-to-an-epidemic-of-fear-part-1.

160 Handley and “cry baby”: “Readers Respond to An Epidemic of Fear: Part 2,” Wiredhttp://www.wired.com/magazine/2009/10/readers-respond-to-an-epidemic-of-fear-part-2.

160 Wallace regarding bullying: Ibid.

160 Wallace and civil debate: M. Block, “Journalist’s Vaccine Article Draws Hate Mail,” National Public Radio, October 28, 2009.

160 Handley regarding pediatricians: Blog entry, Age of Autism, “Vaccines Don’t Cause Autism, Pediatricians Do,” January 12, 2010.

160 Handley and Gardasil: “Jenny McCarthy and Jim Carrey Discuss Autism: Medical Experts Weigh In,” Larry King Live, CNN, April 3, 2009.

160 Patricia Danzon on vaccine economics: Presentation on “Vaccine Economics,” the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Vaccines and Immune Therapeutics course for immunology and molecular biology graduate students, October 2008.

161 Handley and the 1989 vaccine schedule: The Doctors, May 6, 2009.

161 Handley and research on vaccinated vs. unvaccinated children: “Jenny McCarthy and Jim Carrey Discuss Autism: Medical Experts Weigh In,” Larry King Live, CNN, April 3, 2009.

162 Celebrities support polio vaccine: N. G. Seavey, J. S. Smith, and P. Wagner, A Paralyzing Fear: The Triumph over Polio in America (New York: TV Books, 1998); Oshinsky, Polio.

162 Celebrities who support vaccines: “Actress and New Mom Keri Russell Joins PKIDS to Launch ‘Silence the Sound of Pertussis’ Campaign,” PR Newswire, October 16, 2007; E. J. Mundell, “Jennifer Garner Puts Flu Shot in the Spotlight,” U.S. News and World Reportwww.usnews.com, April 19, 2010; “Football Legend Archie Griffin Raising Awareness of H1N1 Vaccinations,” Dayton Business Journal, January 20, 2010.

163 Celebrities who fear vaccines: “Jessica Alba Concerned About Vaccinations,” http://blogs.babycenter.com/celebrities/category/vaccinations; “Vaccines : Does Your Child Really Need Them?” Planet Chiropractic.com, April 18, 2000; “House Call with Dr. Sanjay Gupta,” CNN, August 16, 2008; “Vaccines and Autism,” Larry King Live, CNN, February 27, 2008; A. Quinn, “Aidan Quinn’s Ode to Ireland of the Seventies,” Independent. ie, September 14, 2008.

163 Carrey regarding conspiracy: “Jenny McCarthy and Jim Carrey Discuss Autism: Medical Experts Weigh In,” Larry King Live, CNN, April 3, 2009. All quotes by Jim Carrey are from this source.

164 Handley and the chickenpox vaccine: Ibid.

164 Chickenpox disease and effectiveness of the chickenpox vaccine: A. A. Gershon, M. Takahashi, and J. F. Seward, “Varicella Vaccine,” in Vaccines , 5th ed., eds. S. A. Plotkin, W. A. Orenstein, and P. A. Offit (London: Elsevier/Saunders, 2008); S. S. Shah, S. M. Wood, X. Luan, and A. J. Ratner, “Decline in Varicella-Related Ambulatory Visits and Hospitalizations in the United States Since Routine Immunization Against Varicella,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 29 (2010): 199-204.

165 Maher and Frist: Real Time with Bill Maher, HBO, October 2, 2009.

165 Maher in Huffington Post: B. Maher, “Vaccination: A Conversation Worth Having,” Huffington Post, November 15, 2009.

166 Religulous: Lionsgate Films, 2008.

167 Maher and Microbe Hunters: B. Maher, “Vaccination: A Conversation Worth Having,” Huffington Post, November 15, 2009.

167 Polio epidemics: Offit, Cutter.

167 Swine flu epidemic, 2009: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/update.htm.

167 Swine flu and pregnancy: S. Jain, L. Kamimoto, A. M. Bramley, et al., “Hospitalized Patients with 2009 H1N1 Influenza in the United States, April-June 2009,” New England Journal of Medicine 361 (2009): 1935- 1944 ; J. K. Louie, M. Acosta, D. J. Jamieson, et al., “Severe 2009 H1N1 Influenza in Pregnant Women in California,” New England Journal of Medicine 362 (2010): 27-35; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) in Pregnant Women Requiring Intensive Care—New York City, 2009,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 59 (2010): 321-326.

168 Edward R. Murrow and Arthur Godfrey: A. M. Brandt, The Cigarette Century: The Rise, Fall, and Deadly Persistence of the Product That Defined America (New York: Basic Books, 2007).

168 Bernadine Healy on TV: CBS Evening News, May 12, 2008. Other quotes from Healy are taken from this program.

169 Genetic defects in autism: K. Wang, H. Zhang, D. Ma, et al., “Common Genetic Variants on 5p14.1 Associate with Autism Spectrum Disorders,” Nature 459 (2009): 528-533; R. Moessner, C. R. Marshall, J. S. Sutcliffe, et al., “Contribution of SHANK-3 Mutations to Autism Spectrum Disorder,” American Journal of Human Genetics 81 (2007): 1289-1297; K. Garber, “Autism’s Cause May Reside in Abnormalities of the Synapse,” Science 317 (2007): 190-191; L. A. Weiss, Y. Shen, J. M. Korn, et al., “Association Between Microdeletion and Microduplication at 16p11.2 and Autism,” New England Journal of Medicine 358 (2008): 667-675.

169 Structural differences: “A Dose of Controversy,” Dateline NBC, August 30, 2009.

169 Studies evaluating mercury toxicity in vaccines: Institute of Medicine, Immunization Safety Review: Vaccines and Autism (Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press, 2004).

10. Dr. Bob

171 Sears’s book: R. W. Sears, The Vaccine Book: Making the Right Decision for Your Child (New York: Little, Brown, 2007). All quotes from Robert Sears were obtained from this source.

172 Parents want alternative schedule: Author interview with several pediatricians.

173 Number of immunological components in vaccines: P. A. Offit, J. Quarles, M. A. Gerber, et al., “Addressing Parents’ Concerns: Do Multiple Vaccines Overwhelm or Weaken the Infant’s Immune System?” Pediatrics 109 (2002): 124-129.

174 Number of viral infections in first few years of life: J. H. Dingle, G. F. Badger, W. S. Jordan, Illness in the Home: A Study of 25,000 Illnesses in a Group of Cleveland Families (Cleveland: The Press of Western Reserve University, 1964).

174 Cohn and Langman paper: M. Cohn and R. E. Langman, “The Protecton: The Unit of Humoral Immunity Selected by Evolution,” Immunological Reviews 115 (1990): 9-147.

175 Vaccine spacing and neurological outcomes: M. J. Smith and C. R. Woods, “On-Time Vaccine Receipt in the First Year Does Not Adversely Affect Neuropsychological Outcomes,” Pediatrics 125 (2010): 1-8.

175 Hepatitis B vaccine studies on newborns: S. M. Wheely, P. T. Jackson, E. H. Boxhall, et al., “Prevention of Perinatal Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV): A Comparison of Two Prophylactic Schedules,” Journal of Medical Virology 35 (1991): 212-215; V. C. Wong, H. M. Ip, H. W. Reesink, et al., “Prevention of the HBsAg Carrier State in Newborns of Mothers Who Are Chronic Carriers of HBsAg and HBeAg by Administration of Hepatitis-B Vaccine and Hepatitis-B Immunoglobulin: Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study,” The Lancet 28 (1984): 921-926; O. W. Prozesky, C. E. Stevens, W. Szmuness, et al., “Immune Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine in Newborns,” Journal of Infection 7 (suppl. I) (1983): 53-55.

177 Studies on aluminum elimination and toxicity: N. W. Baylor, W. Egan, and P. Richman, “Aluminum Salts in Vaccines—US Perspective,” Vaccine 20 (2002): S18-S23; N. J. Bishop, R. Morley, J. P. Day, and A. Lucas, “Aluminum Neurotoxicity in Preterm Infants Receiving Intravenous-Feeding Solutions,” New England Journal of Medicine 336 (1997): 1557-1561; Committee on Nutrition, “Aluminum Toxicity in Infants and Children,” Pediatrics97 (1996): 413-416; P. O. Ganrot, “Metabolism and Possible Health Effects of Aluminum,” Environmental Health Perspectives 65 (1986): 363-441; L. S. Keith, D. E. Jones, and C. Chou, “Aluminum Toxicokinetics Regarding Infant Diet and Vaccinations,” Vaccine 20 (2002): S13-S17; J. A. Pennington, “Aluminum Content of Food and Diets,” Food Additives and Contaminants 5 (1987): 164-232; K. Simmer, A. Fudge, J. Teubner, and S. L. James, “Aluminum Concentrations in Infant Formula,” Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 26 (1990): 9-11.

179 Formaldehyde: “Epidemiology of Chronic Occupational Exposure to Formaldehyde: Report of the Ad Hoc Panel on Health Aspects of Formaldehyde,” Toxicology and Industrial Health 4 (1988): 77-90; A. T. Natarajan, F. Darroudi, C.J.M. Bussman, et al., “Evaluation of the Mutagenicity of Formaldehyde in Mammalian Cytogenetic Assays In Vivo and In Vitro,” Mutation Research 122 (1983): 355-360; H. P. Til, R. A. Woutersen, V. J. Feron, et al., “Two-Year Drinking-Water Study of Formaldehyde in Rats,” Food Chemical Toxicology 27 (1989): 77-87; F. M. Huennekens and M. J. Osborne, “Folic Acid Coenzymes and One-Carbon Metabolism,” Advances in Enzymology 21 (1959): 369-446; H. Heck, M. Casanova-Schmitz, P. B. Dodd, et al., “Formaldehyde (CH2O) Concentrations in the Blood of Humans and Fischer-344 Rats Exposed to CH2O Under Controlled Conditions,” American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 46 (1985): 1-3.

180 VAERS reports by personal-injury lawyers: M. J. Goodman and J. Nordin, “Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System Reporting Source: A Possible Source of Bias in Longitudinal Studies,” Pediatrics 117 (2006): 387-390.

181 MMR vaccine causes a low platelet count: R. A. Oski and J. L. Naiman, “Effect of Live Measles Vaccine on the Platelet Count,” New England Journal of Medicine 275 (1966): 352-356.

181 Thimerosal in vaccines doesn’t cause autism: K. M. Madsen, M. B. Lauritsen, C. B. Pedersen, et al., “Thimerosal and the Occurrence of Autism: Negative Ecological Evidence from Danish Population-Based Data,” Pediatrics 112 (2003): 604-606; A. Hviid, M. Stellfeld, J. Wohlfahrt, and M. Melbye, “Association Between Thimerosal-Containing Vaccine and Autism,” Journal of the American Medical Association 290 (2003): 1763-1766.

181 HPV vaccine testing: J. T. Schiller, I. H. Frazer, and D. R. Lowy, “Human Papillomavirus Vaccines,” in Vaccines, 5th ed., eds. S. A. Plotkin, W. A. Orenstein, and P. A. Offit (London: Elsevier/Saunders, 2008).

181 Pneumococcal vaccine testing: S. Black, H. Shinefield, B. Fireman, et al., “Efficacy, Safety and Immunogenicity of Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Children: Northern California Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center Group,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 19 (2000): 187-195.

181 Rotavirus vaccine testing: T. Vesikari, D. O. Matson, P. Dennehy, et al., “Safety and Efficacy of a Pentavalent Human-Bovine (WC3) Reassortant Rotavirus Vaccine,” New England Journal of Medicine 354 (2006): 22-33; G. M. Ruiz-Palacios, I. Perez-Schael, F. R. Velázquez, et al., “Safety and Efficacy of an Attenuated Vaccine Against Severe Rotavirus Gastroenteritis,” New England Journal of Medicine 354 (2006): 11-21.

181 Pneumococcal infections in children: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Preventing Pneumococcal Disease Among Infants and Young Children: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP),” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 49 (2000): 1-35.

182 Shannon Peterson: L. Szabo, “Missed Vaccines Weaken ‘Herd Immunity’ in Children,” USA Today, January 6, 2010.

182 Anti-vaccine activists and adders, bats: Durbach, Bodily Matters, 114.

182 McCarthy and vaccine ingredients: http:///www.youtube.com/watch?v=nDe_PAltC1Ahttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0mBqta02d68&feature=related.

182 Prion biology: P. A. Offit, R. L. Davis, and D. Gust, “Vaccine Safety,” in Vaccines, 5th ed., eds. S. A. Plotkin, W. A. Orenstein, and P. A. Offit (London: Elsevier/Saunders, 2008).

183 Hepatitis B infections in children: G. L. Armstrong, E. F. Mast, M. Wojczynski, and H. S. Margolis, “Childhood Hepatitis B Virus Infections in the United States Before Hepatitis B Immunization,” Pediatrics 108 (2001 ): 1123-1128.

186 Diphtheria in the Russian Federation: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Diphtheria Outbreak—Russian Federation, 1990-1993,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 42 (1993): 840-847.

186 Hib in the United States: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Invasive Haemophilus Influenzae Type B Disease in Five Young Children—Minnesota, 2008,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 58 (2008): 1-3; D. Sapatkin, “A Fatal Link in Vaccine Shortage,” Philadelphia Inquirer, April 1, 2009.

188 Mehmet Oz on TV: The Joy Behar Show, January 12, 2010.

188 Oz and Roizen book: M. Oz and M. Roizen, YOU: Having a Baby: The Owner’s Manual to a Happy and Healthy Pregnancy (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2009). All subsequent references to Oz’s and Roizen’s view of vaccines is taken from this source.

190 FDA warning about rotavirus vaccine: Food and Drug Administration, “FDA Public Health Notification: Information on RotaTeq and Intussusception,” February 13, 2007.

190 CDC study on rotavirus vaccine and intussusception: P. Haber, M. Patel, H. S. Izurieta, et al., “Post-Licensure Monitoring of Intussusception After RotaTeq Vaccination in the United States, February 1, 2006-September 25, 2007,” Pediatrics 121 (2008): 1206-1212.

11. Trust

193 Christian Scientists and public responsibility: Fraser, Perfect Child, 177-178.

193 Whitney case: Ibid., 271-272.

193 Sutherland case: Ibid., 276-277.

194 Cornelius case: Ibid., 277-279.

194 Sheridan case: Ibid., 279-284.

194 Swan case: Ibid., 285-298.

194 Walker case: Ibid., 298-300.

195 Twitchell case: Ibid., 303-305.

195 King case: Ibid., 305-309.

195 McKown case: Ibid., 310-317.

195 States repealing religious exemptions: Ibid., 337.

196 Hinman regarding exemptions: Author interview with Alan Hinman, December 7, 2009.

196 Orenstein regarding exemptions: Author interview with Walter Orenstein, December 18, 2009.

196 Influenza virus in hospitals: G. A. Poland, P. Tosh, and R. M. Jacobson, “Requiring Influenza Vaccination for Healthcare Workers: Seven Truths We Must Accept,” Vaccine 23 (2005): 2251-2255.

197 Hospitals mandate influenza vaccine: T. Redlup, “Hospital Workers Fired After Refusing Flu Vaccine,” Vaccine News Daily, January 14, 2010, http://vaccinenewsdaily.com/news/211617-hospital-workers-fired-after-refusing-flu-vaccine.

197 Influenza vaccine policy at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia: E. Smith, “At CHOP, No Flu, No Job. No Sense?” Philadelphia Daily News, December 5, 2009.

198 Brad Dyer and manifesto: C. K. Johnson, “1 in 4 Parents Believe Vaccines Cause Autism,” Associated Press, March 1, 2010.

198 Dyer’s vaccine policy: B. J. Dyer, R. C. Duncheskie, A. Lehovich, et al., “All Star Pediatrics’ Vaccine Policy Statement,” AAP News 29 (2008): 26.

199 Dyer on parent response: C. K. Johnson, “1 in 4 Parents Believe Vaccines Cause Autism,” Associated Press, March 1, 2010.

199 Salamone on CDC officials: Author interview with John Salamone, December 4, 2009.

200 Orenstein on being human: Author interview with Walter Orenstein, December 18, 2009.

200 Attkisson regarding Every Child by Two: “Follow the Money,” Sharyl Attkisson and Katie Couric, CBS Evening News, July 25, 2008.

201 Attkisson regarding AAP: Ibid.

203 Orenstein regarding conspiracy theories: Author interview with Walter Orenstein, December 18, 2009.

203 David Aaronovitch regarding conspiracy theories: D. Aaronovitch, “A Conspiracy-Theory Theory,” Wall Street Journal, December 19-20, 2009.

204 Rebecca Estepp on TV: World News Tonight, ABC, March 12, 2010.

204 Estepp in New York Times: D. G. McNeil, Jr., “3 Rulings Find No Link to Vaccines and Autism,” New York Times, March 12, 2010.

205 Penny Heaton speech: Author witnessed this presentation in 2005.

Epilogue

207 NPR program: “Ruining It for the Rest of Us,” This American Life, National Public Radio, December 19, 2008, www.thisamericanlife.org/Radio_Episode.aspx?sched=1275 .

210 Yarkin: Author interview with Celina Yarkin, February 10, 2010.

214 Flint: E. Carlyle, “Rare Hib Disease Increases in Minnesota: Is the AntiVaccine Movement to Blame?” City Pages: The News and Arts Weekly of the Twin Cities, June 3, 2009; L. Szabo, “Missed Vaccines Weaken ‘Herd Immunity’ in Children,” USA Today, January 6, 2010.