Real Food: What to Eat and Why - Nina Planck (2016)
CHAPTER 1. I GROW UP ON REAL FOOD, LOSE MY WAY, AND COME HOME AGAIN
1To calculate your BMI, see http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/lose_wt/BMI/bmicalc.htm
2William R. Leonard, “Food for Thought,” Scientific American 13, no. 2 (2003; updated from December 2002 issue).
3Talk by Michel Odent attended by the author. Midwifery Today conference, Philadelphia, March 18, 2004.
4Lindsay Allen spoke at the 2005 meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
5Some vitamin B12 is produced by microorganisms in fermentation. Yeast and beer, for example, contain vitamin B12 made by these tiny animals. A small quantity of B12 prevents deficiency.
6A. P. Simopoulos, “The Importance of the Ratio of Omega-6/ Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acids,” Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 56, no. 8 (2002): 453.
7Andrew L. Stoll, The Omega-3 Connection: The Ground-Breaking Anti-Depression and Diet Program (New York: Fireside, 2001), 92.
8Anthony Colpo, “LDL Cholesterol: ‘Bad’ Cholesterol, or Bad Science?” Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons 10, no. 3 (2005).
9N. Schupf et al., “Relationship Between Plasma Lipids and All-Cause Mortality in Non-Demented Elderly,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 53 (2005) 219-229.
10“Malignant Medical Myths About Heart Disease,” a talk given on November 13, 2005, by Joel Kauffman attended by the author at the Weston A. Price Foundation Conference in Chantilly, Virginia. See also the chapter on cholesterol from Kauffman’s book Malignant Medical Myths.
11Leonard, “Food for Thought.”
CHAPTER 2. REAL MILK, BUTTER, AND CHEESE
1A. P. Simopoulos, “The Importance of the Ratio of Omega-6/ Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acids,” Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 56, no. 8 (2002): 453.
2Mary Enig, Know Your Fats: The Complete Primer for Understanding the Nutrition of Fats, Oils, and Cholesterol (Silver Spring, MD: Bethesda Press, 2000), 57.
3R. L. Duyff and the American Dietetic Association, American Dietetic Association Complete Food and Nutrition Guide, 2nd ed. (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2002), 65.
4The antibodies are known as immunoglobulins. The other four are IgG, IgM, IgD, and IgE.
5Enig, Know Your Fats, 189; and R. Uauy, C. E. Mize, and C. Castillo-Duran, “Fat Intake During Childhood: Metabolic Responses and Effects on Growth,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 72 (2000): S1354-60.
6For a recipe, see Sally Fallon and Mary Enig, Nourishing Traditions, revised 2nd ed. (Washington, DC: NewTrends, 2001) or www.westonaprice.org.
7J. M. Neeson, Commoners: Common Rights, Enclosure and Social Change in England, 1700 to 1820 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 11.
8Thokild Kjaergaard, The Danish Revolution, 1500-1800: An Ecohistorical Interpretation, trans. David Hohnen (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), 162-63.
9Interview with the author on May 6, 2004, prompted by Grout’s review of Grohman’s book, posted on www.amazon.com on March 23, 2004.
10Robert Cohen, Milk: The Deadly Poison (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Argus, 1997), 100-101.
11Albano Beja-Pereira et al., “Gene-Culture Coevolution Between Cattle Milk Protein Genes and Human Lactase Genes,” Nature Genetics, published online November 23, 2003.
12Uffe Ravnskov, The Cholesterol Myths: Exposing the Fallacy That Cholesterol and Saturated Fat Cause Heart Disease (Washington, DC: NewTrends, 2000), 32-33.
13Nutrition Week, March 22, 1991, 2-3.
14Ravnskov, The Cholesterol Myths, 104.
15E. Somer, “Minerals,” in The Essential Guide to Vitamins and Minerals (New York: Harper Perennial, 1995), 89-94.
16Sally Fallon and Mary Enig, Eat Fat, Lose Fat (New York: Hudson Street Press/Penguin, 2005), 51-52.
17P. C. Elwood et al., “Milk Consumption, Stroke, and Heart Attack Risk: Evidence from the Caerphilly Cohort of Older Men,” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 59 (2005): 502-5.
18P. Reaven, S. Parthasarathy, B. J. Grasse, E. Miller, F. Almazan, F. H. Mattson, J. C. Khoo, D. Steinberg, and J. L. Witztum, “Feasibility of Using an Oleate-Rich Diet to Reduce the Susceptibility of Low-Density Lipoprotein to Oxidative Modification in Humans,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, no. 4 (1991): 701-6.
19M. L. Kelly, E. S. Kolver, D. E. Bauman, M. E. Van Amburgh, and L. D. Muller, “Effect of Intake of Pasture on Concentrations of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Milk of Lactating Cows,” Journal of Dairy Science 81, no. 6 (1998): 1630-36. See also T. R. Dhiman, G. R. Anand, L. D. Satter, and M. W. Pariza, “Conjugated Linoleic Acid Content of Milk from Cows Fed Different Diets,” Journal of Dairy Science 82, no. 10 (1999): 2146-56.
20Laurie S. Z. Greenberg and Darcy Klasna, “The Marketing Potential of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) in Cheese: A Market Scan,” Cooperative Development Services, May 2002, 9.
21W. Campbell, M. A. Drake, and D. K. Larick, “The Impact of Fortification with Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) on the Quality of Fluid Milk,” Journal of Dairy Science 86 (2003): 48.
22California Morbidity Weekly Report, March 31, 1989.
23Martha M. Kramer, F. Latzke, and M. M. Shaw, “A Comparison of Raw, Pasteurized, Evaporated and Dried Milks as Sources of Calcium and Phosphorus for the Human Subject,” Journal of Biological Chemistry 79 (1928): 283-95.
24Madeleine Vedel, “Saving the Raw Milk Cheeses of Provençe,” Wise Traditions in Food, Farming and the Healing Arts (newsletter of the Weston A. Price Foundation), 5, no. 4 (2004): 60-65.
25X. Z. Ding et al., “Anti-Pancreatic Cancer Effects of Myristoleic Acid,” Pancreatology 3 (2003): 209-69.
26Schmid (The Untold Story of Milk) found the Mayo Clinic study. See also Bernarr Macfadden, The Miracle of Milk: How to Use the Milk Diet Scientifically at Home (Macfadden Publications, 1924).
27M. B. Zemel, “Role of Dietary Calcium and Dairy Products in Modulating Adiposity,” Lipids 38, no. 2 (2003): 139-46.
CHAPTER 3. REAL MEAT
1Nichola Fletcher, “Hunting for Fat, Searching for Lean,” in The Fat of the Land: Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery, 2002, ed. Harlan Walker (Bristol: Footwork, 2003), 88.
2G. G. Khachatourians, “Agricultural Use of Antibiotics and the Evolution and Transfer of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria,” Canadian Medical Association Journal 159, no. 9 (1998): 1129-36.
3The figures refer to the period from June 1, 2004, to May 31, 2005.
4Anne Dolamore, “Jack Sprat’s Horror: Lardo Rediscovered,” in The Fat of the Land, 76.
5Bruce Kraig, “Fried in the Heartland,” in The Fat of the Land, 169.
6D. B. Mutetikka and D. C. Mahan, “Effect of Pasture, Confinement, and Diet Fortification with Vitamin E and Selenium on Reproducing Gilts and Their Progeny,” Journal of Animal Science 71 (1993): 3211.
7C. H. Chiu, T. L. Wu, L. H. Su, C. Chu, J. H. Chia, A. J. Kuo, M. S. Chien, and T. Y. Lin, “The Emergence in Taiwan of Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Salmonella enterica Serotype Choleraesuis,” New England Journal of Medicine 346, no. 6 (2002): 413-19.
8Nicolette Hahn Niman, “The Unkindest Cut,” New York Times, March 7, 2005.
9A. A. Ojeniyi, “Public Health Aspects of Bacterial Drug Resistance in Modern Battery and Town/Village Poultry,” Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica 30, no. 2 (1989): 127-32.
10L. Horrigan, R. S. Lawrence, and P. Walker, “How Sustainable Agriculture Can Address the Environmental and Human Health Harms of Industrial Agriculture,” Environmental Health Perspectives 110, no. 5 (2002): 445-56.
11G. D. Bailey, B. A. Vanselow, M. A. Hornitzky, S. I. Hum, G. J. Eamens, P. A. Gill, K. H. Walker, and J. P. Cronin, “A Study of the Foodborne Pathogens: Campylobacter, Listeria and Yersinia, in Faeces from Slaughter-Age Cattle and Sheep in Australia,” Communicable Diseases Intelligence 27, no. 2 (2003): 249-57.
12T. R. Callaway, R. O. Elder, J. E. Keen, R. C. Anderson, and D. J. Nisbet, “Forage Feeding to Reduce Preharvest Escherichia coli Populations in Cattle, a Review,” Journal of Dairy Science 86, no. 3 (2003): 852-60.
13R. J. Nicolosi, E. J. Rogers, D. Kritchevsky, J. A. Scimeca, and P. J. Huth, “Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid Reduces Plasma Lipoproteins and Early Aortic Atherosclerosis in Hypercholesterolemic Hamsters,” Artery 22, no. 5 (1997): 266-77.
14Y. Park, K. J. Albright, W. Liu, J. M. Storkson, M. E. Cook, and M. W. Pariza, “Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Body Composition in Mice,” Lipids 32, no. 8 (1997): 853-58. See also D. B. West, J. P. Delany, P. M. Camet, F. Blohm, A. A. Truett, and J. Scimeca, “Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Body Fat and Energy Metabolism in the Mouse,” American Journal of Physiology 275, no. 3, pt. 2 (1998): R667-72.
15P. Baghurst, S. Record, and J. Syrette, “Does Red Meat Cause Cancer?” Australian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics 54 (1997): S1-44.
16C. Ip, J. A. Scimeca, et al., “Conjugated Linoleic Acid. A Powerful Anticarcinogen from Animal Fat Sources,” Cancer 74, no. 3 (1994): S1050-54.
17C. Ip, S. F. Chin, J. A. Scimeca, and M. W. Pariza, “Mammary Cancer Prevention by Conjugated Dienoic Derivative of Linoleic Acid,” Cancer Research 51, no. 22 (1991): 6118-24.
18A. R. Eynard and C. B. Lopez, “Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Versus Saturated Fats/Cholesterol: Their Proportion in Fatty and Lean Meats May Affect the Risk of Developing Colon Cancer,” Lipids in Health and Disease 2 (2003): 6.
19A. Aro et al., “Inverse Association Between Dietary and Serum Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Risk of Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women,” Nutrition and Cancer 38, no. 2 (2000): 151-57.
20K. Sundram, K. C. Hayes, and O. H. Siru, “Dietary Palmitic Acid Results in Lower Serum Cholesterol Than Does a LauricMyristic Acid Combination in Normolipemic Humans,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59, no. 4 (1994): 841-46.
21Nichola Fletcher, “Hunting for Fat, Searching for Lean,” in The Fat of the Land: Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery, 2002, ed. Harlan Walker (Bristol: Footwork, 2003), 82.
22Mary Enig, Know Your Fats: The Complete Primer for Understanding the Nutrition of Fats, Oils, and Cholesterol (Silver Spring, MD: Bethesda Press, 2000), 84.
23C. Lai, D. M. Dunn, M. F. Miller, and B. C. Pence, “Non-Promoting Effects of Iron from Beef in the Rat Colon Carcinogenesis Model,” Cancer Letters 112 (1997): 87-91.
24G. Parnaud, G. Peiffer, S. Tache, and D. E. Corpet, “Effect of Meat (Beef, Chicken, and Bacon) on Rat Colon Carcinogenesis,” Nutrition and Cancer 32 (1998): 165-73.
25B. C. Pence, M. J. Butler, D. M. Dunn, M. F. Miller, C. Zhao, and M. Landers, “Non-promoting Effects of Lean Beef in the Rat Colon Carcinogenesis Model,” Carcinogenesis 16 (1995): 1157-60.
26P. Baghurst, S. Record, and J. Syrette, “Does Red Meat Cause Cancer?” Australian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics 54 (1997): S1-44.
27Ward Nicholson, www.beyondveg.com/cat/paleodiet/. Used by permission from Ward Nicholson, granted in May 2004.
28M. D. Holmes, G. A. Colditz, D. J. Hunter, S. E. Hankinson, B. Rosner, F. E. Speizer, and W. C. Willett, “Meat, Fish and Egg Intake and Risk of Breast Cancer,” International Journal of Cancer 104 (2003): 221-27.
29IARC WHO Europe Against Cancer, European Commission, “European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC),” www.ism.uit.no/kk/e/EPICpercent20international.htm (accessed May 1, 2004).
30A. R. Eynard and C. B. Lopez, “Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Versus Saturated Fats/Cholesterol: Their Proportion in Fatty and Lean Meats May Affect the Risk of Developing Colon Cancer,” Lipids in Health and Disease 2 (2003): 6.
31A. Navarro, M. P. Diaz, S. E. Munoz, M. J. Lantieri, and A. R. Eynard, “Characterization of Meat Consumption and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Cordoba, Argentina,” Nutrition 19 (2003): 7-10.
32Heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
33A. P. Simopoulos, “The Importance of the Ratio of Omega-6/ Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acids,” Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 56, no. 8 (2002): 365-79.
CHAPTER 4. REAL FISH
1Talk by Michel Odent attended by the author, Midwifery Today conference, Philadelphia, March 18, 2004.
3Living inland presents one other nutritional risk: iodine deficiency. The American Midwest is called the “goiter belt” because the thyroid needs iodine, found in unrefined sea salt and seafood.
4Blaine Harden, “Tribe Fights Dams to Get Diet Back,” Washington Post, January 30, 2005.
5A. P. Simopoulos, “Omega-3 Fats in Health and Disease and in Growth and Development,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 54, no. 3 (1991): 451.
6Andrew L. Stoll, The Omega-3 Connection: The Ground-Breaking Anti-Depression and Diet Program (New York: Fireside, 2001), 72.
8M. L. Burr, et al., “Effects of Changes in Fat, Fish, and Fiber Intakes on Death and Myocardial Reinfarction: Diet and Reinfarction Trial (DART),” Lancet 2, no. 8666 (1989): 757-61.
9J. E. Kinsella. “Effects of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Factors Related to Cardiovascular Disease,” American Journal of Cardiology 60, no. 12 (1987): 23G-32G.
10Simopoulos, “Omega-3 Fats in Health and Disease and in Growth and Development,” 448.
11Stoll, The Omega-3 Connection, 44-45.
12Talk by Michel Odent attended by the author.
13B. J. Stordy, “Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Educational Achievement, and Behavior: A Review of New Research, 1998-2002,” Stordy Jones Nutrition Consultants, Guildford, England.
14G. Hornstra, “Essential Fatty Acids in Mothers and Their Neonates,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71 (May 2000): S1262-1269.
15David Horrobin was a pioneer in the development of therapies based on the biochemistry of fats. He sparked a minor revolution in fat research and founded two pharmaceutical companies. He died in 2003.
16Jerome Burn, “Why Fat on the Brain Can Drive You Insane,” Financial Times, April 14-15, 2001.
17Michel Odent, “Mercury Exposure During the Primal Period,” Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health 18, no. 3 (2004): 212-20.
18“Study Finds Government Advisories on Fish Consumption and Mercury May Do More Harm Than Good,” press release, Harvard School of Public Health, October 19, 2005. See also Eric Nagourney, “Public Health: Before Avoiding Fish, a Word to the Wise,” New York Times, October 25, 2005.
19For the full report, see www.consumerlab.com. Another source of mercury is amalgam dental fillings. Replace them if you can.
CHAPTER 5. REAL FRUIT AND VEGETABLES
1Marilyn Sterling, “Anthocyanins,” Nutrition and Science News, December 2001.
2For more, see Andrew Kimbrell, ed., Fatal Harvest: The Tragedy of Industrial Agriculture (Sausalito, CA: Foundation for Deep Ecology by arrangement with Island Press).
3Felicity Lawrence, Not on the Label: What Really Goes into the Food on Your Plate (London: Penguin, 2004), 29-31.
4“Chemicals Evaluated for Carcinogenic Potential,” Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, July 19, 2004.
5Judith DeCava, “The Lee Philosophy, Part 2,” Health and Healing Wisdom (journal of the Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation) 29, no. 1 (2005): 14-18.
CHAPTER 6. REAL FATS
1B. V. Howard et al., “Low-Fat Dietary Pattern and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease. The Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial.” Journal of the American Medical Association 295 (2006): 655-666; and R. L. Prentice et al., “Low-Fat Dietary Pattern and Risk of Invasive Breast Cancer. The Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial.” Journal of the American Medical Association 295 (2006): 629-642.
2B. N. Ames, “Dietary Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens. Oxygen Radicals and Degenerative Diseases,” Science 221, no. 4617 (1983): 1256-64.
3. “Findings,” Harper’s, July 2005, 100.
4M. L. Garg et al., FASEB Journal 2, no. 4 (1988): A852; and R. M. Oliart Ros et al., “Meeting Abstracts,” AOCS Proceedings, May 1998, 7, Chicago, Illinois.
5Bruce J. German and Cora J. Dillard, “Saturated Fats: What Dietary Intake?” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80, no. 3 (2004): 550-59.
6Comments to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee submitted by the Weston A. Price Foundation on January 16, 2004. See also L. D. Lawson and F. Kummerow, Lipids 14 (1979): 501-3; and M. L. Garg, Lipids 24, no. 4 (1989): 334-39.
7Kilmer McCully, The Homocysteine Revolution: A Bold New Approach to the Prevention of Heart Disease (Los Angeles: Keats, 1997), 115.
8Mary Enig, Know Your Fats: The Complete Primer for Understanding the Nutrition of Fats, Oils, and Cholesterol (Silver Spring, MD: Bethesda Press, 2002), 187.
9Testimony of Mary Enig, FDA Hearing on Exploring the Connections Between Weight Management and Food Labels and Packaging, docket no. 2003N-0338, “Trans Fatty Acids in Nutrition Labeling,” November 20, 2003.
10K. C. Hayes, Canadian Journal of Cardiology 11 (1995): Suppl. G, 39-46. See also Ronald P. Mensink, “Effects of Stearic Acid on Plasma Lipid and Lipoproteins in Humans,” Lipids 40 (2005): 1201-5.
11International Food Information Council Review: “Sorting Out the Facts About Fat,” July 1998, International Food Information Council, www.ific.org/publications/reviews/fatir.cfm.
12German and Dillard, “Saturated Fats,” 553.
14M. Leosdottir et al., “Dietary Fat Intake and Early Mortality Patterns—Data from the Malmo Diet and Cancer Study,” Journal of Internal Medicine 258 (2005): 153-65.
15K. C. Hayes and P. Khosla, “Dietary Fat Thresholds and Cholesterolemia,” FASEB Journal 6 (1992): 2600-2607.
16K. Sundram, K. C. Hayes, and O. H. Siru, “Dietary Palmitic Acid Results in Lower Serum Cholesterol Than Does a Lauric-Myristic Acid Combination in Normolipemic Humans,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59, no. 4 (1994): 841-46.
17R. W. Owen, A. Giacosa, W. E. Hull, R. Haubner, G. Wurtele, B. Spiegelhalder, and H. Bartsch, “Olive-Oil Consumption and Health: The Possible Role of Antioxidants,” Lancet Oncology 1 (2000): 107-12.
18A. K. Kiritsakis; contrib. by E. B. Lenart, W. C. Willet, and R. J. Hernandez, Olive Oil: From the Tree to the Table. (Trumbull, CT: Food and Nutrition Press, 1998), 15.
19P. Knickerbocker, Olive Oil: From Tree to Table (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1997), 16.
20Kiritsakis et al., Olive Oil, 191.
21D. M. Colquhoun, B. J. Hicks, and A. W. Reed, “Phenolic Content of Olive Oil Is Reduced in Extraction and Refining: Analysis of Phenolic Content of Three Grades of Olive and Ten Seed Oils,” Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 5 (1996): 105-7.
22Owen et al., “Olive-Oil Consumption and Health,” 107-12.
23A. Trichopoulou, K. Katsouyanni, S. Stuver, L. Tzala, C. Gnardellis, E. Rimm, and D. Trichopoulos, “Consumption of Olive Oil and Specific Food Groups in Relation to Breast Cancer Risk in Greece,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute 87, no. 2 (1995): 110-16.
24M. Fito, M. I. Covas, R. M. Lamuela-Raventos, J. Vila, L. Torrents, C. de la Torre, and J. Marrugat. “Protective Effect of Olive Oil and Its Phenolic Compounds Against Low Density Lipoprotein Oxidation,” Lipids 35, no. 6 (2000): 633-38.
25Bruce Fife, The Healing Miracles of Coconut Oil, revised 3rd ed. (Colorado Springs, CO: HealthWise, 2003), 61, 101-2.
26Mary Enig, “Health and Nutritional Benefits from Coconut Oil: An Important Functional Food for the 21st Century,” presented at the AVOC Lauric Oils Symposium, Ho Chi Min City, Vietnam, April 25, 1996.
27C. Calabrese, S. Myer, S. Munson, P. Turet, and T. C. Birdsall, “A Cross-over Study of the Effect of a Single Oral Feeding of Medium Chain Triglyceride Oil vs. Canola Oil on Post-ingestion Plasma Triglyceride Levels in Healthy Men,” Alternative Medicine Review 4, no. 1 (1999): 23-28.
28M. P. St.-Onge and P. J. Jones, “Physiological Effects of Medium-Chain Triglycerides: Potential Agents in the Prevention of Obesity,” Journal of Nutrition 132, no. 3 (2002): 329-32.
29J. M. Stanhope, V. M. Sampson, and I. A. Prior, “The Tokelau Island Migrant Study: Serum Lipid Concentration in Two Environments,” Journal of Chronic Disease 34, nos. 2-3 (1981): 45-55.
30Enig, “Health and Nutritional Benefits from Coconut Oil.”
31N. Nosaka, M. Kasai, M. Nakamura, I. Takahashi, M. Itakura, H. Takeuchi, T. Aoyama, H. Tsuji, M. Okazaki, and K. Kondo, “Effects of Dietary Medium-Chain Triacylglycerols on Serum Lipoproteins and Biochemical Parameters in Healthy Men,” Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 66, no. 8 (2002): 1713-18.
32H. Kaunitz, “Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT) in Aging and Arteriosclerosis,” Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology 6, nos. 3-4 (1986): 115-21.
33Sundram et al., “Dietary Palmitic Acid Results in Lower Serum Cholesterol,” 841-46.
34T. K. Ng, K. Hassan, J. B. Lim, M. S. Lye, and R. Ishak, “Nonhypercholesterolemic Effects of a Palm-Oil Diet in Malaysian Volunteers,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, no. 4 (1991): S1015-20.
35Enig, “Health and Nutritional Benefits from Coconut Oil.”
36N. de Roos, E. Schouten, and M. Katan, “Consumption of a Solid Fat Rich in Lauric Acid Results in a More Favorable Serum Lipid Profile in Healthy Men and Women Than Consumption of a Solid Fat Rich in Trans Fatty Acids,” Journal of Nutrition 131, no. 2 (2001): 242-45.
CHAPTER 7. INDUSTRIAL FATS
1A form of trans fats does occur naturally in ruminants, or grass eaters. It is the precursor to the omega-6 fatty acid conjugated linoleic acid, the anticancer agent found in the fat of grass-fed cattle. But this natural trans fat is chemically different from industrial trans fat and quite safe.
2Linda Joyce Forristal, “The Rise and Fall of Crisco,” www.motherlindas.com. The article first appeared in the Summer 2001 issue of Wise Traditions, the newsletter of the Weston A. Price Foundation.
3Uffe Ravnskov, The Cholesterol Myths: Exposing the Fallacy That Saturated Fat and Cholesterol Cause Heart Disease (Washington, DC: NewTrends, 2000), 229.
4A. Ascherio, M. J. Stampfer, and W. C. Willett, “Trans Fatty Acids and Coronary Heart Disease,” background and scientific review prepared by the Department of Nutrition and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health; the Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, November 15, 1999.
5N. M. de Roos, M. L. Bots, and M. B. Katan, “Replacement of Dietary Saturated Fatty Acids by Trans Fatty Acids Lowers Serum HDL Cholesterol and Impairs Endothelial Function in Healthy Men and Women,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 21 (July 2001): 1233.
6J. Booyens, C. C. Louwrens, and I. E. Katzeff, “The Role of Unnatural Dietary Trans and Cis Unsaturated Fatty Acids in the Epidemiology of Coronary Artery Disease,” Medical Hypotheses 25, no. 3 (1988): 175-82.
7J. T. Anderson, F. Grande, and A. Keys, “Hydrogenated Fats in the Diet and Lipids in the Serum of Man,” Journal of Nutrition 75 (1961): 388-94.
8Nina Teicholz, “Heart Breaker,” Gourmet, June 2004.
9Ascherio et al., “Trans Fatty Acids and Coronary Heart Disease.”
10Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, National Academy of Sciences, “Letter Report on Dietary Reference Intakes for Trans Fatty Acids. Drawn from the Report on Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids,” 2002, 4, 14.
12The extraordinary advance of corn is well told in Michael Pollan, The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals (2006); Richard Manning, Against the Grain: How Agriculture Has Hijacked Civilization (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2004); and Margaret Visser, Much Depends on Dinner: The Extraordinary History and Mythology, Allure and Obsessions, Perils and Taboos, of an Ordinary Meal (New York: Grove Press, 1986).
13A. P. Simopoulos, “Omega-3 Fats in Wild Plants, Nuts and Seeds,” Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 11 (2002): S163-73.
14M. Wardlaw Gordon, J. S. Hampl, and R. A. DiSilvestro, Perspectives in Nutrition, 6th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004), 184-85.
16P. Reaven, S. Parthasarathy, B. J. Grasse, E. Miller, F. Almazan, F. H. Mattson, J. C. Khoo, D. Steinberg, and J. L. Witztum, “Feasibility of Using an Oleate-Rich Diet to Reduce the Susceptibility of Low-Density Lipoprotein to Oxidative Modification in Humans,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, no. 4 (1991): 701-6.
17Daniel Yam, Abraham Eliraz, and Elliot M. Berry, “Diet and Disease—the Israeli Paradox: Possible Dangers of a High Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Diet,” Israeli Journal of Medical Science 32, no. 11 (1996): 1134-43. See also more recent work by E. M. Berry and Gal Dubnov from the Department of Human Nutrition and Metabolism at Hadassah Medical School of Hebrew University in Jerusalem.
18I highly recommend Jo Robinson’s book, Pasture Perfect: The Far-Reaching Benefits of Choosing Meat, Eggs, and Dairy Products from Grass-Fed Animals (Vashon, WA: Vashon Island Press, 2004). Her Web site, www.eatwild.com, is frequently updated. There she writes, “If you were to inject a colony of rats with human cancer cells and then put some of the rats on a corn oil diet, some on a butterfat diet, and some on a beef fat diet, the ones given the omega-6 rich corn oil would be afflicted with larger and more aggressive tumors” (October 2005). Many studies back this up.
19C. Calabrese, S. Myer, S. Munson, P. Turet, and T. C. Birdsall, “A Cross-over Study of the Effect of a Single Oral Feeding of Medium Chain Triglyceride Oil vs. Canola Oil on Post-ingestion Plasma Triglyceride Levels in Healthy Men,” Alternative Medicine Review 4, no. 1 (1999): 23-28.
CHAPTER 8. OTHER REAL FOODS
1F. B. Hu, M. J. Stampfer et al., “A Prospective Study of Egg Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Men and Women,” Journal of the American Medical Association 281, no. 15 (1999): 1387-94.
2M. L. Slattery et al. “Carotenoids and Colon Cancer,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71 (2000): 575-82.
3Felicity Lawrence, Not on the Label: What Really Goes into the Food on Your Plate (London: Penguin, 2004), 118.
4See Susan Allport, The Primal Feast: Food, Sex, Foraging and Love (Lincoln, NE: iUniverse, 2003); Loren Cordain, The Paleo Diet: Lose Weight and Get Healthy Eating the Food You Were Designed to Eat (New York: John Wiley, 2002); and Richard Manning, Against the Grain: How Agriculture Has Hijacked Civilization (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2004).
5Commentary, “Consumption of High-Fructose Corn Syrup in Beverages May Play a Role in the Epidemic of Obesity,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79, no. 4 (2004): 537-43.
6In The Primal Feast, Allport writes that one place where the rise of farming was not associated with declining health was the Nile Valley, where people fermented grain.
7H. S. Qin [“A study on the effect of fermented soybean in preventing iron deficiency anemia in children”] Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 23, no. 6 (1989): 352-54 (article in Chinese).
8I. E. Liener, “Implications of Antinutritional Components in Soybean Foods,” Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 34, no. 1 (1994): 31-67; S. C. Sindhu and N. Khetarpaul, “Effect of Probiotic Fermentation on Antinutrients and In Vitro Protein and Starch Digestibilities of Indigenously Developed RWGT Food Mixture,” Nutrition Health 16, no. 3 (2002): 173-81.
9Liener, “Implications of Antinutritional Components in Soybean Foods.”
10A. P. Simopoulos, “The Importance of the Ratio of Omega-6/ Omega-3 Essential Fatty Acids,” Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 56, no. 8 (2002): 365-79.
11American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71, no. 5 (2000): 1166-69.
12See, for example, these studies on soy and menopause: S. K. Quella, C. L. Loprinzi, D. L. Barton, J. A. Knost, J. A. Sloan, B. I. LaVasseur, D. Swan, K. R. Krupp, K. D. Miller, and P. J. Novotny, “Evaluation of Soy Phytoestrogens for the Treatment of Hot Flashes in Breast Cancer Survivors: A North Central Cancer Treatment Group Trial,” Journal of Clinical Oncology 18, no. 5 (2000): 1068-74; D. C. Knight, J. B. Howes, J. A. Eden, L. G. Howes, “Effects on Menopausal Symptoms and Acceptability of Isoflavone-Containing Soy Powder Dietary Supplementation,” Climacteric 4, no. 1 (2001): 13-18; C. L. Van Patten, I. A. Olivotto, G. K. Chambers, K. A. Gelmon, T. G. Hislop, E. Templeton, A. Wattie, and J. C. Prior, “Effect of Soy Phytoestrogens on Hot Flashes in Postmenopausal Women with Breast Cancer: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial,” Journal of Clinical Oncology 20, no. 6 (2002): 1449-55; and M. Penotti, E. Fabio, A. B. Modena, M. Rinaldi, U. Omodei, and P. Vigano, “Effect of Soy-Derived Isoflavones on Hot Flashes, Endometrial Thickness, and the Pulsatility Index of the Uterine and Cerebral Arteries, Fertility and Sterility 79, no. 5 (2003): 1112-17.
13A. Cassidy, S. Bingham, and K. Setchell, “Biological Effects of a Diet of Soy Protein Rich in Isoflavones on the Menstrual Cycle of Premenopausal Women,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 60, no. 3 (1994): 333-40.
14See, for example, these studies on soy and breast cancer: D. F. McMichael-Phillips, C. Harding, M. Morton, S. A. Roberts, A. Howell, C. S. Potten, and N. J. Bundred, “Effects of Soy-Protein Supplementation on Epithelial Proliferation in the Histologically Normal Human Breast,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 68, no. 6 (1998): S1431-35; N. L. Petrakis, S. Barnes, E. B. King, J. Lowenstein, J. Wiencke, M. M. Lee, R. Miike, M. Kirk, and L. Coward, “Stimulatory Influence of Soy Protein Isolate on Breast Secretion in Pre- and Postmenopausal Women,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 5, no. 10 (1996): 785-94; M. L. de Lemos, “Effects of Soy Phytoestrogens Genistein and Daidzein on Breast Cancer Growth,” Annals of Pharmacotherapy 35, no. 9 (2001): 1118-21 (de Lemos found that low concentrations of soy phytoestrogens seem to promote the growth of breast tumors, while high concentrations appear to have a protective effect against breast tumor growth, so that “it is unclear whether tumor stimulation or inhibition would predominate in patients taking dietary soy supplements … Until long-term human studies are available, patients should be advised that the safety of taking large amounts of soy has not been established in this population and that other measures [e.g., lifestyle, diet, nonhormonal therapies] are available for controlling menopausal symptoms”); C. Y. Hsieh, R. C. Santell, S. Z. Haslam, and W. G. Helferich, “Estrogenic Effects of Genistein on the Growth of Estrogen Receptor-Positive Human Breast Cancer (MCF-7) Cells In Vitro and In Vivo,” Cancer Research 58, no. 17 (1998); 3833-38; C. D. Allred, K. F. Allred, Y. H. Ju, S. M. Virant, and W. G. Helferich, “Soy Diets Containing Varying Amounts of Genistein Stimulate Growth of Estrogen-Dependent (MCF-7) Tumors in a Dose-Dependent Manner,” Cancer Research 61, no. 13 (2001): 5045-50; and M. S. Kurzer, “Phytoestrogen Supplement Use by Women,” Journal of Nutrition 133, no. 6 (2003): S1983-86.
15John W. Erdman et al., “Not All Soy Products Are Created Equal: Caution Needed in Interpretation of Research Results,” Journal of Nutrition 134 (May 2004): S1229-33.
16M. J. Messina and C. L. Loprinzi, “Soy for Breast Cancer Survivors: A Critical Review of the Literature,” Journal of Nutrition 131, no. 11 (2001): S3095-3108.
17They include William Helferich, professor of nutrition at the University of Illinois (“Soy Processing Influences Growth of Estrogen-Dependent Breast Cancer Tumors in Mice,” Carcinogenesis, published online May 6, 2004 at www.uiuc.edu); the American Cancer Society; and Barry Sears, The Soy Zone (New York: HarperCollins, 2000).
18Dr. Susan Love commented on the Helferich study in Artemis, a newsletter of the Breast Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins, June 2004.
19Bradley J. Wilcox et al., The Okinawa Program (New York: Three Rivers Press, 2001), 114.
20A. S. Sandberg, “Bioavailability of Minerals in Legumes,” British Journal of Nutrition 88 (2002) Suppl. no. 3, 281-85.
21A. M. Hutchins, J. L. Slavin, and J. W. Lampe, “Urinary Isoflavonoid Phytoestrogen and Lignan Excretion After Consumption of Fermented and Unfermented Soy Products,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 95, no. 5 (1995): 545-51.
22The FDA specialists were D. M. Sheehan and D. R. Doerge. The letter included pages of citations supporting their view. (Dockets Management Branch [HFA-305], Food and Drug Administration, February 18, 1999.)
23Y. Ishizuki, Y. Hirooka, Y. Murata, and K. Togashi, “The Effects on the Thyroid Gland of Soybeans Administered Experimentally in Healthy Subjects,” Nippon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi 767, no. 5 (1991): 622-29.
24Paper by Dr. Mike Fitzpatrick of New Zealand, “Soya Infant Formula: The Health Concerns,” cited in Carol Simontacchi, The Crazy Makers: How the Food Industry Is Destroying Our Brains and Harming Our Children (New York: Jeremy Tarcher/Putnam, 2000), 75.
25D. M. Sheehan, “Isoflavone Content of Breast Milk and Soy Formulas: Benefits and Risks” (letter), Clinical Chemistry 43, no. 5 (1997): 850-52.
26Mary Enig and Sally Fallon, Eat Fat, Lose Fat (New York: Hudson Street Press, 2002), 97.
27They include: the U.S. study MRFIT (analysis in 1997 and 1999), the Scottish Heart Health Study (1997), the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1998), and a meta-analysis of many studies in the British Medical Journal (2002).
28W. C. Hillel et al., “Sodium Intake and Mortality in the NHANES II Follow-Up Study,” American Journal of Medicine 119 (2006): 275.e7-275.e14.
29Davide Grassi, Cristina Lippi, Stefano Necozione, Giovambattista Desideri, and Claudio Ferri, “Short-Term Administration of Dark Chocolate Is Followed by a Significant Increase in Insulin Sensitivity and a Decrease in Blood Pressure in Healthy Persons,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 81 no. 3 (2005): 611-14.
CHAPTER 9. BEYOND CHOLESTEROL
1M. Muenke and M. M. Cohen Jr., “Genetic Approaches to Understanding Brain Development: Holoprosencephaly as a Model,” Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews 6, no. 1 (2000): 15-21.
2M. Wardlaw Gordon, J. S. Hampl, and R. A. DiSilvestro, Perspectives in Nutrition, 6th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004), 194-96.
3Anthony Colpo, “LDL Cholesterol: ‘Bad’ Cholesterol, or Bad Science?” Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons 10, no. 3 (2005), 83-89.
4J. S. Garrow, W. P. T. James, and A. Ralph, Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 10th ed. (New York: Churchill Livingstone, 2002), 111.
5“Fats and Cholesterol—the Good, the Bad, and the Healthy Diet,” The Nutrition Source: Knowledge and Information for Healthy Eating, Harvard School of Public Health, June 16, 2003, available online at: www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource.
6R. L. Duyff and the American Dietetic Association, American Dietetic Association Complete Food and Nutrition Guide, 2nd ed. (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2002), 65.
7Enig, Know Your Fats, 57.
8A. P. Simopoulos, “Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Disease and in Growth and Development,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, no. 3 (1991): 449.
9See McCully and McCully, The Heart Revolution, 42-44.
10Theodore B. Van Itallie, “Ancel Keys: A Tribute,” Nutrition and Metabolism, February 14, 2005.
11Mary Enig, “Health and Nutritional Benefits from Coconut Oil: An Important Functional Food for the 21st Century,” presented at the AVOC Lauric Oils Symposium, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, April 25, 1996.
12Ravnkov, The Cholesterol Myths, 16-17.
13Stephen Phinney’s letter about Keys appeared on www.nutritionandmetabolism.com on February 28, 2005. It was a response to Theodore B. Van Itallie, “Ancel Keys: A Tribute,” in the February 14 issue of Nutrition and Metabolism.
14Correspondence with the author, July 23, 2005.
15Centers for Disease Control, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 48, no. 30 (1999): 649-56.
16K. S. McCully, The Homocysteine Revolution, 58.
17R. J. Havlik and M. Feinleib, “Proceedings of the Conference on the Decline in Coronary Heart Disease Mortality, October 24-25, 1978,” NIH Publication no. 79-1610, May 1979.
18“Cholesterol and Coronary Heart Disease: Screening and Treatment,” Effective Health Care (National Health Service Centre for Reviews and Dissemination) 4, no. 1 (1998): 1.
19See three studies: K. C. Hayes, Canadian Journal of Cardiology 11 (1995): Suppl. G, 39-46; K. C. Hayes and P. Khosla, “Dietary Fatty Acid Thresholds and Cholesterolemia,” FASEB Journal 6 (1992): 2600-2607; and K. Sundram, K. C. Hayes, and O. H. Siru, “Dietary Palmitic Acid Results in Lower Serum Cholesterol Than Does a Lauric-Myristic Acid Combination in Normolipemic Humans,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59, no. 4 (1994): 841-46.
20American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 74 (December 2001): 730-36.
21D. B. Shestov et al., “Increased Risk of Coronary Heart Disease Death in Men with Low Total and Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in the Russian Lipid Research Clinics Prevalence Follow-up Study,” Circulation (journal of the American Heart Association) 88 (1993): 846-53.
22Simopoulos, “Omega-3 Fats in Health and Disease and in Growth and Development,” 458.
23K. M. Anderson, W. P. Castelli, and D. Levy, “Cholesterol and Mortality. Thirty years of Follow-up from the Framingham Study,” Journal of the American Medical Association 257, no. 16 (1987): 2176-80.
24Enig, Know Your Fat, 78.
25N. Schupf et al., “Relationship Between Plasma Lipids and All-Cause Mortality in Non-Demented Elderly,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 53 (2005): 219-229.
26“OTC Statins: A Bad Decision for Public Health,” editorial, Lancet 363, no. 9422 (2004).
27International Coenzyme Q10 Association to U.S. Food and Drug Administration, September 5, 2001. The International Coenzyme Q10 Association, a body of scientists and medical professionals who conduct extensive research on coenzyme Q10, issued a letter to the FDA, noting that statins block the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q10. Ironically, coenzyme Q10 is critical for proper heart function, and the letter states that “although statin therapy has been shown to have benefits, the long-term response in ischemic heart disease may have been blunted due to the CoQ10depleting effect” and cites several sources. See also Cordain, “Dietary Macronutrient Ratios and Their Effect on Biochemical Indicators of Risk for Heart Disease.”
28Talk by Peter Langsjoen, “CoQ10 Depletion: The Achilles” Heel of the Statin Crusade: A Review of Published Animal and Human Trials Showing Statin-Induced Coenzyme Q10 Depletion Resulting in Muscle Wasting and Heart Failure,” Weston A. Price Foundation, annual conference, May 4, 2003, attended by the author. Langsjoen confirmed to the author that this was still his practice with heart patients in a talk on November 13, 2005, titled “The Clinical Implications of Statin-Induced Coenzyme Q10 Depletion” at the Weston A. Price Foundation Conference in Chantilly, Virginia. See also Peter Langsjoen, “Overview of the Use of CoQ10 in Cardiovascular Disease,” Biofactors 9, nos. 2-3 (1999): 273-84.
29Correspondence with the author, June 18, 2004. For more information from Barry Groves, see www.second-opinions.co.uk.
30On June 21, 2004, Uffe Ravnskov provided the author with an English translation of a chapter titled “The Benefits of High Cholesterol” in the second German edition (2004) of The Cholesterol Myths. See also H. M. Krumholz, T. E. Seeman, S. S. Merrill, C. F. Mendes de Leon, V. Vaccarino, D. I. Silverman, R. Tsukahara, A. M. Ostfeld, and L. F. Berkman, “Lack of Association Between Cholesterol and Coronary Heart Disease Mortality and Morbidity and All-Cause Mortality in Persons Older than 70 Years,” Journal of the American Medical Association 272, no. 17 (1994): 1335-40.
31I. J. Schatz, K. Masaki, K. Yano, R. Chen, B. L. Rodriguez, and J. D. Curb, “Cholesterol and All-Cause Mortality in Elderly People from the Honolulu Heart Program: A Cohort Study,” Lancet 358, no. 9279 (2001): 351-55.
32O. Gatchev, L. Rastam, G. Lindberg, B. Gullberg, G. A. Eklund, and S. O. Isacsson, “Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Cerebral Hemorrhage, and Serum Cholesterol Concentration in Men and Women,” Annals of Epidemiology 3, no. 4 (1993): 403-9. See also D. R. Jacobs, “The Relationship Between Cholesterol and Stroke,” Health Rep 6, no. 1 (1994): 87-93; and H. Iso, D. R. Jacobs Jr. D. Wentworth, J. D. Neaton, and J. D. Cohen, “Serum Cholesterol Levels and Six-Year Mortality from Stroke in 350,977 Men Screened for the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial,” New England Journal of Medicine 320, no. 14 (1989): 904-10.
33New England Journal of Medicine 342 (2000): 836-43.
34Scott Deron reports on the 2002 study in C-Reactive Protein. The 2005 study appeared in the Journal of the American Medical Association 294, no. 3 (2005).
35David J. A. Jenkins et al., “Direct Comparison of Dietary Portfolio of Cholesterol-Lowering Foods with a Statin in Hypercholesterolemic Participants,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 81, no. 2 (2005): 380-87.
36Two of McCully’s professors at Harvard were pioneers in the field of cholesterol metabolism. Louis K. Fieser was the Sheldon Emery Professor of Organic Chemistry at Harvard. He published the classic method for purification of cholesterol. He and several students and colleagues first fed oxidized cholesterol to rabbits to produce atherosclerotic plaques. Konrad E. Bloch was professor of chemistry at Harvard and winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1964. He and Fyodor Lynen won the Nobel Prize for working out the biosynthesis of cholesterol.
37Interview with the author, May 20, 2004, New York City.
38P. Reaven, S. Parthasarathy, B. J. Grasse, E. Miller, F. Almazan, F. H. Mattson, J. C. Khoo, D. Steinberg, and J. L. Witztum, “Feasibility of Using an Oleate-Rich Diet to Reduce the Susceptibility of Low-Density Lipoprotein to Oxidative Modification in Humans,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, no. 4 (1991): 701-6.