REFERENCES - Winter World: The Ingenuity of Animal Survival - Bernd Heinrich

Winter World: The Ingenuity of Animal Survival - Bernd Heinrich (2003)

REFERENCES

01 FIRE AND ICE

Imbrie J., and K.P. Imbrie, 1979. Ice Ages: Solving the Mystery. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Madigan, M. T., and B. L. Marrs. 1997. Extremophiles. Scientific American 276(4):82-87.

Margulis, L. 1982. Early Life. Boston: Science Books International.

02 SNOW AND THE SUBNIVIAN SPACE

Bentley, W. A., and W. J. Humphreys. 1931. Snow Crystals. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Blanchard, D. C. 1998. The Snowflake Man. Blacksburg, Va.: McDonald and Woodward Publishers.

Borland, Hal. 1971. A lifetime of snowflakes. Audubon 73:59-65.

Burlington Free Press. Bentley’s contribution. Burlington Free Press. December 24, 1931.

Court, G. 1998. Winter grays. Natural History (February): 50-54.

Marchand, P. J. 1993. The underside of winter. Natural History (February): 51-56.

Pruitt, W.O., Jr. 1960. Animals of the North. New York: Harper and Row.

Thaler, E. 1982. Ornithologisches in Schnee. Dic Gefiederte Welt (March): 90-92.

03 A LATE WINTER WALK

Benkman, C.W. 1987. Food profitability and the foraging ecology of crossbills. Ecological Monographs 57(3):251-267.

———. 1989. On the evolution and ecology of island populations of crossbills. Evolution 43:1324-1330.

———. 1990. Intake rates and the timing of crossbill reproduction. Auk 197:376-386.

Bent, A.C. 1968. Life Histories of North American Cardinals, Grosbeaks, Buntings, Towhees, Finches, Sparrows, and Allies. Part I. New York: Dover Publications.

Grinnell, J. 1900. Birds of the Kotzebue Sound region. Pacific Coast Avifauna, No. 1.

Macoun, J. 1909. Catalogue of Canadian Birds, 2nd edition.

Palmer, R. S. 1949. Maine birds. Bull. Mus. Camp. Zool. Vol. 102.

Porter, E. 1966. Summer Island. New York: Balentine Books. P. 78.

Smith, B. E. 1949. White-winged crossbills nesting in Maine. Maine Audubon Soc. Bull. 5:12-13.

Stone, W. 1937. Bird Studies at Old Cape May. Vol. II. New York: Dover Publications.

Tufts, H. F. 1906. Nesting of crossbills in Nova Scotia. Auk 23:339-340.

04 TRACKING A WEASEL

Sandell, M. 1988. Stop-and-go stoats. Natural History (June): 55-64.

Snyder, D. P. 1982. Tamias striatus. In Mammalian Species, No. 168:1-8. The American Society of Mammalogists.

05 NESTS AND DENS

Frazier, A., and V. Nolan. 1959. Communal roosting by the Eastern Bluebird in winter. Bird Banding 30:219-226.

Ghalambor, C. K., and T. E. Martin. 1999. Red-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta canadensis).

In The Birds of North America, edited by A. Poole and F. Gill. No. 459. Philadephia: The Birds of North America, Inc.

Guntert, M., D. Hay, and R. P. Balda. 1988. Communal roosting in the Pygmy Nuthatch: A winter survival strategy. Proc. Intern. Ornthol. Congr. 19:1964-1972.

Headstrom, R. 1970. A Complete Field Guide to Nests in the United States. New York: Ives Washburn, Inc.

Heinrich, B. 1994. Bald-faced hunters. In In a Patch of Fireweed. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Pp. 152-162.

Ingold, J. L., and R. Galati. 1997. Golden-crowned kinglet (Regulus satrapa). In The Birds of North America, edited by A. Poole and F. Gill. No. 301. Philadelphia: The Birds of North America, Inc.

Knorr, O. A. 1957. Communal roosting of the Pygmy Nuthatch. Condor 59:398.

Pitts, T. D. 1976. Fall and winter roosting habits of Carolina chickadees. Wilson Bull. 88:603-610.

Rogers, L. 1981. A bear in its lair. Natural History 90 (October): 64-70.

Thaler, E. 1990. Die Goldhähnchen. Wittenberg Lutherstadt: A. Ziemsen Verlag.

Walsberg, G. E. 1990. Communal roosting in a very small bird: Consequences for the thermal and respiratory gas environments. Condor 92:795-798.

White, F.N., G. A. Bartholomew, and J. L. Kinney. 1975. The thermal significance of the nest of the sociable weaver, Philetairus socius: winter observations. Ibis 117:171-179.

06 FLYING SQUIRRELS IN A HUDDLE

Cowan, I. McT. 1936. Nesting habits of the flying squirrel. Canadian Field Naturalist 46:58-60.

DeCoursey, P. J. 1961. Effect of light on the circadian activity rhythms of the flying squirrel, Glaucomys volans. Z. Vergl. Physiol. 44:331-354.

Dunlap, J. C. 1999. Molecular bases for circadian clocks. Cell 96:271-290.

French, A. R. 1977. Circannual rhythmicity and entrainment of surface activity in the hibernator, Perognathus longimembris. J. Mammal. 58:37-43.

Heinrichs, J. 1983. The winged snail darter. J. Forestry 81:212-215,262.

Maser, C., R. Anderson, and E. N. Bull. 1981. Aggregation and sex segregation in northern flying squirrels in northeastern Oregon, an observation. Murrelet 62:54-55.

Maser, C., J. M. Trappe, and R. A. Nausebaum. 1978. Fungal-small mammal interrelationships with emphasis on Oregon coniferous forests. Ecology 59:799-809.

McShea, W. J., and D. M. Madison. 1984. Communal nesting between reproductively active females in a spring population of Microtus pennsylvanicus. Can. J. Zool.

62:344-346.

Muul, I. 1968. Behavioral and physiological influences on the distributions of the flying squirrels, Glaucomys volans. Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool., Univ. Michigan 134:1-66.

Osgood, F.L. 1935. Apparent segregation of sexes in flying squirrels. J. Mammal. 16:236.

Rust, H. J. 1946. Mammals of northern Idaho. J. Mammal. 27:308-327.

Weigl, P. D., and D. W. Osgood. 1974. Study of northern flying squirrel, Glaucomys sabrinus, by temperature telemetry. Amer. Midland Naturalist. 92:482-486.

Wells-Gosling, N., and L. R. Heaney. 1984. Glaucomys sabrinus. In Mammalian Species, No. 229:1-8.

Young, M. W. 2000. The tick-tock of the biological clock. Scientific American (March): 64-77.

07 HIBERNATING SQUIRRELS (HEATING UP TO DREAM)

Adolph, E. F. 1951. Responses to hypothermia in several species of infant mammals. Am. J. Physiol. 166:75-91.

Barnes, B. M. 1989. Freeze avoidance in a mammal: body temperatures below 0°C in an Arctic Hibernator. Science 244:1593-1595.

———. 1996. Sang froid. The Sciences (September/October): 12-14. Barnes, B. M., Omtzigt, C., and Daan, S. 1993. Hibernators periodically arouse in order to sleep. In Life in the Cold: Ecological, Physiological, and Molecular Mechanisms, edited by C. Carey et al. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. Pp. 555-558.

Barnes, B. M., and Ritter, D. 1993. Patterns of body temperature change in hibernating arctic ground squirrels. In Life in the Cold: Ecological, Physiological, and Molecular Mechanisms, edited by C. Carey et al. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. Pp. 119-130.

Bartholomew, G.A., and T. J. Cade. 1957. Temperature regulation, hibernation, and aestivation in the little pocket mouse, Perognathus longimembris. J. Mammal. 38:60-72.

Bartholomew, G. A., and J. W. Hudson. 1960. Aestivation in the Mojave ground squirrel, Citellus mohavensis. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 124:193-208.

Bartholomew, G. A., and R. MacMillen. 1961. Oxygen consumption, estivation and hibernation in the kangaroo mouse, Microdipodops pallidus. Physiol. Zool. 34:177-183.

Blumer, W.F.C., and L. Cole. 1959. Various degrees of hypothermia in mice. J. Applied Physiol. 14:987-989.

Boyer, B. B., and B. M. Barnes. 1999. Molecular and metabolic aspects of mammalian hibernation. BioScience. 49(9):713-724.

Buck, C. L., and B. M. Barnes. 1999. Temperature of hibernacula and changes in body composition of Arctic ground squirrels. J. Mammal. 80(4):1264-1276.

Cade, T.J. 1963. Observations on torpidity in captive chipmunks of the genus Eutamias. Ecology 44:255-261.

———. 1964. The evolution of torpidity in rodents. Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae. Series A. IV. Biologica 71(6):79-112.

Daan, S., B. M. Barnes, and A. M. Strijkstra. 1991. Warming up to sleep? Ground squirrels sleep during arousal from hibernation. Neurosci. Lett. 1238:265-268.

Dubois, R. 1896. Physiologie Compare de la Marmotte. Paris: Masson.

Folk, E., Jr. 1967. Physiological observations of subarctic bears under winter den conditions. In Hibernation and Torpor in Mammals and Birds, edited by C. P. Lyman et al. New York:

Academic Press.

Hayward, J. S., and C. P. Lyman. 1967. Nonshivering heat production during arousal from hibernation and evidence for the contribution of brown fat. In Hibernation and Torpor in Mammals and Birds, edited by C. P. Lyman et al. New York: Academic Press.

Irving, L., H. Krough, and M. Monson. 1955. The metabolism of some Alaskan animals in winter and summer. Physiol. Zool. 28:173-185.

Luyet, B. J. 1964. On the state of water in the tissues of hibernators. Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae. Series A. IV. Biologica 71(21):298-309.

Lyman, C. P. 1958. Oxygen consumption, body temperature and heart rate of woodchucks entering hibernation. Amer. J. Physiol. 194: 83-91.

Lyman, C. P. 1982a. Hibernation: Responses to external challenges. In Hibernation and Torpor in Mammals and Birds, edited by C. P. Lyman et al. New York: Academic Press. Pp. 176-205.

Lyman, C. P. 1982b. Recent theories of Hibernation. In Hibernation and Torpor in Mammals and Birds, edited by C. P. Lyman et al. New York: Academic Press. Pp. 283-301.

Lyman, C. P., and P. O. Chatfield. 1953. Hibernation and cortical electrical activity in the Woodchuck (Marmota monax). Science 117:533-534.

Lyman, C. P., R. C. O’Brien, G. C. Greene, and E. D. Papafrango. 1981. Hibernation and longevity in the Turkish hamster, Mesocricetus bradti. Science 212:668-670.

Lyman, C. P., J. S. Willis, A. Malan, and L. C. H. Wang. 1982. Hibernation and Torpor in Mammals and Birds. New York: Academic Press.

Malan, A. 1980. Enzyme regulation, metabolic rate and acid-base state in hibernation. In Animals and Environmental Fitness, edited by R. Gilles. Oxford, U.K.: Pergamon. Pp. 487-501.

Newman, R. 1967. Metabolism in the eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus) and the Southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans) during winter and summer. In Mammalian Hibernation III. Edinburgh and London: Oliver and Boyd. Pp. 64-67.

Panuska, J. A. 1959. Weight patterns and hibernation in Tamias striatus. J. Mammal. 40:554-566.

Pauls, W. P. 1978. Behavioural strategies relevant to the energy economy of the red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Can. J. Zool. 56:1518-1525.

Pengelley, E. T. 1967. The relation of external conditions to the onset and termination of hibernation and estivation. In Hibernation and Torpor in Mammals and Birds, edited by C. P. Lyman et al. New York: Academic Press. Pp. 1-29.

Pengelley, E. T., and K. C. Fisher. 1957. Onset and cessation of hibernation under constant temperature and light in the golden-mantled ground squirrels (Citellus lateralis). Nature (London) 180:1371-1372.

———. 1963. The effect of temperature and photoperiod on the early hibernation behavior of captive golden-mantled ground squirrels, Citellus lateralis tescorum. Can. J. Zool. 41:1103-1120.

Smalley, R. L., and R. L. Dryer. 1963. Brown fat: Thermogenic effect during arousal from hibernation in the bat. Science 140:1333-1334.

Smith, A.U., J. E. Lovelock, and A. S. Parkers. 1954. Resuscitation of hamsters after supercooling or partial crystallization at body temperatures below 0°C. Nature (London) 173:1136-1137.

Smith, A. V. 1959. Survival of mammals at body temperatures above and below 0°C. Proc. XXI Intern. Congr. Physiol. Sci. Symposia. Pp. 81-87, Buenos Aires.

Stones, R. C., and J. E. Wiebers. 1965. A review of temperature regulation in bats (Chiroptera). Am. Midl. Natur. 74:155-167.

———. 1967. Temperature regulation in the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus. In Hibernation and Torpor in Mammals and Birds, edited by C. P. Lyman et al. New York:

Academic Press.

Storey, K. B. 1997. Metabolic regulation in mammalian hibernation: enzyme and protein adaptations. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A Physiol. 118:1115-1124.

Strumwasser, F., J. J. Gilliam, and J. L. Smith. 1964. Long term studies on individual hibernating animals. Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae. Series A. IV. Biologica 71(29):401-420.

Travis, J. 1997. Chilled brains. Science News 152:364-365.

Tucker, V. A. 1962. Diurnal torpidity in the California pocket mouse. Science 136:380-381.

Tucker, V. A. 1966. Diurnal torpor and its relation to food consumption and weight changes in the California pocket mouse, Perognathus californicus. Ecology 47:245-252.

08 THE KINGLET’S FEATHERS

Ackerman, J. 1998. Dinosaurs take wing: The Origin of Birds. National Georgraphic 194(1):74-99.

Dalton, R. 2000. Feathers fly in Beijing. Nature 405:992.

Heinrich, B. 1973. The Hot-Blooded Insects: Mechanisms and Evolution of Thermoregulation. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Ji, Q., P. J. Currie, M. A. Novell, and S. A. Ji. 1998. Two feathered dinosaurs from northeastern China. Nature 393:753-761.

Norell, M. 2001. The proof is in the plumage. Natural History 7(01):58-63.

Perkins, S. 2001. Ticklish debate: How might the feather have evolved? Science News 160:106-108.

Prum, R. O. 2002. Why ornithologists should care about the theropod origin of birds. Auk 119(1):1-17.

Schmidt-Nielsen, K. 1972. How Animals Work. London: Cambridge University Press.

Xu, X., Z. Zhou, and R. O. Prum. 2001. Branched integumentary structures in sinornithosaurus and the origin of feathers. Nature 410:200-204.

09 THE KINGLET’S WINTER FUEL

Bent, A.C. 1964. Life histories of North American thrushes, kinglets, and their allies. U. S. National Museum Bulletin, No. 196, New York: Dover Publications.

Galati, R. 1991. Golden-crowned Kinglets: Treetop Nesters of the North Woods. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press.

Harrison, J. 1996. In The Nature Reader, edited by D. Halpern and D. Frank. Hopewell, N. J.: Ecco Press.

Heinrich, B., and R. Bell. 1995. Winter food of a small insectivorous bird, the Golden-crowned Kinglet. Wilson Bull. 107:558-561.

Thaler, E. 1990. Die Goldhähnchen. Wittenberg Lutherstadt: A. Ziemsen Verlag.

10 HIBERNATING BIRDS

Austin, G. T., and W. G. Bradley. 1969. Additional responses of the poorwill to low temperatures. Auk 86:717-725.

Bartholomew, G. A., T. R. Howell, and T. J. Cade. 1957. Torpidity in the white-throated swift, Anna hummingbird and Poor-will. Condor 59:145-155.

Bartholomew, G. A., J. W. Hudson, and T. R. Howell. 1962. Body temperature, oxygen consumption, evaporative water loss, and heart rate in the Poor-will. Condor 64:117-125.

Beuchat, C. A., S. B. Chaplin, and M. L. Morton. 1979. Ambient temperature and the daily energetics of two species of hummingbirds, Calypte anna and Selasphorus rufus. Physiol. Zool. 52:280-295.

Blem, C. R. 1975. Geographic variation in wind-loading of the House sparrow. Wilson Bull. 87:543-549.

———. 1990. Avian energy storage. Curr. Ornithol. 7:59-114.

Blem, C. R., and J. F. Pagels. 1984. Mid-winter lipid reserves of the Golden-crowned kinglet. Condor 86:461-492.

Boswell, J. 1927. Life of Samuel Johnson. Vol 1. London and New York: Oxford University Press. Pp. 371-372.

Buttemer, W. A., L. B. Astheimer, W. W. Weathers, and A. H. Hay-worth. 1987. Energy savings attending winter-nest use by Verdin (Auriparus flaviceps). Auk 104:531-535. Calder, W. A., and J. Booser. 1973. Hypothermia of broad-tailed hummingbirds during incubation in nature with ecological correlations. Science 180:751-753.

Calder, W. A., and J. R. King. 1974. Thermal and caloric relations of birds. In Avian Biology, edited by D. S. Farner and J. R. King. Vol. 4. New York: Academic Press. Pp. 259-413.

Carpenter, F. L. 1974. Torpor in an Andean hummingbird: its ecological significance. Science 183:545-547.

Carpenter, F. L., and M. A. Hixon. 1988. A new function for torpor: Fat conservation in a wild migrant hummingbird. Condor 90:373-378.

Chaplin, S. B. 1974. Daily energetics of the Black-capped chickadee, Parus atricapillus, in winter. J. Comp. Physiol. 89:321-330.

———. 1976. The physiology of hypothermia in the Black-capped chickadee, Parus atricapillus. J. Comp. Physiol. B 112:335-344.

———. 1982. The energetic significance of huddling behavior in Common Bushtits (Psaltriparus minimus). Auk 99:424-430.

Dawson, W. R., and J. W. Hudson. 1970. Birds. In Comparative Physiology of Thermoregulation, edited by G. C. Whittow. Vol. 1. New York: Academic Press. Pp. 223-310.

Dawson, W. R., R. L. Marsh, and M. E. Yacoe. 1993. Metabolic adjustments of small passerine birds for migration and cold. Am. J. Physiol. 245:R755-R767.

Ghalambor, C. K., and T. E. Martin. 1999. Red-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta canadensis). In The Birds of North America, edited by A. Poole and F. Gill. No. 459. Philadelphia: The Birds of North America, Inc.

Gibb, J. 1954. Feeding ecology of tits, with notes on treecreepers and Goldcrests. Ibis 96:513-544.

Gilman, M. F. 1902. Notes on the Verdin. Condor 4:88-89.

Graber, J. W., and R. R. Graber. 1979. Severe weather and bird populations in southern Illinois. Wilson Bull. 91:88-103. Guntert, M., D. Hay, and R. P. Balda. 1988. Communal roosting in the Pygmy Nuthatch: A winter survival strategy. Proc. Intern. Ornthol. Congr. 19:1964-1972.

Hainsworth, F. R., and L. L. Wolf. 1970. Regulation of oxygen consumption and body temperature during torpor in a hummingbird, Eulampis jugalaris. Science 168:368-369.

Hainsworth, F. R., B. G. Collins, and L. L. Wolf. 1977. The function of torpor in hummingbirds. Physiol. Zoll. 50:215-222.

Heinrich, B. 1975. Thermoregulation in bumblebees II. Energetics of warm-up and free flight. J. Comp. Physiol. 96:155-166.

———. The physiology of exercise of the bumblebee. American Scientist 65:455-465.

Heinrich, B., and G. A. Bartholomew. 1971. An analysis of preflight warm-up in the sphinx moth, Manduca sexta. J. Exp. Biol. 55:223-239.

Heinrich, B., and T. M. Casey. 1973. Metabolic rate and endothermy in sphinx moths. J. Comp. Physiol. 82:195-206.

Heinrich, B., and T. P. Mommsen. 1985. Flight of winter moths near 0°C. Science 228:177-179.

Heinrich, B., and R. Bell. 1995. Winter food of a small insectivorous bird, the Golden-crowned kinglet. Wilson Bull. 107:558-561.

Hill, R. W., D. L. Beaver, and J. H. Veghte. 1980. Body surface temperatures and thermoregulation in the Black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus). Physiol. Zool. 53:305-321.

Howell, T.R., and G. A. Bartholomew. 1959. Further experiments on torpidity in the Poor-will. Condor 61:180-186.

Ingold, J. L., and R. Galati. 1997. Golden-crowned kinglet (Regulus satrapa). In The Birds of North America, edited by A. Poole and F. Gill. No. 301. Philadelphia: The Birds of North America, Inc.

Jaeger, E. C. 1948. Does the Poor-will “hibernate”? Condor 50:45-46.

Jaeger, E. C. 1949. Further observations on the hibernation of the Poor-will. Condor 51:105-109.

Kessel, B. 1976. Winter activity patterns of Black-capped Chickadees in interior Alaska. Wilson Bull. 88:36-61.

Lasiewski, R. C., and W. R. Dawson. 1964. Physiological responses to temperature in the common nighthawk. Condor 66:477-490.

Ligon, J. D. 1970. Still more responses of the Poor-will to low temperature. Condor 72:496-498.

Lyman, C. P., J. S. Willis, A. Malan, and L. C. H. Wang. 1982. Hibernation and Torpor in Mammals and Birds. New York and London: Academic Press.

Marsh, R. L., and W. R. Dawson. 1982. Substrate metabolism in seasonally acclimated American Goldfinches. Amer. J. Physiol. 242:R563-R569.

Marshall, T. T., Jr. 1955. Hibernation in captive goatsuckers. Condor 57:129-134.

McAtee, W. L. 1947. Torpidity in birds. Amer. Midl. Natur. 38:191-206.

Nakamura, H., and Y. Wako. 1988. Food storing behavior of Willow tit, Parus montanus. J. Yamashina Inst. Ornith. 20:721-736.

Peipunen, V. A. 1966. The diurnal heterothermia and torpidity in the Nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus). Ann. Acad. Sci. Fennicae. Ser. A. 101:1-35.

Perrins, C. M. 1976. British Tits. Glasgow: Collins & Co.

Pitts, T. D. 1976. Fall and winter roosting habits of Carolina chickadees. Wilson Bull. 88:603-610.

Reinertsen, R. E., and S. Haftorn. 1986. Different metabolic strategies of northern birds for nocturnal survival. J. Comp. Physiol. B 156:655-663.

Reinertsen, R.E., S. Haftorn, and R. Thaler. 1988. Is hypothermia necessary for winter survival of the

Goldcrest, Regulus regulus? J. Ornithol. 129:433-437.

Rising, J. D., and J. W. Hudson. 1974. Seasonal variation in the metabolism and thyroid activity of the

Black-capped chickadee (Parus atricapillus). Condor 76:198-203.

Smith, Susan M. 1991. The Black-capped Chickadee: Behavioral Ecology and Natural History. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.

Steen, J. 1958. Climatic adaptation in some northern birds. Ecology. 39:625-629.

Vogt, F.D., and B. Heinrich. 1983. Thoracic temperature variations in the onset of flight in dragonflies

(Odonata: Anisoptera). Physiol. Zool. 56:236-241.

Walsberg, G. E. 1990. Communal roosting in a very small bird: Consequences for the thermal and

respiratory gas environments. Condor 92:795-798.

Webster, M. C. 1999. Verdin (Auriparus flaviceps). In The Birds of North America, edited by A. ALPoole and F. Gill. No. 470, Philadelphia: The Birds of North America, Inc.

Withers, P. C. 1977. Respiration, metabolism, and heat exchange of euthermic and torpid poorwills and hummingbirds. Physiol. Zool. 50:43-52.

Wolf, L. L., and F. R. Hainsworth. 1972. Environmental influence on regulated body temperature in torpid hummingbirds. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 41A:167-173.

Zonov, G. B. 1967. On the winter roosting of Paridae in Cicbaikal. Ornitologiya 8:351-354. (In Russian; quoted in S. M. Smith.)

11 TORPID TURTLES UNDER ICE

Belkin, D. A. 1968. Aquatic respiration and underwater survival of two freshwater turtle species. Respir. Physiol. 4:1-14.

Brown, G. P., and R. J. Brooks. 1994. Characteristics and fidelity to hibernarcula in a northern population of snapping turtles, Chelydra serpentina. Copeia 1994: 222-226.

Crocker, C. E., T. E. Graham, G. R. Ultsch, and D. C. Jackson. 2000. Physiology of common map turtles (Graptemys geographica) hibernating in the Lamoille River, Vermont. J. Exp. Zool.286:143-148.

Gatten, R. E. 1981. Anaerobic metabolism in freely diving painted turtles (Chrysemys picta). J. Exp. Biol. 212:377-385.

Graham, T. E., and A. A. Graham. 1992. Metabolism and behavior of wintering common map turtles, Graptemys geographica, in Vermont. Canadian Field Naturalist 106: 517-519.

Graham, T. E., C. B. Graham, C. E. Crocker, and G. R. Ultsch, 2000. Dispersal from and fidelity to a hibernaculum in a northern Vermont population of common map turtles, Graptemys geographica. Canadian Field Naturalist 114: 405-408.

Herbert, C. V., and D. C. Jackson. 1985. Temperature effects on the responses to prolonged submergence in the turtle Chrysemys picta bellii. I. Blood acid-base and ionic changes during and following anoxic submergences. Physiol. Zool. 58:655-669.

Jackson, D. C. 1968. Metabolic depression and oxygen depletion in the diving turtle. J. Appl. Physiol. 24:503-509.

Jackson, D. C., and G. R. Ultsch. 1982. Long-term submergence at 3°C of the turtle, Chrysemys picta bellii, in normoxic and severely hypoxic water. II. Extracellular ionic responses to extreme lactic acidosis. J. Exp. Biol. 96:29-43.

Pluto, T. G., and E. D. Bellis. 1988. Seasonal and annual movements of riverine map turtles, Graptemys geographica. J. Herpet. 22:152-158.

Ultsch, G. R. 1985. The viability of nearctic freshwater turtles submerged in anoxia and normoxia at 3 and 10°C. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 81A(3):607-611.

———. 1988. Blood gases, hematocrit, plasma ion concentrations, and acid-base status of musk turtles (Sternotherus odoratus) during simulated hibernation. Physiol. Zool. 61(1):78-94.

Ultsch, G. R., and D. C. Jackson. 1982. Long-term submergence at 3°C of the turtle, Chrysemys picta bellii, in normoxic and severely hypoxic water. I. Survival, gas exchange and acid-base status. J. Exp. Biol. 96: 11-18.

Ultsch, G.R., and D. Lee. 1983. Radiometric observations of wintering snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) in Rhode Island. J. Alabama Acad. Sci. 54(4):200-206.

Ultsch, G. R., C. V. Herbert, and D. C. Jackson. 1984. The comparative physiology of diving in North American freshwater turtles. I. Submergence tolerance, gas exchange, and acid-base balance. Physiol. Zool. 57:620-631.

Ultsch, G. R., R. W. Hanley, and T. R. Bauman. 1985. Responses to anoxia during simulated hibernation in northern and southern painted turtles. Ecology 66:388-395.

Ultsch, G. R., M. E. Carwile, C. E. Crocker, and D. C. Jackson. 1999. The physiology of hibernation among painted turtles: The Eastern painted turtle Chrysemys picta picta. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 72(4):493-501.

12 ICED-IN WATER RODENTS

Bazin, R. C., and R. A. MacArthur. 1992. Thermal benefits of huddling in the muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus). J. Mammal. 73(3):559-564.

Bovet, J., and E. F. Oertli. 1974. Free-running circadian activity rhythms in free-living beaver (Castor canadensis). J. Comp. Physiol. 92:1-10.

Calder, W. A. 1969. Temperature relations and underwater endurance of the smallest homeothermic diver, the water shrew. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 30:1075-1082.

Heinrich, B. 1984. Strategies of thermoregulation and foraging in two wasps, Dolichovespula maculate and Vespula vulgaris. J. Comp. Physiol. B154:175-180.

MacArthur, R. A. 1979. Seasonal patterns of body temperature and activity in free-ranging muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus). Can. J. Zool. 57:25-33.

———. 1984a. Microenvironment gas concentrations and tolerance to hypercapnia in the muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus). Physiol. Zool. 57(1):85-98.

———. 1984b. Aquatic thermoregulation in the muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus): Energy demands of swimming and diving. Can. J. Zool. 62:241-248.

———. 1992a. Foraging range and aerobic endurance of muskrats diving under the ice. J. Mammal. 73(3):565-569.

———. 1992b. Gas bubble release by muskrats diving under ice: Lost gas or a potential oxygen pool? J. Zool. Lond. 226:151-164.

MacArthur, R. A., M. M. Humphries, and D. Jeske. 1997. Huddling behavior and the foraging efficiency of muskrats. J. Mammal. 78(3):850-858.

Smith, D. W., R. O. Peterson, T. D. Drummer, and D. S. Sheputis. 1991. Over-wintering activity and body temperature patterns in northern beavers. Can. J. Zool. 69:2178-2182.

Smith, D. W., T. D. Drummer, and R. Peterson. 1994. Reply—studies of beaver activity and body temperature in a historical perspective. Can. J. Zool. 72:567-569.

13 FROZEN FROGS ON ICE

Bentley, P. J. 1996. Adaptations of Amphibia to arid environments. Science 152:619-623.

Burrough, J. 1951. A sharp lookout. In John Burrough’s America, edited by F. A. Wiley. Devia-Adair Co.

Schmid, W. D. 1965. Some aspects of the water economics of nine species of amphibians. Ecology 46:261-269.

———. 1982. Survival of frogs in low temperature. Science 215:697-698.

Storey, K. B., and J. M. Storey. 1984. Biochemical adaptation for freezing tolerance in the wood frog, Rana sylvatica. J. Comp. Physiol. B155:29-36.

———. 1985. Adaptations of metabolism for freeze tolerance in the gray tree frog, Hyla versicolor. Can. J. Zool. 63:49-54.

———. 1986. Freeze tolerant frogs: Cryoprotectants and tissue metabolism during freeze-thaw cycles. Can. J. Zool. 64:49-56.

———. 1987. Persistence of freeze tolerance in terrestrial hibernating frogs after spring emergence. Copeia 3:720-726.

———. 1988. Freeze tolerance: constraining forces, adaptive mechanisms. Can. J. Zool. 66:1122-1127.

———. 1990. Frozen and alive. Scientific American (December): 92-97.

Tester, J. R., and W. J. Breckenridge. 1964. Winter behavior patterns of the Manitoba toad, Bufo hemiophrys, in northwestern Minnesota. Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae. Series A. IV. Biologica 71(31):424-431.

14 INSECTS: FROM THE DIVERSITY TO THE LIMITS

Alonso, M. A., J. I. Glendinning, and L. P. Browers. 1993. The influence of temperature on crawling, shivering, and flying overwintering monarch butterflies in Mexico. In Biology and Conservation of the Monarch Butterfly, edited by S. B. Malcolm and M. P. Zalucki. Science Series No. 38. Los Angeles: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County. Pp. 309-314.

Asahina, E. 1969. Frost resistance in insects. Advances in Insect Physiology 6:1-49.

Asahina, E., and K. Tanno. 1964. A large amount of trehalose in a frost resistant insect. Nature 204:1222.

Baust, J. G., R. Grandee, G. Condon, and R. E. Morissey. 1979. The diversity of overwintering strategies utilized by separate populations of gall insects. Physiol. Zool. 52:572-580.

Baust, J. G., and R. R. Rojas. 1985. Review—Insect cold hardiness: Facts and fancy. J. Insect Physiol. 31:755-759.

Diamond, J. M. 1989. Cryobiology: Resurrection of frozen animals. Nature

Discover. 1987. Today a frozen dog, tomorrow the iceman. Discover 8 (June): 9.

Duman, J., and K. Howarth. 1983. The role of hemolymph proteins in the cold tolerance of insects. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 45:261-270.

Heinrich, B. 1987. Thermoregulation by winter-flying endetheric moths. J. Exp. Biol. 127:313-332.

Heinrich, B., and T. P. Mommsen. 1985. Flight of winter moths near 0°C. Science 228:177-179.

Hinton, H. E. 1960. A fly larva that tolerates dehydration and temperatures of minus 270°C to +102°C. Nature 188:333-337. Holland, W. J. 1968. The Moth Book. New York: Dover Publications.

Howarth, K. L., and J. G. Duman. 1984. Yearly variations in overwintering mechanisms of the cold-hardy beetle, Denroides canadensis. Physiol. Zool. 57(1):40-45.

Kukal, O. 1988. Caterpillars on ice. Natural History (January): 36-40.

Kukal, O., B. Heinrich, and J. Duman. 1988. Behavioral thermoregulation in the freeze-tolerant Arctic caterpillar, Gynaephora groenlandica. J. Exp. Biol. 138:181-193.

Leader, J. P. 1962. Tolerance to freezing of hydrated and partially hydrated larvae of Polypedilum (Chironomidae). J. Insect Physiol. 8:155-163.

Lee, R. E., Jr. 1989. Insect cold-hardiness: To freeze or not to freeze. Bioscience 39(5):308-313.

Lee, R. E., Jr., and D. L. Denlingers, eds. 1991. Insects at Low Temperature. New York: Chapman and Hall.

Mansingh, A., and B. N. Smallman. 1972. Variation in polyhydric alcohol in relation to diapause and cold-hardiness in the larva of Isia isabella. J. Insect Physiol. 18:1565-1576.

Mazur, P. 1984. Freezing of living cells: mechanisms and implications. Amer. J. Physiol. 247:C125-C142.

Miller, L. K. 1969. Freezing tolerance in an adult insect. Science 166:105-106.

Myers, M. T. 1985. A southward return migration of Painted Lady butterflies, Vanessa cardui, over southern Alberta in the fall of 1983, and biometeorological aspects of their outbreaks into North America and Europe. Canadian Field-Naturalist 99:147-155.

Salt, R. W. 1959. Survival of frozen fat body cells in an insect. Nature 184:1426.

———. 1961. Principles of insect cold hardiness. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 6:58-74.

Schmid, W. D. 1982. Survival of frogs in low temperature. Science 215:697-698.

Storey, K. B., and J. M. Storey. 1983. Biochemistry of freeze tolerance in terrestrial insects. Trends in Biochemical Sciences 8(7):242-245.

———. 1984. Biochemical adaptation for freezing tolerance in the wood frog, Rana sylvatica. J. Comp. Physiol. B 155:29-36.

———. 1985. Adaptations of metabolism for freeze tolerance in the gray tree frog, Hyla versicolor. Can. J. Zool. 63:49-54.

———. 1987. Persistence of freeze tolerance in terrestrial hibernating frogs after spring emergence. Copeia 1987(3):720-726.

———. 1988. Freeze tolerance in animals. Physiol. Rev. 68:27-88.

———. 1990. Frozen and alive. Scientific American (December): 92-96.

Tanno, K. 1968. Frost resistance in the poplar sawfly, Trichiocampus populi V. Freezing injury at the liquid nitrogen temperature. Low Temp. Sci. Ser. B 26:76-84.

Vogel, S. 1998. Cold storage. Discover (February): 52-54.

Walton, R. K., and L. P. Brower. 1996. Monitoring the fall migration of the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus L. (Nymphalidae: Danaidae) in eastern North America: 1991-1994. J. Lepidopterists’ Society 50:1-20.

Zachariassen, K. E., and H. T. Hamel. 1976. Nucleating agents in the hemolymph of insects tolerant to freezing. Nature (London) 262:285-287.

15 MICE IN WINTER

Choate, J. R. 1973. Identification and recent distribution of white-footed mice (Peromyscus) in New England. J. Mammal. 54:41-49.

Glaser, H., and S. Lustick. 1975. Energetics and nesting behavior of the northern white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis. Physiol. Zool. 48:105-113.

Hamilton, W. J., Jr. 1935. Habits of jumping mice. Amer. Midl. Natur. 16:187-200.

Nestler, J. R. 1990. Relationship between respiratory quotient and metabolic rate during entry to and arousal from daily torpor in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). Physiol. Zool.63(3):504-515.

Nicholson, A. J. 1937. A hibernating jumping mouse. J. Mammal. 18:103.

Parren, S. G., and D. E. Capen. 1985. Local distribution and coexistence of two species of Peromyscus in Vermont. J. Mammal. 66(1):36-44.

Pierce, S. S., and F. D. Vogt. 1993. Winter acclimatization in Peromyscus maniculatus gracilis, P. leucopus noveboracencis, and P. I. leucopus. J. Mammal. 74(3):665-677.

Sealander, A. 1962. Seasonal changes in blood values of deer mice and other small mammals. Ecology 43(1):107-119.

Sealander, J. A. 1951. Survival of Peromyscus in relation to environmental temperature and acclimation at high and low temperatures. Amer. Midl. Natur. 46:257-311.

———. 1952. The relationship of nest protection and huddling to survival of Peromyscus at low temperature. Ecology 33:63-71. Sheldon, C. 1938a. Vermont jumping mice of the genus Zapus. J. Mammal. 19:324-332.

———. 1938 b. Vermont jumping mice of the genus Napaeozapus. J. Mammal. 19:444-453.

Stupka, A. 1934. Woodland jumping mice. Nature notes from Acadia 3:6.

Vogt, F. D., and G. R. Lynch. 1982. Influence of ambient temperature, nest availability, huddling, and daily torpor on energy expenditure in the white-footed mouse Peromyscus leucopus. Physiol. Zool. 55(1):56-63.

Walton, M. A. 1903. A Hermit’s Wild Friends or Eighteen Years in the Woods. Boston: Dana Estes Co.

16 SUPERCOOL(ED) HOUSEGUESTS (WITH AND WITHOUT ANTIFREEZE)

Barnes, B. M., J. L. Barger, J. Seares, P. C. Tacguard, and G. L. Zuercher. 1996. Overwintering in yellowjacket queens (Vespula vulgaris) and green stinkbugs (Elasmostethus interstinctus) in subarctic Alaska. Physiol. Zool. 69(6):1469-1480.

Duman, J. G., and J. L. Patterson. 1978. The role of ice nucleators in the frost tolerance of overwintering queens of the bald-faced hornet. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 59A:69-72.

Duman, J. G., D. W. Wu, L. Xu, D. Tursman, and T. M. Olson. 1991. Adaptations of insects to subzero temperatures. Quart. Rev. Biol. 66:387-410.

17 OF BATS AND BUTTERFLIES AND COLD STORAGE

Barclay, R. M. R. 1982. Night roosting behavior of the little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus. J. Mammal. 63:464-474.

Brower, L. P., and S. B. Malcolm. 1991. Animal migration: Endangered phenomena. Amer. Zool. 31:265-276.

Brower, L. P., W. H. Calvert, L. E. Hedrick, and J. Christian. 1977. Biological observations on an overwintering colony of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus, Danaidae) in Mexico. J. Lepid. Soc. 31(4):232-242.

Calvert, W. H., L. E. Hedrick, and L. P. Brower. 1979. Mortality of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus L.): Avian predation at five overwintering sites in Mexico. Science 204:848-851.

Flyger, V. F. 1969. The 1968 squirrel “migration” in the eastern United States. Trans. Northeast Sect. Wildlife Society 26:69-70.

Henshaw, R. E., and G. E. Folk, Jr. 1966. Relation of thermoregulation to seasonally changing microclimate in two species of bats (Myotis lucifugus and M. sodalis). Physiol. Zool. 39:223-236.

Hock, R. J. 1951. The metabolic rates and body temperatures of bats. Biol. Bull. 101:289-299.

Humphrey, S. R., and J. B. Cope. 1977. Survival rates of the endangered Indiana bat, Myotis sodalis. J. Mammal. 58:32-36.

Kammer, A. E. 1970. Thoracic temperature, shivering, and flight in the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.). Z. Vergl. Physiol. 68:334-344.

Masters, A. R., S. B. Malcolm, and L. P. Brower. 1988. Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) thermoregulatory behavior and adaptations for overwintering in Mexico. Ecology 69(2):458-467.

McNab, B. K. 1974. The behavior of temperate cave bats in a subtropical environment. Ecology 55:943-958.

Richter, A. R., S. R. Humphrey, J. B. Cope, and V. Brack, Jr. 1993. Modified cave entrances: Thermal effect on body mass and resulting decline of endangered Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis). Conservation Biology 7(2):407-415.

Speakman, J. R., and P. A. Racey. 1989. Hibernal ecology of the pipistrelle bat: Energy expenditure, water requirements and mass loss, implications for survival and the function of winter emergence flights. J. Animal Ecology 58:797-813.

Tuttle, M. D. 1979. Status, causes of decline and management of endangered gray bats. J. Wildlife Management 43:1-17.

Urquhart, F. A. 1976. Found at last: The monarch’s winter home. National Geographic Magazine 150:160-173.

———. 1987. Monarch Butterfly, the International Traveler. Chicago: Nelson-Hall.

Urquhart, F. A., and N. R. Urquhart. 1976. The overwintering site of the eastern population of the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus; Danaidae) in southern Mexico. J. Lepid. Soc. 30:153-158.

18 AGGREGATING FOR WINTER

Gorenzel, P. W., and T. P. Salmon. 1995. Characteristics of American crow urban roosts in California. J. Wildlife Management 59(4):638-645.

Hanson, H. G. 1946. Crow centers of the United States. Oklahoma Game and Fish News 2(3):4-7, 18.

Heinrich, B. 1989. Communal roosts. In Ravens in Winter. New York: Simon and Schuster. Pp. 159-165.

Marzluff, J. M., B Heinrich, and C. S. Marzluff. 1996. Roosts are mobile information centers. Animal Behav. 51:89-103. Shine, R., and R. Mason. 2001. Serpentine cross-dressers. Natural History (February): 56-61.

Stouffer, P. C., and D. F. Caccamise. 1991. Roosting and diurnal movements of radio-tagged American crows. Wilson Bull. 103(3):387-400.

19 WINTER FLOCKS

Morse, D. H. 1977. Feeding behavior and predator avoidance in heterospecific groups. BioScience 27(5):332-339.

Thaler, E. 1990. Die Goldhähnchen. Wittenberg Lutherstadt: A. Ziemsen Verlag.

20 BERRIES PRESERVED

Karasov, W. H. 1993. In the belly of the bird. Natural History (November): 32-37.

Stiles, E. W. 1984. Fruit for all seasons. Natural History (August):43-53.

21 BEARS IN WINTER

Alt, G. L., and J. M. Grutladavria. 1984. Reuse of black bear dens in northeastern Pennsylvania. J. Wildlife Management 48:236-239.

Harlow, H. J., T. Lohuis, T. D. I. Beck, and P. A. Iaizzo. 2001. Muscle strength in overwintering bears. Nature 409:997.

Johnson, R. B. 1998. The bearable lightness of being: Bones, muscles, and spaceflight. Anatomical Record 253(1):24-27.

Jones, J. D., P. Burnett, and P. Zollman. 1999. The glyoxylate cycle: Does it function in the dormant or active bear? Compar. Biochem. and Physiol. B 124:177-179.

LeBlanc, L. Chen, L. Shackelford, V. Sinitsyn, H. Evans, O. Belichenko, B. Schenkman, I. Kozlouskaya, V. Oganov, A. Bakulin, T. Hedrick, and D. Feeback. 2000. Muscle volume, MRI relaxation times (T2), and body composition after spaceflight. J. Applied Physiol. 89(6):2158-2164.

Miller, M. K. 1995. Space makes strange bedfellows. The Sciences 35(3):12-16.

Nelson, R. A., T. D. I. Beck, and D. L. Steiger. 1984. Ration of serum urea to serum creatine in wild black bears. Science 226:841-842.

Ormseth, O. A., M. Nicolson, M. A. Pellymounter, and B. B. Boyer. 1996. Leptin inhibits prehibernation hyperphagia and reduces body weight in arctic ground squirrels. Amer. J. Physiol.271(6):1775.

Rerkin, A. C. 1989. Sleeping beauties. Discover (April): 62-65.

Rogers, L. 1981. A bear in its lair. Natural History 90 (October): 64-70.

Tietje, W. D., and R. L. Ruff. 1980. Denning behavior of black bears in boreal forest of Alberta. J. Wildlife Management 44(4):858-870.

Tinker, D. B., H. J. Harlow, and T. D. I. Beck. 1998. Protein use and muscle-fiber changes in free-ranging, hibernating black bears. Physiol. Zool. 71:414-424.

White, R. J., and M. Avener. 2001. Humans in space. Nature (London) 409:1115-1118.

22 STORING FOOD

Addison, E. M., R. D. Strickland, and D. J. H. Fraser. 1989. Gray Jays, Perisoreus canadensis, and Common Ravens, Corvus corax, as predators of winter ticks, Dermacentor albipictus. Can. Field Nat. 103(3):406-408.

Clayton, N. S., and D. W. Lee. 1998. Memory and the hippocampus in food-storing birds. In Animal Cognition in Nature, edited by R. P. Balda, I. M. Pepperberg, and A. C. Kamil. San Diego and London: Academic Press. Pp. 99-118.

Clayton, N. S., and J. R. Krebs. 1994. Hippocampal growth and attrition in birds affected by experience. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 91:7410-7414.

Dow, D. D. 1965. The role of saliva in food storage by the Gray Jay. Auk 82:139-154.

Heinrich, B. 1988. Winter foraging at carcasses by three sympatric corvids, with emphasis on recruitment by the raven, Corvus corax. Behav. Ecol. and Sociobiol. 23:141-156.

———. 1999. Mind of the Raven. New York: HarperCollins.

Heinrich, B., and J. Pepper. 1998. Influence of competitors on caching behavior in the Common Raven, Corvus corax. Anim. Behav. 56:1083-1090.

Källander, H., and H. D. Smith. 1990. Food storing in birds: An evolutionary perspective. In Current Ornithology, edited by D. M. Powers. Vol. 7. New York and London: Plenum Press. Pp. 147-207.

Marzluff, J. M., B. Heinrich, and C. S. Marzluff. 1996. Roosts are mobile information centers. Anim. Behav. 51:89-103.

Stahler, D. R., B. Heinrich, and D. W. Smith. 2002. The raven’s behavioral association with wolves. Anim. Behav. (in press).

Strickland, D. 1991. Juvenile dispersal in Gray Jays: Dominant brood member expels siblings from natal territory. Can. J. Zool. 69:2935-2945.

Strickland, D., and H. Ouellet. 1993. Gray Jay. In The Birds of North America, edited by A. Poole and F. Gill. No. 40. Philadelphia: Academy of Natural Sciences. Washington, D. C.: American Ornithologists’ Union.

Vander Wall, S. B., and R. P. Balda. 1981. Ecology and evolution of food-storage behavior in conifer seed-caching corvids. Z. Tierpsychol. 56:217-242.

———. 1983. Rememberance of seeds stashed. Natural History 92:60-65.

Vander Wall, S. B., and H. E. Hutchins. 1983. Dependence of Clark’s Nutcracker, Nucifraga columbiana, on conifer seeds during the postfledging period. Can. Field Nat. 97:208-214.

Waite, T. A., and D. Strickland. 1997. Cooperative breeding in Gray jays: Philopatric offspring provision juvenile siblings. Condor 99:523-525.

23 BEES’ WINTER GAMBLE

Frisch, K. von. 1967. The Dance Language and Orientation of Bees. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Heinrich, B. 1979. Thermoregulation of African and European honeybees during foraging, attack, and hive exits and returns. J. Exp. Biol. 80:217-229.

———. 1981. The mechanisms and energetics of honeybee swarm temperature regulation. J. Exp. Biol. 91:25-55.

Lindauer, M. 1954. Temperaturreguliering und Wasserhaushalt im Bienenstaat. Z. Vergl. Physiol. 34:299-345.

———. 1955. Schwarmbienen auf Wohnungsuche. Z. Vergl. Physiol. 37:263-324.

Seeley, T. D. 1985. Honeybee Ecology: A Study of Adaptation in Social Life. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Seeley, T. D., and R. A. Morse. 1982. How do honeybees find a home? Scientific American 247 (October): 158-168.

Seeley, T. D., and J. Tautz. 2001. Worker piping in honeybee swarms and its role in preparing for liftoff. J. Comp. Physiol. A 187:667-676.

24 WINTER BUDS

Heinrich, B. 1996. When the bough bends. Natural History 2(96):56-57.

25 THE KINGLETS’ KEY?

Bent, A. C. 1964. Life Histories of North American Thrushes, Kinglets and Their Allies. U.S. Nat. Mus. Bull. No. 196, New York: Dover Publications.

Blem, C. R., and J. F. Pagels. 1984. Mid-winter lipid reserves of the golden-crowned kinglet. Condor 86:461-492. Brewster, W. 1888. Breeding of the golden-crowned kinglet (Regulus satrapa) in Worcester County, Massachusetts, with a description of its nest and eggs. Auk 5:337-344.

Brockie, K. 1984. One Man’s Island. New York: Harper and Row.

DeGraaf, R. M., and M. Yamasaki. 2001. New England Wildlife. Hanover and London: University Press of New England.

Desfayes, M. 1965. Biosystematics note of the genus Regulus. Ardea 53:82.

Ehrlich, P. R., D. S. Dobkin, and D. Wheye. 1992. Birds in Jeopardy. Stanford, Ca.: Stanford University Press.

Galati, R. 1991. Golden-crowned Kinglets: Treetop Nesters of the North Woods. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press.

Galati, R., and C. Galati. 1985. Breeding of the golden-crowned kinglet in northern Minnesota. J. Field Ornithol. 56:28-40.

Graber, J. W., and R. R. Graber. 1979. Severe weather and bird populations in southern Illinois. Wilson Bull. 91(1):88-103.

Graber, R. R., and J. W. Graber. 1963. A comparative study of bird populations in Illinois, 1906-1909 and 1956-1958. Ill. Nat. His. Surv. Bull. 28:283-528.

Gstader, W. 1973. Jahresdynamik der Avifauna des Südwestlichen Innsbrucker Mittelgebirges. Monticola 3:1-68.

Heinrich, B. 1992. The Hot-Blooded Insects. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Heinrich, B., and R. Bell. 1995. Winter food of a small insectivorous bird, the Golden-crowned Kinglet. Wilson Bull. 107:558-561.

Hilden, O. 1982. Winter ecology and partial migration of the Goldcrest, Regulus regulus in Finland. Ornis Fenn. 59:99-122.

Hogstad, O. 1984. Variation in numbers, territoriality and flock size of a Goldcrest, Regulus regulus population in winter. Ibis 126:296-306.

Ingold, J. L., L. A. Weight, and S. I. Guttman. 1988. Genetic differentiation between North America kinglets and comparisons with three allied passerines. Auk 105:386-390.

Ingold, J. L., and R. Galati. 1997. Golden-crowned kinglet (Regulus satrapa). In The Birds of North America, edited by A. Poole and F. Gill. No. 301. Philadelphia: Academy of Natural Sciences. Washington, D.C.: American Ornithologists’ Union.

Kania, W. 1983. Preliminary remarks on the migration of North European Goldcrests, Regulus regulus. Ornis. Fenn., Suppl. 3:19-20.

Kubisz, M. A. 1989. Burdock as a hazard to Golden-crowned kinglets and other small birds. Ont. Birds 7:112-117.

Lagerström, M. 1979. Goldcrests (Regulus regulus) roosting in the snow. Ornis. Fenn. 56:170-171.

Larrison, E. J., and K. G. Sonnenberg. 1968. Washington birds. J. Seattle Audubon Soc. (Seattle, Wash.).

Lepthien, L. W., and C. E. Bock. 1976. Winter abundance of North American kinglets. Wilson Bull. 88:482-485.

Löhrl, H. 1955. Schlafgewohnheiten der Baumläufer (Certhia brachydactyle, C. familiaris) und arderer Kleinvögel in Kalten Winternächten. Vogelwarte 18:71-77.

Palmgren, P. 1932. Zur Biologie von Regulus r. regulus (L.) und Parus atricapillus. Acta Zoologica Fennica 14:1-113.

———. 1936. Über den Massenwechsel bei Regulus r. regulus (L.). Ornis Fenn. 13:159-164.

Reinertsen, R. E., S. Haftorn, and E. Thaler. 1988. Is hypothermia necessary for the winter survival of the Goldcrest Regulus regulus? J. Ornithol. 4:433-437.

Sabo, S. R. 1980. Niche and habitat relations in subalpine bird communities of the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Ecol. Monogr. 50:241-259.

Sheldon, F. H., and F. B. Gill. 1996. A reconsideration of songbird phylogeny, with emphasis on the evolution of titmice and their sylvioid relatives. Syst. Biol. 45:473-495.

Sibley, C. G., and J. E. Ahlquist. 1985. The phylogery and classification of the passerine birds, based on comparisons of the genetic material DNA. Proc. 18th Int. Ornith. Congr. 1984.

Thaler, E. 1990. Die Goldhähnchen. Wittenberg Lutherstadt: A. Ziemsen Verlag.

Thaler, E., and K. Thaler. 1982. Feeding biology of Goldcrests and Firecrests and their segregation by choice of food. Ökol. Vögel 4:191-204.

Thaler-Kottek, E. 1986. The genus Regulus as an example of different survival strategies: Adaptation to habitat and ethological differentiation. In Acta XIX Intern. Congr. Ornithol. II (Ottawa). Pp. 2007-2020.