NOTES - Windswept: The Story of Wind and Weather - Marq de Villiers

Windswept: The Story of Wind and Weather - Marq de Villiers (2006)


Note: For full publishing data of the books cited, see bibliography.


Wind's Mystery and Meaning

Information in this chapter comes from a variety of sources; most are cited in the text. Particularly useful were David E. Newton's quirky but informative Encyclopedia of Air, Sebastian Smith's lyrical memoir of sailing in the Mediterranean, Southern Winds, and Jan DeBlieu's Wind, which covers much of the same ground as this volume. DeBlieu brings a poet's eye to her meditations on wind.

1 Newton, Encyclopedia of Air, pp. 132-33, as quoted in Golden Bough. From Encyclopedia of Air by David E. Newton, copyright 2003 by David E. Newton,©reproduced with permission by Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport, CT.

2 Smith, Southern Winds, p. 100. From Southern Winds, by Sebastian Smith, copyright Sebastian Smith 2004, Penguin, London.

3 Dorson, Buying the Wind, pp. 32-33.

4 Quoted in Newton, Encyclopedia of Air, p. 133.

5 From the Flat Earth Society Web site, an elaborate spoof compiled by "Lee Harvey Oswald Smith."

6 Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology, p. 144.

7 Smith, Southern Winds, p. 30.

8 These are the "named winds" listed on Whirling Winds of the World ( Abroholos, Afternoon Burner, Antane, Aspre, Auster, Austru, Autun, Badisad obistroz, Barat, Barber, Barines, Barrier winds, Belat, Bellot, Berg, Bhoot, Bise, Black South Easter, Blue Norther, Bochorno, Bo-horok, Bolon, Bora, Boreas, Bornan, Brickfielder, Bricklayer, Brisote, Broeboe, Bruscha, Buran, Burga, Candlemas Crack, Candlemas Eve, Canterbury Northwester, Cape Doctor, Cers, Chabascos, Chamsin, Chergui, Chinook, Choco-latta, Chocolatero, Coho, Collada, Contrastes, Cook Strait Southerly, Cordonazo, Coromell, Cowshee, Craudelaire, Criador, Crivetz, Descuernac-cabras, Diablo, Dog's Tongue, Dusenwind, Dzhani, El Cierzo, Elephanta, Etesian, Etobicoke Echo, Euraquilo, Euroclydon, Eurus, Foeh, Foehn, Fremantle Doctor, Gallego, Galerna, Garbin, Garigliano, Gending, Ghibli, Gharbi, Glaves, Golfada, Greco, Gregale, Grigale, Guba, Gully Squall, Guxen, Guzzle, Haboob, Haize-Beltza, Halny Wiatr, Harmattan, Havgull, Helm, Hora, Hot Busters, Ibe, Jauch, Jauk, Jochwinde, Joran, Junkwinde, Junta, Juran, Kachchan, Kaikias, Kal Baisahki, Karaburan, Karajol, Kapalilua, Kaus, Kesisleme, Khamsin, Kharif, Kloof, Knik, Kona, Koshava, Kuban, Laawan, Labbe, Lansan, Laventera, Leste, Levante, Levanter, Leveccio, Leveche, Liberator, Lips, Livas, Ljuka, Llebetjado, Lodos, Lombarde, Loo, Luganot, Maestro, Maestrale, Maloja, Marajos, Marin, Matacabras, Matanuska, Mauka, Meltemi, Minuano, Mistral, Mono, Morget, Muscat, Nashi, Nevada, Newall Winds, Night Winds, Nirta, Nortes, Notus, Oberwind, Ora, Orsure, Palouser, Pampero, Panas Oetara, Papagayos, Paramito, Passat, Piner, Piterak, Polacke, Poniente, Ponente, Poriaz, Pruga, Puelche, Puna, Purga, Pyrn, Rachas, Rebat, Reshabar, Robin Hood's Wind, Roger, Rondada, Rotenturm Wind, Rotetur, Safid Rud, Sahel, Samiel, Sansar, Santa Ana, Sarca, Scirocco, Seca, Seistan, Shaluk, Shamal, Sharav, Sharki, Siffanto, Simoom, Simoon, Simoun, Skiron, Sky Sweeper, Sno, Solano, Sonora, South Easter, Southerly Buster, Stikine, Suete, Suhaili, Sukhovey, Sumatra, Sundowner, Sures, Suroet, Take, Takn, Taku, Tamboen, Tauem, Techuantepecer, Temporale, Texas Norther, Tramontana, Turnagain, Vent du Midi, Vendavale, Williwaw, Ya-maoroshi, Yildiz, Zephyr, Zephyros, Zoboa, Zonda.

9 Rigveda, canto 186.

10 Guy de Maupassant, as quoted in Southern Winds, pp. 17, 87.

I1 Conrad, Typhoon, pp. 84,96.

12 As quoted in Southern Winds, p. 107.

13 Joyce Boro on the BBC's weather channel, part of their Weather in Literature background server.

14 Smith, Southern Winds, p. 194.

15 Ibid.,p. 85.

16 A Narrative of Travels in North Africa in the Years 1818, lg, and 20, by Captain G. F. Lyon, London i82i,p. 94.

17 Southern Winds, p. 113.

18 Quoted in Southern Winds, p. 86.

19 Joseph d'Agnese, "Why Has Our Weather Gone Wild," Discover, June 2000.

20 DeBlieu, Wind, p. 180. Excerpts from Wind: How the Flow of Air Has Shaped Life, Myth and the Land, by Jan DeBlieu, copyright 1998 by Jan DeBlieu, reprinted by permission of Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

21 Ibid.,p. 181.

22 D'Agnese, "Why Has Our Weather Gone Wild" (see note 19, above).

23 Quoted in DeBlieu, Wind, p. 181.

24 Felicity James, on the BBC's weather channel, from her article, "Weather in Literature: The Modern Novel."


Wind's Great Theater

Richard Fortey's The Earth:An Intimate History is a paleogeographic look at the earth from the inside out, and wonderfully well written. Erik Larson's Isaac's Storm is a retelling of the hurricane that all but destroyed Galveston, Texas, at the turn of the twentieth century; he is particularly good on the politics of the weather service at the time.

1 Fens Tian et al, "A Hydrogen-rich Early Earth Atmosphere," Science, May 13, 2005, p. 1014.

2 Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th edition, 14:1155.

3 Fortey, The Earth, pp. 359-61, 366.

4 Newton, Encyclopedia of Air, p. 17.

5 Larson, Isaac's Storm, p. 38.

6 This history of early chemistry is from a variety of sources. Useful and informative was the chemistry Web site operated by the University of Pennsylvania.

7 Michael Klesius, "Altitude and the Death Zone," National Geographic, May 2003.

8 Dr. James L. Green, "Magnetosphere,"


The Search for Understanding

Scott Huler's Defining the Wind is a book calculated to appeal to all of us in the writing trade; Huler was a copy editor who became obsessed with Beaufort's mastery of imagery, and it led him to a larger investigation of wind measurement technology. Hurricane Watch, by the former director of the National Hurricane Center in Miami, Dr. Bob Sheets, and his collaborator, Jack Williams, is the best source for information on tropical cyclones. Jim Carrier's The Ship and the Storm is the story of the fatal encounter between Hurricane Mitch and the charter tall ship Fantome.

1 Quoted in Larson, Isaac's Storm, p. 38.

2 DeBlieu, Wind, and many others.

3 Quoted in DeBlieu, Wind, p. 32.

4 Smith, Southern Winds, p. 169.

5 Pliny, Natural History, book 2, c xlvi.

6 Smith, Southern Winds, p. 29.

7 Ibid.,p. 173.

8 Huler, Defining the Wind, p. 82. From Defining the Wind, by Scott Huler, copyright 2004 by Scott Huler, used by permission of Crown Publishers, a division of Random House, Inc.

9 DeBlieu, Wind, p. 32.

10 "Anecdotes from Huler, Defining the Wind, pp. 62, 64—65.

11 Larson, Isaac's Storm, p. 44.

12 Huler, Defining the Wind, pp. 81, 85.

13 Quoted in Sheets, Hurricane Watch, p. 12. From Hurricane Watch by Bob Sheets and Jack Williams, copyright 2001 by Jack Williams and Bob Sheets, used by permission of Vintage Books, a division of Random House, Inc.

14 Huler, Defining the Wind, p. 65.

15 Huler, Defining the Wind, p. 84.

16 Sheets, Hurricane Watch, pp. 13,14.

17 DeBheu, Wind, p. 61.

18 Carrier, The Ship and the Storm, p. 148.

19 Typhoon, p. 77.

2()Sheets, Hurricane Watch, Larson, Isaac's Storm, and many others.


Wind's Intricate Patterns

This chapter owes a debt to the Environment Canada meteorological service, and the Canadian Hurricane Centre, especially the ever-patient Peter Bowyer and Chris Fogarty. Tamara Gates of Environment Canada put me onto Bruce Whiffen's discussions of the Wreckhouse and other local winds.

1 One knot is 1 nautical mile an hour. A nautical mile is 6076.12 feet or 1852 meters. Therefore 1 knot is 1.152 miles an hour, or 1.85 kilometers an hour.

2 Smith, Southern Winds, pp. 220-21.

3 Hydrogen atoms weigh 1.08 atomic mass units (AMU); helium atoms weigh 4.0026, yielding a 0.0294 shortfall.

4 Huler, Defining the Wind, p. 60.

5Expressed in mathematical language, 1.74 X 1017 watts.

6 J. W. Chamberlain and D. M. Hunten, Hadley Circulation, Theory of Planetary Atmospheres (San Diego: Acadian Press, 1987), pp. 79—80.

7 In a paper titled "On the Equations of Relative Motion of a System of Bodies."

8 David J. Van Domelen, of the Ohio State University Department of Physics, gave me my first understanding of the Coriolis force. For the more technically minded, he also gives the following equation relating the Coriolis force to an object's mass (m), its velocity in a rotating frame (v), and the angular velocity of the rotating frame of reference (03): FCorioiis = —2 m (CD X vr). See his Web site at

9 Newton, Encyclopedia of Air, p. 131.

10 Chris Fogarty, "Extratropical Transition of Hurricane Michael," fournal of the American Meteorological Society, September 2004, p. 1323.

11 Chris Fogarty, Canadian Hurricane Centre, Dartmouth, interview.

12 DeBlieu, Wind, p. 5.

13 Romance of the Sea, J. H. Parry, Washington, National Geographic Society, I98i,p. 254.

14 David Jennings, spokesman for the Canadian Coast Guard, quoted in "Maersk Damage," Halifax Chronicle Herald, January 28, 2003.

15 DeBlieu, Wind,pp. 64-65.

16 Peter Bowyer, interview, November 2004.

17 Encyclopaedia Britannica 6:543.

18 Encyclopaedia Britannica 16:454.

19 Smith, Southern Winds, pp. 52—54.

20 R. E. M. Rickaby and P. Halloran, "Cool La Nina During the Warm of the Pliocene," Science, March 25, 2005, p. 1948.

21 A good exposition of these events is from Josh Larson, weather/.

22 Jury, McQueen, and Levy, fournal of Theoretical Applied Climatology, no. 50, pp. 103-15, and Allan, Lindesay, and Parker, fournal of the American Meteorological Society, no. 69(2), pp. 24—27.

23 Sheets and Williams, Hurricane Watch, p. 270.

24 Interview, October 2004.

25 Kelly Shiers, "Timetable for Next Hurricane," Halifax Chronicle Herald, September 25, 2004.

26 Newton, Encyclopedia of Air, p. 135.

27 Sheets and Williams, Hurricane Watch, p. 6.

28 Vortex material from T R. Joe Sundaram, who owns and operates an engineering research firm in Columbia, Maryland, at

29 The energy within a single tornado has been calculated at between io4 and io7 kwh, not much less than the 20-kiloton bomb dropped on Hiroshima, which was 1013.

30 P. J. Hufstutte, "Tornado Rips Apart Tavern," Los Angeles Times, April 22, 2004.

31 Ibid.

32 This discussion of tornadoes owes considerable debts to the Encyclopaedia Britannica article, "Climate and Weather," vol. 16, p. 436 ff.; to a National Geographic magazine article on tornadoes, April 2004; and to Robert Henson and Erik Rasmussen, who authored a piece in Natural Science,May 1995 on tornadoes. Henson is the author of Television Weathercasting: A History; Rasmussen is a scientist at the National Severe Storms Laboratory in Norman, Oklahoma, and the coordinator of a field program called the Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment (VORTEX).

33 Trachard, Voyage to Siam, p. 34.

34 Encyclopaedia Britannica, "Climate and Weather" (see note 32).

35 In an essay in What If a compilation of historical might-have-beens edited by Robert Cowley.

36 Smith, Southern Winds, p. 55.

37 Ibid.,p. 135.

38 DeBlieu, Wind, p. 117.

39 Proulx, The Shipping News, p. 317.

40 Wreckhouse stories and the Lauchie McDougall story by Mont Lingard in Next Stop: Wreckhouse, quoted by Bruce Whiffen, November 30, 1998. Used with his permission.

41 Bowyer, Where the Wind Blows, p. 20, and from Tamara Gates, Environment Canada.

42 Information about Cermak and Davenport from Leighton S. Cochran, associate at Cermak Peterka Petersen, Inc.

43 Estanislao Oziewicz,"Ivan Brushes Cuba and Heads for the Gulf," Globe and Mail, September 14, 2004.

44 Ibid.

45 Joy Woller, University of Nebraska-Lincoln Physical Chemistry Lab.

46 Boundary Layer wind tunnel laboratory study, 2002.


The Art of Prediction

Where the Wind Blows is one of those rare publications that delivers more than it promises. It is an admirably clear exposition of weather and its causes edited by Peter Bowyer of the Canadian Hurricane Centre.

!The Fantome's demise is the subject of a gripping book by Jim Carrier, The Ship and the Storm.

2 Defoe, The Storm, pp. x, 60, 66-67.

3 Sheets and Williams, Hurricane Watch, p. 4.

4 Bowyer, Where the Wind Blows, pp. 30-32.

5 Smith, Southern Winds, p. 11.

6 Bowyer, Where the Wind Blows, p. 6.

7 Trachard, Voyage to Siam, p. 34.

8 David Kasanof, "The Lore of the Sea," Wooden Boat magazine, January-February 2003, p. 13.

9 Newton, Encyclopedia of Air, p. 72.

10 Robert T Ryan, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 1982, quoted on NASA's earth observatory Web site.

11 Bowyer, Where the Wind Blows, p. 10.

12 This brief history of weather forecasting is by Steve Graham, Claire Parkinson, and Mous Chahine, from NASA, The Earth Observatory.

13 Beaufort's story is very well told in Scott Huler's Defining the Wind. Some of the information about Beaufort here is from that source.

14 British Met Office, via BBC weather service.

15 Scott, Defining the Wind, p. 48.

16 Zebrowski, Perils, p. 249.

17 David E. Fisher, The Scariest Place on Earth: Eye to Eye with Hurricanes, quoted in Carrier, The Ship and the Storm, p. 137.

18 Scale reproduced from (St. Johnsburg, Vermont).

19 Newton, Encyclopedia of Air,pp. 11—12.

20 DeBlieu, Winds, p. 174.

21 The formula is: W = 13.12 + 0.6215 T/r-11.37 Vo.16 + 0.3965 Tair V0.16, where W = the wind chill index, based on the Celsius temperature scale; but note that it is expressed without units, i.e., not with °C. Tair— the air temperature in degrees Celsius. V = the wind speed at 10 meters in km/h.

22 BBC weather service.

23 BBC weather service.

24 Sheets and Williams, Hurricane Watch, p. 61 ff; Larson, Isaac's Storm, p. 9.

2 5NOAA Web site, October 10, 2003.

26 From a discussion on the Web site by Robert Beal of Johns Hopkins and William Pichel of NOAA.

27 Sharon Kedar and Frank Webb, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, in Science, February 4, 2005, p. 682.


29 Ibid.

30 Bill Power, "Hurricane Sounds Fascinate Acoustics Scientist," Halifax Chronicle Herald, December 2, 2003.

31 Carrier, The Ship and the Storm, p. 83.

32 Interview, November 2004.

33 Summary of the models by Mark DeMaria, National Hurricane Center, November 26, 1997.

34 Fogarty interview, 2004.

35 Carrier, The Ship and the Storm, p. 71.

36 Much of the Herb Hilgenberg material was first published in Canadian Geographic magazine, "The Beacon of Burlington," September—October 1997.


The Most Furious Gale

Apart from Hurricane Watch, already cited, Ernest Zebrowski Jr.'s Perils of a Restless Planet contains excellent discussions on wind force (cited in the text), hurricane origins, and computer tracking of storms. Wind damage is only one of the perils Zebrowski deals with in his fascinating book, which I highly recommend.

1 Sheets and Williams, Hurricane Watch, p. 16.

2 Gerry Forbes, head of Sable Island Station, interview with Sheila Hirtle, October 2002.

3 Paul Doherty, "Blowing in the Wind," December 20, 2001. On the Ex-ploratorium Web site,

4 March-April 2000 issue of Archeology magazine, quoted by Gareth Cook, "Visions in the Sound: Could it Be that the Pyramids Were Inspired, Not by Aliens, but by the Desert Itself?" Boston Globe, May 15, 2001, p. C i.

5 Herodotus, Histories, book 3, p. 26.

6 Bowyer and MacAfee's paper was called "The Theory of Trapped-Fetch Waves with Tropical Cyclones—An Operational Perspective." The Queen Elizabeth wave was reported by R. W. Warwick, et al, "Hurricane Luis, the Queen Elizabeth II and a Rogue Wave," Marine Observer, 1966, 66:134.

7 Bowyer, Where the Wind Blows, p. 48.

8 William Gilkerson, in Pirate's Passage, Shambhala, New York, 2005.

9 Analogy from Peter Bowyer.

10 Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11:408.

1 Larson, Isaac's Storm, p. 196.

12 Zebrowski, Perils, p. 249.

13 Ibid., pp. 249—50; and Encyclopaedia Britannica 6:738.

14 Fine Homebuilding magazine December 1992-January 1993, p. 82.

15 Sheets and Williams, Hurricane Watch, pp. 215-16.

16 Applied Research Associates study, quoted by Horia Hangan, July 2002, Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction, research paper no. 19. See http://

17 Patent # was 6,601, 348. This information is from Leighton Cochran, from a paper on wind engineering as related to tropical cyclones, "Wind Effects on Lowrise Buildings," from the Web site of the wind consultancy CPP (

18 Pacific data from Sheets and Williams, Hurricane Watch, pp. 196—97.

19 Stewart, quoted in Sheets and Williams, Hurricane Watch, p. 130.

20 Carrier, The Ship and the Storm, p. 69.

21 Analysis of computer modeling can be found in Zebrowski, Perils, pp. 263 ff

22 Sheets and Williams, Hurricane Watch, p. 211.

23 Zebrowski, Perils, p. 259.

24 Sheets and Williams, Hurricane Watch, pp. 267.

25 Interview, November 2004, Las Vegas, Nevada.

26 Sheets and Williams, Hurricane Watch, pp. 98, 99.

27 Interview, 2004.

28 Sheets and Williams, Hurricane Watch, p. 112.

29 Carrier, The Ship and the Storm, p. 96.

30 Sheets and Williams, Hurricane Watch, p. 107.

31 Ibid.,p. 162.

32 "Anti-hurricane Technology," The Economist, June 11, 2005, Technical Supplement, p. 8.

33 Zebrowski, Perils, p. 274.

34 Hoffman, material from Sora Song, Time, January 1, 2005.


An III Wind

The oddly titled Power to the People, by The Economist's Vijay Vaitheeswaran, is not at all a lefty political polemic but a fascinating analysis by a liberal economist of the energy industry and its future. There are several citations from the book in this chapter and the next.

1 Ed Ayres, Worldwatch editorial, July-August 2004, p. 5.

2 Vaitheeswaran, Power to the People, p. 164.

3 C. Venkatamaran, et al., Indian Institute of Technology, reported in Science, 4 March 2005, p. 1454.

4 Ruprecht Jaenicke, "Abundance of Cellular Material and Proteins in the Atmosphere," Science,April 1,2005, p. 73-

5 U.N. study called "North America's Environment," quoted by Sandra Cordon, "Curb Energy Demands or Expect More Severe Weather UN Warns," Halifax Chronicle Herald, August 15, 2002.

6 Kenneth E. Wilkening, Leonard A. Barrie, and Marilyn Engle, "Trans-Pacific Air Pollution," Science, no. 290, October 6, 2000, p. 65.

7 "Rust Never Sleeps," The Economist, December 11, 2004.

8 Study mentioned on CBC radio The Current, September 22, 2004.

9 John C. Ryan, "Dust in the Wind," Worldwatch, January-February 2002.

10 "From Beijing to Hawaii," The Straits Times, Singapore, June 1, 2004.

11 Gerhard Wotawa and Michael Trainer, "The Influence of Canadian Forest Fires on Pollutant Concentrations in the United States," Science, April 14,2000, P- 324.

12 Hajime Akimoto, "Global Air Quality and Pollution," Science, December 5, 2003, p. 1716.

13 The studies were: TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) and SAGE (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment), whose instruments on the Nimbus 7 satellite measured ozone concentrations; GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment) and SCHIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectro-Meter for Atmospheric ChartographY), which was studying sodium dioxide, carbon dioxide, and HCHO emissions; MOPITT (Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere), which studied the worldwide spread of carbon monoxide pollution; MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) on the Terra satellite, which showed the global distribution of man-made and natural aerosols; and AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers), a device for remote sensing, which showed the distribution of four major aerosol types, soil dust, and carbonaceous emissions, sulfates, and sea-salt aerosols in the east China Sea. Finally, NASA contributed an aircraft- and shuttle-based study called the Global Tropospheric Experiment, with four separate field missions: Pacific Exploratory Missions A and B, which studied the impact of emissions from Asia over the western Pacific and near the equator in the Atlantic; TRACE-A, which investigated trace gases over the tropical Atlantic; and TRACE-P, which did the same over the Pacific.

14 Both these quotes, as it happens, were from a single National Geographic article on carbon dioxide, "The Case of the Missing Carbon" by Tim Appen-zeller, in the February 2004 issue, but there are dozens like them.

15 Newton, Encyclopedia of Air, p. 74.

16Vaitheeswaran, Power to the People, p. 127.

17 "Hockey stick" graph by Michael Mann, et al., in Nature, no. 392, April 23, 1998, pp. 779-787. See also Scientific American, March 2005, p. 34. Hansen's study is available through Science Express, April 28,2005 (

18 Palle et al., "Changes in Earth's Reflectance Over the Past Two Decades," Science, May 28, 2004; the second study that disputed its conclusions, in the same magazine, May 6, 2005.

19Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, March 2001.

20 Ed Ayres, Worldwatch, November-December 2004, p. 14.

21 Vaitheeswaran, Power to the People, p. 124.

22 Tim Appenzeller, "The Case of the Missing Carbon," National Geographic, February 2004.

23 Study featured in Science, February 25, 2005, p. 1190.

24 Webster, et al, Science, September 2005, p. 1844.

25 Hurricane Watch, p. 267.

26 Jennifer Kahn, Harper's, May 2004, p. 83.

27 Tim Appenzeller, "The Case of the Missing Carbon," National Geographic, February 2004.

28 David Ebner,"Kyoto Solution?" Globe and Mail, September 7, 2004, p. Bi.

29Environmental Protection Agency report, February 28, 2005.

30 Kahn, Harper's (see ref 26).

31 Vaitheeswaran, Power to the People, p. 167.

32 Environmental News Service, February i, 2004.

33David W Keith and Alexander E. Farrell, "Rethinking Hydrogen Cars," Science, no. 301, July 18, 2003, p. 315.

34Vaitheeswaran, Power to the People, p. 113.

35 The eleven companies were Alcoa; Anglo American, the South African mining house; Cemex, Holsim, and Lafarge, all three cement companies; Hewlett-Packard; the Russian joint stock company Unified Energy System; RWE, a German utility; Scottish Power; Vattenfall, a Swedish energy company; and Vitro.

36 "The Future Is Clean," The Economist, September 4, 2004, p. 61.

37 Environment News Service, April 12, 2005.

38Vaitheeswaran, Power to the People, pp. 158-59; and Center for Atmospheric Science Web site, U.K.


The Technology of Wind

The best sources for information on the rapidly changing world of wind power generation is Paul Gipes's Wind Power Comes of Age, an admirably dispassionate book from a wind power proponent, and the Web site wind Vijay Vaitheeswaran's book, cited in the previous chapter, is also good on the potential future of renewable energy.

1 P A. Glick, USDA Technical Bulletin #673, 1939. pp. 9, 10

2 DeBlieu, Wind, p. 101.

3 Ibid.,p. 87. See other discussions in the same book on insects and the winds.

4 Paul Evans, "Aerial Acrobatics," The Guardian, February 11, 2005, p. 22

5 Newton, Encyclopedia of Air, p. 88

6 Ulrike Miiller and David Lentink, "Turning on a Dime," Science, December 10, 2004, p. 1899, commenting on study by J. J. Videler, et al., published in the same issue.

7 This and following anecdotes on early aeronautics from Newton, Encyclopedia ofAir,pp. 5,125,153,179.

8 Lilienthal data and quotes from a Web-based biography by Gary Bradshaw.

9 Michael Klesius,"The Future of Flying," National Geographic, December 2003.

10 Menzies, 1421, p. 85.

11 Johnson, Phantom Islands, p. 48

12 Sailor's shanty and clipper ship data from Dyson, Spirit of Sail, pp. 11, 17, 18, 21,23-24, 108, III.

13 Heatter, Eighty Days to Hong Kong, foreword.

14 Dyson, Spirit of Sail, pp. 14-21.

15 Winging It," The Economist, September 18, 2004.

16 Newton, Encyclopedia of Air, p 228.

17 Roger Hamilton, "Can We Harness the Wind?" National Geographic, December 1975, p. 812.

18 The power of the wind passing perpendicularly through a circular area is: P= 1/2 V3 r2, where P = the power of the wind measured in watts; v = the velocity of the wind measured in meters per second; r = the radius of the rotor measured in meters (from

19 Vaitheeswaran, Power to the People, p. 130.

20 Gipe, Wind Energy Comes of Age.

21 Martin Mittelstaedt, "Who Has Seen the Wind Power," Globe and Mail, January 4, 2003.

22 Alex Markels, "Prevailing Winds," Motherfones,July-August 2002, p. 38.

23 John Vidal, "Eye of the Storm," The Guardian, May 28, 2004.

24 Katharine Seelye, "Windmills Sow Dissent for Environmentalists," New York Times, June 5, 2003.

25 Vidal, The Guardian (see note 23, above).

26 Bill McKibben, "It's Easy Being Green," Mother fones, July-August 2002, p. 36.

27 This summary of the Nantucket debacle, and these quotes, are from a New York Times Magazine piece by Elinor Burkett. Elinor Burkett, "A Mighty Wind," June 15,2003.

28 American Wind Energy Association Web site, February 2001.

29 Fiona Davies, "The Power of Water," Corporate Knights magazine, water issue, summer 2004.

30 Vaitheeswaran, Power to the People, p. 247.

31 Burkett, New York Times Magazine (see note 27, above).


Peter Bowyer interview, November 2004.