Why Aren't We Saving the Planet?: A Psychologist's Perspective - Geoffrey Beattie (2010)
Ajzen, I. (1991) The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 50: 179–211.
Allport, G. W. (1935) Attitudes. In C. Murchison (Ed.), Handbook of Social Psychology. Worcester, MA: Clark University Press, pp. 798–884.
Allport, G. (1967) Gordon Allport. In E. Boring and G. Lindzey (Eds.), A History of Psychology in Autobiography. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Vol. 6, pp. 3–25.
Allport, G. (1968) An autobiography. In G. Allport (Ed.), The Person in Psychology: Selected Essays. Boston: Beacon, pp. 376–409.
Balcetis, E. and Dunning, D. (2006) See what you want to see: Motivational influences on visual perception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91: 612–625.
Banaji, M. R. (2001) Implicit attitudes can be measured. In H. L. Roediger, III, J. S. Nairne, I. Neath, and A. Surprenant (Eds.), The Nature of Remembering: Essays in Honor of Robert G. Crowder. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pp. 117–150.
Banaji, M. R. (2006) Tribute: Anthony G. Greenwald. Harvard University. (Online). www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~banaji/research/ mrb_talks/tributes/greenwald.html (Accessed: 9 April 2009).
Banaji, M. R. (2008) Edge: The Implicit Association Test: Mahzarin Banaji and Anthony Greenwald. (Online). www.edge.org/ 3rd_culture/banaji_greenwald08/banaji_greenwald08_index .html (Accessed: 17 July 2009).
Banaji, M. R. and Hardin, C. (1996) Automatic gender stereotyping. Psychological Science 7: 136–141.
Beattie, G. (1988) All Talk. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.
Beattie, G. (2003) Visible Thought: The New Psychology of Body Language. London: Routledge.
Beattie, G. (2004) Protestant Boy. London: Granta.
Beattie, G. (2005) The Body Politic, News at Ten Thirty, ITV, UK.
Beattie, G. (2008) What we know about how the human brain works. In J. Lannon (Ed.), How Public Service Advertising Works. Henley on Thames, UK: World Advertising Research Centre.
Beattie, G., McGuire, L. and Sale, L. (in press) Do we actually look at the carbon footprint of a product in the initial few seconds? An experimental analysis of unconscious eye movements. International Journal of Environmental, Cultural, Economic and Social Sustainability.
Beattie, G. and Sale, L. (2009) Explicit and implicit attitudes to low and high carbon footprint products. International Journal of Environmental, Cultural, Economic and Social Sustainability 5: 191–206.
——(under review) How discrepancies between implicit and explicit attitudes on green issues are reflected in gesture–speech mismatches as the unconscious attitude breaks through. Semiotica.
Beattie, G., Sale, L. and McGuire, L. (in press) An Inconvenient Truth? Can extracts of a film really affect our psychological mood and our motivation to act against climate change? Semiotica.
Beattie, G. and Shovelton, H. (1999a) Do iconic hand gestures really contribute anything to the semantic information conveyed by speech? An experimental investigation. Semiotica 123: 1–30.
——(1999b) Mapping the range of information contained in the iconic hand gestures that accompany spontaneous speech. Journal of Language and Social Psychology 18: 438–462.
——(2000) Iconic hand gestures and the predictability of words in context in spontaneous speech. British Journal of Psychology 91: 473–492.
——(2001) An experimental investigation of the role of different types of iconic gesture in communication: A semantic feature approach. Gesture 1(2): 129–149.
——(2002a) An experimental investigation of some properties of individual iconic gestures that affect their communicative power. British Journal of Psychology 93: 179–192.
——(2002b) What properties of talk are associated with the generation of spontaneous iconic hand gestures? British Journal of Social Psychology 41: 403–417.
——(2005) Why the spontaneous images created by the hands during talk can help make TV advertisements more effective. British Journal of Psychology 96: 21–37.
——(2006) When size really matters: How a single semantic feature is represented in the speech and gesture modalities. Gesture 6(1): 63–84.
——(2009) An exploration of the other side of semantic communication. How the spontaneous movements of the human hand add crucial meaning to narrative. Semiotica 176.
Bechara, A., Damasio, H., Tranel, D. and Damasio, A. R. (1997) Deciding advantageously before knowing the advantageous strategy. Science 275: 1293–1295.
Berry, T., Crossley, D. and Jewell, J. (2008) Check-out carbon: The role of carbon labelling in delivering a low-carbon shopping basket. (Online). www.forumforthefuture.org.uk/files/Check-out carbon FINAL_300608.pdf (Accessed: 1 January 2010).
Blair, I. V. and Banaji, M. R. (1996) Automatic and controlled processes in stereotype priming. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 70: 1142–1163.
Bosson, J. K., Swann, W. B. and Pennebaker, J. W. (2000) Stalking the perfect measure of implicit self-esteem: The blind men and the elephant revisited? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 79: 631–643.
Bowman, H., Su, L., Wyble, B. and Barnard, P. (2009) Salience sensitive control, temporal attention and stimulus-rich reactive interfaces. In C. Roda (Ed.), Human Attention in Digital Environments. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brown, R. and Kulik, J. (1977) Flashbulb memories. Cognition 5: 73–99.
Brunel, F. F., Tietje, B. C. and Greenwald, A. G. (2004) Is the Implicit Association Test a valid and valuable measure of implicit consumer social cognition? Journal of Consumer Psychology 14: 385–404.
Bruner, J. S. (1957) On perceptual readiness. Psychological Review 64: 123–152.
Bruner, J. S. and Goodman, C. C. (1947) Value and need as organizing factors in perception. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology 42: 33–44.
Chaiken, S. and Trope, Y. (Eds.) (1999) Dual Process Theories in Social Psychology. New York: Guilford.
Church, R. B. and Goldin-Meadow, S. (1986) The mismatch between gesture and speech as an index of transitional knowledge. Cognition 23: 43–71.
Cienki, A. and Müller, C. (Eds.) (2008) Metaphor and Gesture. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Clarke, H. M. (1911) Conscious attitudes. American Journal of Psychology 32: 214–249.
Cummins, J. (2008) Great Rivals in History: When Politics Gets Personal. New York: Metro Books.
Damasio, A. R. (1994) Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. New York: Putnam.
Danesi, M. (1999) Of Cigarettes, High Heels, and Other Interesting Things: An Introduction to Semiotics. New York: St Martin’s Press.
Dasgupta, N. and Greenwald, A. G. (2001) On the malleability of automatic attitudes: Combating automatic prejudice with images of admired and disliked individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81: 800–814.
Devine, P. G. (1989) Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 56: 5–18.
Dollard, J. and Miller, N. E. (1950) Personality and Psychotherapy. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Doob, L. (1947) The behavior of attitudes. Psychological Review 54: 135–156.
Dostoevsky, F. (1864/1972) Notes from the Underground. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.
Downing, P. and Ballantyne, J. (2007) Tipping point or turning point? Social marketing and climate change. (Online). Ipsos MORI. www.lowcvp.org.uk/assets/reports/IPSOS_MORI_ turning-point-or-tipping-point.pdf (Accessed: 5 January 2009).
Durant, R. F. and Legge, J. S. Jr (2005) Public opinion, risk perceptions, and genetically modified food regulatory policy. European Union Politics 6: 181–200.
Elliot, A., Maier, M., Moller, A. C., Freidman, R. and Meinhardt, J. (2007) Color and psychological functioning: The effect of red on performance attainment. Journal of Experimental Psychology 136: 154–168.
Ellis, A. and Beattie, G. (1986) The Psychology of Language and Communication. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Elms, A. C. (1993) Allport’s Personality and Allport’s personality. In K. H. Craik, R. Hogan and R. N. Wolf (Eds.), Fifty Years of Personality Psychology. New York: Plenum.
Evans, G. and Durant, J. (1995) The relationship between knowledge and attitudes in the public understanding of science in Britain. Public Understanding of Science 4: 57–74.
Faber, M. (1970) Allport’s visit with Freud. The Psychoanalytic Review 57: 60–64.
Fazio, R., Jackson, J., Dunton, B. and Williams, C. (1995) Variability in automatic activation as an unobtrusive measure of racial attitudes: A bona fide pipeline? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69: 1013–1027.
Festinger, L. A. (1957) A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Forum for the Future (2007) Retail futures 2022: Scenarios for the future of UK retail and sustainable development. (Online). www.forumforthefuture.org/retail-futures-2022 (Accessed: 5 January 2009).
Forum for the Future (2008) Climate futures: Responses to climate change in 2030. (Online). www.forumforthefuture.org/projects/ elimate-futures (Accessed: 5 January 2009).
Freud, S. (1901/1975) The Psychopathology of Everyday Life. Volume 5 of the Pelican Freud Library. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.
Friese, M., Hofmann, W. and Wänke, M. (2008) When impulses takes over: Moderated predictive validity of explicit and implicit attitude measures in predicting food choice and consumption behaviour. British Journal of Social Psychology 47: 397–419.
Friese, M., Wänke, M. and Plessner, H. (2006) Implicit consumer preferences and their influence on product choice. Psychology and Marketing, 23: 727–740.
Fromm, E. (1941) The Fear of Freedom. London: Routledge.
Gelperowic, R. and Beharrell, B. (1994) Healthy food products for children: Packaging and mothers’ purchase decisions. British Food Journal 96: 4–8.
Gibson, B. (2008) Can evaluative conditioning change attitudes toward mature brands? New evidence from the implicit association test. Journal of Consumer Research 35: 178–188.
Gladwell, M. (2005) Blink: The Power of Thinking without Thinking. New York: Little, Brown and Company.
Goldin-Meadow, S. (1997) When gestures and words speak differently. Current Directions in Psychological Science 6: 138–143.
Greenwald, A. G. (1990) What cognitive representations underlie attitudes? Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28: 254–260.
Greenwald, A. G. (1992) New Look 3: Reclaiming unconscious cognition. American Psychologist 47: 766–779.
Greenwald, A. G. and Banaji, M. R. (1995) Implicit social cognition: Attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychological Review 102: 4–27.
Greenwald, A. G., Klinger, M. R. and Liu, T. J. (1989) Unconscious processing of dichoptically masked words. Memory and Cognition 17: 35–47.
Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E. and Schwartz, J. L. K. (1998) Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The Implicit Association Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74: 1464–1480.
Greenwald, A. G. and Nosek, B. A. (2001) Health of the Implicit Association Test at age 3. Zeitschrift für Experimentelle Psychologie 48: 85–93.
Greenwald, A. G. and Nosek, B. A. (2008) Attitudinal dissociation: What does it mean? In R. E. Petty, R. H. Fazio and P. Brinol (Eds.), Attitudes: Insights from the New Implicit Measures. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 65–82.
Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, B. A. and Banaji, M. R. (2003) Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: 1. An improved scoring algorithm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85: 197–216.
Greenwald, A. G., Poehlman, T. A., Uhlmann, E. and Banaji, M. R. (2009) Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 97: 17–41.
Greenwald, A. G., Schuh, E. G. and Engell, K. (1990) Ethnic bias in scientific citations. Unpublished manuscript, University of Washington, Department of Psychology.
Gregg, A. P. (2008) Oracle of the unconscious or deceiver of the unwitting? The Psychologist 21: 762–766.
Haidt, J. (2001) The emotional dog and its rational tail: A socialist intuitionist approach to moral judgment. Psychological Review 108: 814–834.
Hansen, J. (2004) Diffusing the global warming time bomb. Scientific American 290: 68–77.
Hausman, A. (2000) A multi-method investigation of consumer motivations in impulse buying behaviour. Journal of Consumer Marketing 17: 403–419.
Henderson, J. M. and Ferreira, F. (2004) Scene perception for psycholinguists. In J. M. Henderson. and F. Ferreira (Eds.), The Interface of Language, Vision, and Action: Eye Movements and the Visual World. New York: Plenum, pp. 1–58.
Hofmann, W. and Friese, M. (2008) Impulses got the better of me: Alcohol moderates the influence of implicit attitudes toward food cues on eating behavior. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 117: 420–427.
Hofmann, W., Gawronski, B., Gschwendner, T., Le, H. and Schmitt, M. (2005) A meta-analysis on the correlation between the Implicit Association Test and explicit self-report measures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 31: 1369–1385.
Hofmann, W., Rauch, W. and Gawronski, B. (2007) And deplete us not into temptation: Automatic attitudes, dietary restraint, and self-regulatory resources as determinants of eating behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 43: 497–504.
Holsanova, J., Holmberg, N. and Holmqvist, K. (2008) Reading information graphics: The role of spatial contiguity and dual attentional guidance. Applied Cognitive Psychology 22: 1–12.
Ipsos MORI (2008) Carbon labelling – just a load of hot air? (Online). www.ipsosmori.com/researchspecialisms/publicaffairs/ reputationcentre/carbon.ashx (Accessed: 9 April 2009).
Jacoby, L. L., Kelley, C. M., Brown, J. and Jasechko, J. (1989) Becoming famous overnight: Limits on the ability to avoid unconscious influences of the past. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 56: 326–338.
Jefferson, G. (1990) List-construction as a task and a resource. In G. Psathas (Ed.), Interaction Competence. (pp. 63–92) Washington, DC: University Press of America.
Karpinski, A. and Hilton, J. L. (2001) Attitudes and the Implicit Association Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81: 774–788.
Karpinski, A. and Steinman, R. B. (2006) The single category Implicit Association Test as a measure of implicit social cognition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91: 16–32.
Karpinski, A., Steinman, R. B. and Hilton, J. L. (2005) Attitude importance as a moderator of the relationship between implicit and explicit attitude measures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 31: 949–962.
Keatinge, W. R., Donaldson, G. C., Cordiolli, M., Martinelli, M., Kunst, A. E., Mackenbach, J. P., et al. (2000) Heat related mortality in warm and cold regions in Europe: Observational study. British Medical Journal 312: 670–673.
Kellstedt, P. M., Zahran, S. and Vedlitz, A. (2008) Personal efficacy, the information environment, and attitudes toward global warming and climate change in the United States. Risk Analysis 28: 113–126.
Kendon, A. (2004) Gesture: Visible Action as Utterance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Kita, S. (2000) How representational gestures help speaking. In D. McNeill (Ed.), Language and Gesture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 162–185.
Koenigs, M., Young, L., Adolphs, R., Tranel, D., Cushman, F., Hauser, M. and Damasio, A. (2007) Damage to the prefrontal cortex increases utilitarian moral judgements. Nature 446: 908–911.
Lakoff, G. and Johnson, M. (1980) Metaphors We Live By: Metaphorical Structure of the Human Conceptual System. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Landy, D. and Sigall, H. (1974) Beauty is talent: Task evaluation as a function of the performer’s physical attractiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 29: 299–304.
Lannon, J. (Ed.) (2008) How Public Service Advertising Works. Henley on Thames, UK: World Advertising Research Centre.
Leahy, T. (18 January 2007). Tesco, carbon and the consumer. (Online). Tesco. www.tesco.com/climatechange/speech.asp (Accessed: 9 April 2009).
Lee, V. and Beattie, G. (1998) The rhetorical organization of verbal and nonverbal behaviour in emotion talk. Semiotica 120: 39–92.
Lee, V. and Beattie, G. (2000) Why talking about negative emotional experiences is good for your health: A microanalytical perspective. Semiotica 130: 1–81.
Leiserowitz, A. (2006) Climate change risk perception and policy preferences: The role of affect, imagery, and values. Climate Change 77: 45–72.
Lichtenstein, S., Slovic, P., Fischhoff, B., Layman, M. and Combs, B. (1978) Judged frequency of lethal events. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory 4: 551–578.
Louw, A. and Kimber, M. (2007) The power of packaging. (Online). The Customer Equity Company. www.tnsglobal.com/_assets/ files/The_power_of_packaging.pdf (Accessed: 9 April 2009).
McNeill, D. (1985) So you think gestures are nonverbal? Psychological Review 92: 350–371.
McNeill, D. (1992) Hand and Mind: What Gestures Reveal About Thought. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
McNeill, D. (2000) Language and Gesture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McNeil, D. (2005) Gesture and Thought. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
McNeill, D., and Duncan, S. (2000) Growth points in thinking for speaking. In D. McNeill (Ed.), Language and Gesture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Maison, D., Greenwald, A. G. and Bruin, R. (2001) The Implicit Association Test as a measure of consumer attitudes. Polish Psychological Bulletin 2: 61–79.
Maison, D., Greenwald, A. G. and Bruin, R. H. (2004) Predictive validity of the Implicit Association Test in studies of brands, consumer attitudes and behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology 14: 405–415.
Matin, E. (1974) Saccadic suppression: A review. Psychological Bulletin 81: 899–917.
Matthews, G., Jones, D. M. and Chamberlain, A. G. (1990) Refining the measurement of mood: The UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist. British Journal of Psychology 81: 17–42.
Meringer, R. and Mayer, K. (1895) Versprechen und Verlesen. Stuttgart, Germany: Goschensche.
Müller, G. E. and Pilzecker, A. (1900) Experimentelle Beiträge zur Lehre vom Gedächtnis. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, Erganzungsband 1: 1–128.
Myers, D. G. (1987) Social Psychology (2nd edn). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Nelson, K. (2007) Young Minds in Social Worlds: Experience, Meaning, and Memory. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Nietzsche, F. (1871/1962) Twilight of the Idols. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.
Nosek, B. A. (2005) Moderators of the relationship between implicit and explicit evaluation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 134: 565–584.
Nosek, B. A. (2007) Understanding the individual implicitly and explicitly. International Journal of Psychology 42: 184–188.
Nosek, B. A. and Banaji, M. R. (2002) (At least) two factors moderate the relationship between implicit and explicit attitudes. In R. K. Ohme and M. Jarymowicz (Eds.), Natura Automatyzmow. Warsaw: WIP PAN and SWPS, pp. 49–56.
Nosek, B. A., Banaji, M. R. and Greenwald, A. G. (2002) Harvesting implicit group attitudes and beliefs from a demonstration website. Group Dynamics 6: 101–115.
Nosek, B. A. and Hansen, J. J. (2008) The associations in our heads belong to us: Searching for attitudes and knowledge in implicit evaluation. Cognition and Emotion 22: 553–594.
Nosek, B. A. and Smyth, F. L. (2007) A multitrait–multimethod validation of the Implicit Association Test: Implicit and explicit attitudes are related but distinct constructs. Experimental Psychology 54: 14–29.
Olson, M. A. and Fazio, R. H. (2004) Reducing the influence of extra-personal associations on the Implicit Association Test: Personalizing the IAT. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 86: 653–667.
Osgood, C. E. (1957) A behavioristic analysis of perception and language as cognitive phenomena. In Contemporary Approaches to Cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, pp. 75–118.
Ramchandani, N. (4 September 2006) A few words that say so much. The Guardian.
Rayner, K. (1998) Eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research. Psychological Bulletin 124: 372–422.
Ross, L. (1977) The intuitive psychologist and his shortcomings. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. New York: Academic Press, pp. 173–220.
Rundh, B. (2005) The multi-faceted dimension of packaging: Marketing logistic or marketing tool? British Food Journal 107: 670–684.
Rydell, R. J., McConnell. A. R. and Mackie, D. M. (2008) Consequences of discrepant explicit and implicit attitudes: Cognitive dissonance and increased information processing. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 44: 1526–1532.
Scarabis, M., Florack, A. and Gosejohann, S. (2006) When consumers follow their feelings: The impact of affective or cognitive focus on the basis of consumers’ choice. Psychology and Marketing 23: 1005–1036.
Seligman, M. E. P. (1970) On the generality of the laws of learning. Psychological Review 77: 406–418.
Silayoi, P. and Speece, M. (2004) Packaging and purchase decisions. British Food Journal 106: 607–608.
Stern, N. H. (2006) The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Storey, R. (2008) Initiating Positive Behaviour: How Public Service Advertising Works. Henley on Thames, UK: World Advertising Research Centre.
Swanson, J. E., Rudman, L. A. and Greenwald, A. G. (2001) Using the Implicit Association Test to investigate attitude–behavior consistency for stigmatized behavior. Cognition and Emotion 15: 207–230.
Uttal, W. R. and Smith, E. (1968) Recognition of alphabetic characters during voluntary eye movements. Perception and Psychophysics 3: 257–264.
Vantomme, D., Geuens, M., De Houwer, J. and De Pelsmacker, P. (2005) Implicit attitudes toward green consumer behavior. Psychologica Belgica 45: 217–239.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1986) Thought and Language. Edited and translated by E. Hanfmann and G. Vakar, revised and edited by A. Kozulin. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Walker, G. and King, D. (2008) The Hot Topic: How to Tackle Global Warming and Still Keep the Lights On. London: Bloomsbury.
Walsh, D. and Gentile, D. (2007) Slipping under the radar: Advertising and the mind. In L. Riley and I. Obot (Eds.), Driving It In: Alcohol Marketing and Young People. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.
Weber, E. U. (2006) Experience-based and description-based perceptions of long-term risk: Why global warming does not scare us (yet). Climate Change 77: 103–120.
Wilson, T., Lindsey, S. and Schooler, T. Y. (2000) A model of dual attitudes. Psychological Review 107: 101–126.
Wundt, W. (1900) Völkerpsychologie, I, Part I. Leipzig, Germany: Engelmann.
Young, S. (2003) Winning at retail: Research insights to improve the packaging of children’s products. Young Consumers 5: 17–22.
Zajonc, R. B. (1980) Feeling and thinking: preferences need no inferences. American Psychologist 35: 151–175.
Zeithaml, V. A. (1988) Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: A means–end model and synthesis of evidence. Journal of Marketing 52: 2–22.