Karl Marx: Greatness and Illusion - Gareth Stedman Jones (2016)

Bibliography

References to the works of Marx and Engels are to be found in the following editions:

Scholarly editions

Karl Marx-Friedrich Engels Historisch-Kritische Gesamtausgabe (MEGA), Berlin, 1927–35

Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels Gesamtausgabe, Berlin 1977–

Popular editions

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Werke (MEW), 43 vols., Berlin, 1956–1990

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels Collected Works (MECW), 50 vols., Moscow, London and New York, 1975–2005

The history of the Marx–Engels archives and their publication in the twentieth century was far from straightforward. At Marx’s death in 1883, his papers were bequeathed to Engels, who in turn left them to Marx’ daughters, first to Eleanor until her death in 1898, and then to Laura Lafargue until her own in 1910. Engels in 1895 bequeathed his own papers to the German Social Democratic Party (SPD), with August Bebel and Eduard Bernstein acting as trustees. After 1910, the bulk of the Marx papers were added to the Engels papers and deposited in the archives of the Social Democratic Party in Berlin.

The idea of publishing the works of Marx (and possibly of Engels) was discussed at a meeting of Austro-Marxists in 1910. Nothing came of it. But after the Russian Revolution it was taken up by David Ryazanov in Moscow in the 1920s, and he was allowed to copy the papers in Berlin. He planned the original publication of the Historisch-Kritische Gesamtausgabe (MEGA), an edition of forty-two volumes to be published in Frankfurt and Berlin. Twelve volumes were published between 1927 and 1941, but collaboration between the SPD and Moscow had already ended in 1928, after Soviet Communism entered an ultra-left phase. Hitler’s seizure of power and the escalation of Stalinist terror in the 1930s resulted in the execution of Ryazanov and the termination of the project. The Marx–Engels papers were taken to Holland, and during the Second World War to England. They had been sold to a Dutch insurance company, which donated them to the International Institute of Social History (IISH) in Amsterdam.

After Stalin’s death in 1956, renewed interest in the continuation of MEGA was expressed by the Moscow and Berlin Institutes of Marxism–Leninism. Collaboration with the Amsterdam Institute was necessary as two thirds of the archival material was kept in Amsterdam, and the rest in Moscow. But this was impossible, since the Communist Party insisted upon political control of the project. Nevertheless, a more modest and unofficial form of cooperation did emerge and, between 1972 and 1991, thirty-six volumes resulted from it.

Despite these unpromising beginnings, much of the scholarship accompanying the publication of these volumes was of high quality and acquired authoritative status. But the publication of each volume continued to be conceived in a Marxist–Leninist framework. This means that the entire MEGA series before the 1990s has to be treated with caution. Not only were there politically inspired omissions, but in some important instances – the 1844 Manuscripts or the German Ideology for instance – published volumes suffered from distortion of the organization, intention and status of the texts.

The Marx-Engels-Werke (MEW) was published in forty-three volumes in Berlin between 1956 and 1990 and was intended for a wider readership. Likewise, the Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels Collected Works (MECW), published in Moscow, London and New York between 1975 and 2005 in fifty volumes, was aimed at a lay public. But since these editions were also published under Communist Party editorial control, their reliability is as limited as that of MEGA.

Following the fall of the Berlin Wall and the closure of the Institutes of Marxism–Leninism in Berlin and Moscow 1990, the continued publication of the works was entrusted to the newly established Internationale Marx-Engels-Stiftung in Amsterdam. For some time, the future of the project remained in doubt owing to a lack of sufficient funding. But from 1993 groups supported by the Amsterdam Institute, the Karl-Marx-Haus in Trier and the European Research Council were entrusted with the production of specific volumes. In Germany itself as a result of a decision by the German Chancellor, Helmut Kohl, financial support for the production of the MEGA was provided under the auspices of the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften.

The completion of the project is planned for 2025, a century after it was first conceived. Of the planned 114 volumes, sixty-two have so far been produced.

OTHER PRIMARY DOCUMENTS

Karl Marx, Das Kapital: Kritik der politischen Ökonomie, Hildesheim, Gerstenberg, 1980 [Meissner, Hamburg, 1867 (Urausgabe – first edition)]

Karl Marx, Grundrisse: Foundations of the Critique of Political Economy (Rough Draft), trans. Martin Nicolaus, London, Allen Lane and New Left Review, 1973

H. Gerth (ed.), The First International: Minutes of the Hague Congress of 1872, Madison, Wisc., University of Wisconsin Press, 1958

Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher, eds. Arnold Ruge and Karl Marx, Leipzig, Verlag Philipp Reclam jun, 1973 [1844]

Vorwärts! Parise Signale aus Kunst, Wissenschaft, Theater, Musik und geselligen Leben, publ. by Heinrich Börnstein with the collaboration of L. F. C. Bernays, A. Ruge, H. Heine, K. Marx and F. Engels, 1844–5 (repr. Zentralantiquariat der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, Leipzig, 1975)

Neue Rheinische Zeitung, Organ der Demokratie, 2 vols., 1848–9 (editor-in-chief Karl Marx; eds. Heinrich Bürgers, Ernst Dronke, Friedrich Engels, Ferdinand Freiligrath, Georg Weerth, Ferdinand Wolff, Wilhelm Wolff), Glashütten im Taunus, Verlag Detlev Auvermann KG, 1973)

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Bachofen, Johann Jakob, Das Mutterrecht, Stuttgart, Krais and Hoffman, 1861

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JOURNALS

Beecher Jonathan, and Valerii N. Formichev ‘French Socialism in Lenin’s and Stalin’s Moscow: David Riazanov and the French Archive of the Marx–Engels Institute’, Journal of Modern History, 78/1 (March 2006), pp. 119–43

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Carver, Terrell, ‘The German Ideology Never Took Place’, History of Political Thought, vol. 31, Spring 2010, pp.107–27

Cook, Simon J., ‘The Making of the English: English History, British Identity, Aryan Villages, 1870–1914’, Journal of the History of Ideas, 75/4 (October 2014), pp. 629–49

Dennison, Tracy, and A. W. Carus, ‘The Invention of the Russian Rural Commune: Haxthausen and the Evidence’, Historical Journal, 46/3 (September 2003)

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Fay, Margaret, ‘The Influence of Adam Smith on Marx’s Theory of Alienation’, Science and Society, 47/2 (Summer 1983), pp. 129–51

Gruner, Shirley, ‘The Revolution of July 1830 and the Expression “Bourgeoisie” ’, Historical Journal, 11/3 (1968), pp. 462–71

Harrison, Frederic, ‘The Transit of Power’, Fortnightly Review, London, Chapman and Hall, April 1868

Hirsch, Helmut, ‘Karl Friedrich Köppen: Der intimste Berliner Freund Marxens’, International Review of Social History, vol. 1 (1936)

Howell, George, ‘The History of the International Association’, Nineteenth Century, vol. IV (July 1878), pp. 19–39

Kelley, Donald, ‘The Metaphysics of Law: An Essay on the Very Young Marx’, American Historical Review, 83/2 (1978), pp. 350–67

———, ‘The Science of Anthropology: An Essay on the Very Old Marx’, Journal of the History of Ideas, 4/2 (1984), pp. 245–63

Levine, Norman, ‘The German Historical School of Law and the Origins of Historical Materialism’, Journal of the History of Ideas, 48 (1987), pp. 431–51

Liberles, Robert, ‘From Toleration to Verbesserung: German and English Debates on the Jews in the Eighteenth Century’, Central European History, 22/1 (1989)

Lidtke, Vernon, ‘German Socialism and Social Democracy 1860–1900’, in Gareth Stedman Jones and Gregory Claeys (eds.), Cambridge History of Nineteenth Century Political Thought, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2011

Mah, Harold, ‘The French Revolution and the Problem of German Modernity: Hegel, Heine, and Marx’, New German Critique, no. 50 (Spring–Summer 1990)

Maine, Henry Sumner, ‘The Decay of Feudal Property in France and England’, Fortnightly Review, vol. 21, April 1877

Nabulsi, Karma, ‘Patriotism and Internationalism in the “Oath of Allegiance” to “Young Europe”, European Journal of Political Theory, 5/61 (January 2006)

O’Boyle, Leonore, ‘The Problem of an Excess of Educated Men in Western Europe, 1800–1850’, Journal of Modern History, 42 (1970), pp. 471–95

Rojahn, Jürgen, ‘Marxismus – Marx – Geschichtswissenschaft. Der Fall der sog. “Ökonomisch-philosophischen Manuskripte aus dem Jahre 1844” ’, International Review of Social History, 28/1 (April 1983), pp. 2–49

Shipley, Stan, Club Life and Socialism in mid-Victorian London, History Workshop Pamphlets, no. 5, Oxford, 1973

Stommel, Karl, ‘Der Armenarzt, Dr. Andreas Gottschalk, der erste Kölner Arbeiterführer, 1848’, Annalen des Historischen Vereins für den Niederrhein 166, Cologne, 1964

Stedman Jones, Gareth, ‘The Mid-Century Crisis and the 1848 Revolutions’, Theory and Society, 12/4 (July 1983)

———, ‘Some Notes on Karl Marx and the English Labour Movement’, History Workshop, no. 18 (Autumn 1984)

———, ‘Voir sans entendre: Engels, Manchester et l’observation sociale en 1844’, Genèses, 22/1 (1996), pp. 4–17

Tombs, Robert, ‘How bloody was La Semaine sanglante of 1871?’, Historical Journal, 55/3 (2012), pp. 679–704