Karl Marx: Greatness and Illusion - Gareth Stedman Jones (2016)


References to the works of Marx and Engels are to be found in the following editions:

Scholarly editions

Karl Marx-Friedrich Engels Historisch-Kritische Gesamtausgabe (MEGA), Berlin, 1927–35

Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels Gesamtausgabe, Berlin 1977–

Popular editions

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Werke (MEW), 43 vols., Berlin, 1956–1990

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels Collected Works (MECW), 50 vols., Moscow, London and New York, 1975–2005

The history of the Marx–Engels archives and their publication in the twentieth century was far from straightforward. At Marx’s death in 1883, his papers were bequeathed to Engels, who in turn left them to Marx’ daughters, first to Eleanor until her death in 1898, and then to Laura Lafargue until her own in 1910. Engels in 1895 bequeathed his own papers to the German Social Democratic Party (SPD), with August Bebel and Eduard Bernstein acting as trustees. After 1910, the bulk of the Marx papers were added to the Engels papers and deposited in the archives of the Social Democratic Party in Berlin.

The idea of publishing the works of Marx (and possibly of Engels) was discussed at a meeting of Austro-Marxists in 1910. Nothing came of it. But after the Russian Revolution it was taken up by David Ryazanov in Moscow in the 1920s, and he was allowed to copy the papers in Berlin. He planned the original publication of the Historisch-Kritische Gesamtausgabe (MEGA), an edition of forty-two volumes to be published in Frankfurt and Berlin. Twelve volumes were published between 1927 and 1941, but collaboration between the SPD and Moscow had already ended in 1928, after Soviet Communism entered an ultra-left phase. Hitler’s seizure of power and the escalation of Stalinist terror in the 1930s resulted in the execution of Ryazanov and the termination of the project. The Marx–Engels papers were taken to Holland, and during the Second World War to England. They had been sold to a Dutch insurance company, which donated them to the International Institute of Social History (IISH) in Amsterdam.

After Stalin’s death in 1956, renewed interest in the continuation of MEGA was expressed by the Moscow and Berlin Institutes of Marxism–Leninism. Collaboration with the Amsterdam Institute was necessary as two thirds of the archival material was kept in Amsterdam, and the rest in Moscow. But this was impossible, since the Communist Party insisted upon political control of the project. Nevertheless, a more modest and unofficial form of cooperation did emerge and, between 1972 and 1991, thirty-six volumes resulted from it.

Despite these unpromising beginnings, much of the scholarship accompanying the publication of these volumes was of high quality and acquired authoritative status. But the publication of each volume continued to be conceived in a Marxist–Leninist framework. This means that the entire MEGA series before the 1990s has to be treated with caution. Not only were there politically inspired omissions, but in some important instances – the 1844 Manuscripts or the German Ideology for instance – published volumes suffered from distortion of the organization, intention and status of the texts.

The Marx-Engels-Werke (MEW) was published in forty-three volumes in Berlin between 1956 and 1990 and was intended for a wider readership. Likewise, the Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels Collected Works (MECW), published in Moscow, London and New York between 1975 and 2005 in fifty volumes, was aimed at a lay public. But since these editions were also published under Communist Party editorial control, their reliability is as limited as that of MEGA.

Following the fall of the Berlin Wall and the closure of the Institutes of Marxism–Leninism in Berlin and Moscow 1990, the continued publication of the works was entrusted to the newly established Internationale Marx-Engels-Stiftung in Amsterdam. For some time, the future of the project remained in doubt owing to a lack of sufficient funding. But from 1993 groups supported by the Amsterdam Institute, the Karl-Marx-Haus in Trier and the European Research Council were entrusted with the production of specific volumes. In Germany itself as a result of a decision by the German Chancellor, Helmut Kohl, financial support for the production of the MEGA was provided under the auspices of the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften.

The completion of the project is planned for 2025, a century after it was first conceived. Of the planned 114 volumes, sixty-two have so far been produced.


Karl Marx, Das Kapital: Kritik der politischen Ökonomie, Hildesheim, Gerstenberg, 1980 [Meissner, Hamburg, 1867 (Urausgabe – first edition)]

Karl Marx, Grundrisse: Foundations of the Critique of Political Economy (Rough Draft), trans. Martin Nicolaus, London, Allen Lane and New Left Review, 1973

H. Gerth (ed.), The First International: Minutes of the Hague Congress of 1872, Madison, Wisc., University of Wisconsin Press, 1958

Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher, eds. Arnold Ruge and Karl Marx, Leipzig, Verlag Philipp Reclam jun, 1973 [1844]

Vorwärts! Parise Signale aus Kunst, Wissenschaft, Theater, Musik und geselligen Leben, publ. by Heinrich Börnstein with the collaboration of L. F. C. Bernays, A. Ruge, H. Heine, K. Marx and F. Engels, 1844–5 (repr. Zentralantiquariat der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik, Leipzig, 1975)

Neue Rheinische Zeitung, Organ der Demokratie, 2 vols., 1848–9 (editor-in-chief Karl Marx; eds. Heinrich Bürgers, Ernst Dronke, Friedrich Engels, Ferdinand Freiligrath, Georg Weerth, Ferdinand Wolff, Wilhelm Wolff), Glashütten im Taunus, Verlag Detlev Auvermann KG, 1973)


Annenkov, Pavel V., The Extraordinary Decade: Literary Memoirs, ed. Arthur P. Mendel, Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, 1968 [1881]

Babbage, Charles, On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures, London, Charles Knight, 1832

Bachofen, Johann Jakob, Das Mutterrecht, Stuttgart, Krais and Hoffman, 1861

Bakunin, Michael, Statism and Anarchy¸ trans. and ed. Marshall S. Shatz, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1990 [1873]

Bauer, Bruno, Briefwechsel zwischen Bruno Bauer und Edgar Bauer während der Jahre 1839–1842 aus Bonn und Berlin, Charlottenburg, Egbert Bauer, 1844

———, The Trumpet of the Last Judgement against Hegel the Atheist and Anti-Christ: An Ultimatum, trans. Lawrence Stepelevich, Lewiston, NY, Edwin Mellen Press, 1989 [1841]

Bauer, Edgar, Bruno Bauer und seine Gegner, Berlin, Jonas, 1842

Bebel, August, My Life, London, T. F. Unwin, 1912

Bebel, August, and Eduard Bernstein (eds.), Der Briefwechsel zwischen F. Engels und K. Marx, 4 vols., Stuttgart, Dietz, 1913

Bernier, François, Voyages contenant la description des États du Grand Mogol, Paris, Imprimé aux frais du gouvernement, 1830

Blanc, Louis, The History of Ten Years 1830–1840, 2 vols., London, Chapman and Hall, 1844–5

———, Révolution FrançaiseHistoire de dix ans, 1830–1840, 5 vols., Paris, Pagnerre, 1841–4

Blumenberg, Werner (ed.), August Bebels Briefwechsel mit Friedrich Engels, The Hague, Mouton, 1965

Bluntschli, Johann Caspar (ed.), Die Kommunisten in der Schweiz nach den bei Weitling vorgefundenen Papieren (‘Communists in Switzerland According to Papers Found in Weitling’s Possession’), Zurich, Druck von Orell, 1843 (repr. 1972, Glashütten im Taunus, Auvermann)

Böhm-Bawerk, Eugen von, Karl Marx and the Close of His System: A Criticism, trans. Alice M. Macdonald, with a preface by James Bonar, London, T. Fisher Unwin, 1898

———, Zum Abschluss des Marxschen Systems, Berlin, Haering, 1896

Born, Stefan, Erinnerungen eines Achtundvierzigers, Leipzig, G. H. Meyer, 1898

Börne, Ludwig, Lettres écrites de Paris pendant les années 1830 et 1831, trans. F. Guiran, Paris, Paulin, 1832

Börnstein, Heinrich, Fünfundsiebzig Jahre in der alten und neuen Welt: Memoiren eines Unbedeutenden, 2 vols., Leipzig, Otto Wigand, 1884

Buchez, Philippe Joseph B., and Pierre Célestin M. Roux-Lavergne, Histoire parlementaire de la Révolution française, 40 vols., Paris, Paulin, 1833–8

Buret, Eugène, De la misère des classes laborieuses en Angleterre et en France, Paris, Paulin, 1840

Carey, Henry Charles,The Slave Trade, Domestic and Foreign: Why It Exists, and How It May be Extinguished, London, Sampson Low, Son and Co., 1853

Carlyle, Thomas, Chartism, London, James Fraser, 1839

———, The French Revolution: A History, London, James Fraser, 1837

Coulanges, Fustel de, The Origin of Property in Land, translated by Margaret Ashley with an introductory chapter on the English manor by W.J. Ashley, London, Swan Sonnenschein, 1891

———, Le Problème des origines de la propriété foncière, Bruxelles, Alfred Vromant, 1889

Darimon, Alfred, De la réforme des banques, Paris, Guillaumin, 1856

Darwin, Charles, The Descent of Man, London, 2 vols., J. Murray, 1871

De Staël, Madame, De l’Allemagne, Paris, Firmin Didot Frères, 1860

Dronke, Ernst, Berlin, Darmstadt, Neuwied Luchterhand, 1974 [Frankfurt am Main, J. Rütten, 1846]

Correspondence of Frederick Engels and Paul and Laura Lafargue, 3 vols., Moscow, Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1959–60

Friedrich Engels’ Briefwechsel mit Karl Kautsky, Vienna, Danubia-Verlag, 1955

Feuerbach, Ludwig, The Essence of Christianity [Das Wesen des Christentums], trans. Marian Evans, London, J. Chapman, 1854

———, Sämmtliche Werke, Leipzig, Otto Wigand, 1846

Flaubert, Gustave, A Sentimental Education, ed. and trans. Douglas Parmée, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1989

Freeman, Edward A., Chief Periods of European History: Six Lectures Read in the University of Oxford in Trinity Term, 1885, London, Macmillan, 1886

Garibaldi, Giuseppe, Autobiography of Giuseppe Garibaldi, trans. Alice Werner, London, W. Smith and Innes, 1889

Green, John Richard, A Short History of the English People with Maps and Tables, London, Macmillan, 1874

Greville, Charles, The Greville Memoirs. Second Part: A Journal of the Reign of Queen Victoria from 1837 to 1852, vol. 3, London, Longmans, 1885

Grote, George, History of Greece, 3rd edn, London, John Murray, 1851

Grün, Karl, Ausgewählte Schriften in Zwei Bänden, ed. Manuela Köppe, Berlin, Akademie Verlag, 2005

Guillaume, James, L’Internationale: Documents et souvenirs (1864–1878), vols. 1 and 2, Paris, Société nouvelle de librairie et d’édition, 1905

Guizot, François, Essais sur l’histoire de France, pour servir de complément aux Observations sur l’histoire de France de l’Abbé Mably, Paris, J. L. J. Brière, 1823

Haxthausen, August von, Studies on the Interior of Russia, ed. S. Frederick Starr, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1972

———, Über die Agrarverfassung in den Fürstenthümern Paderborn und Corvey und deren Conflicte in der gegenwärtigen Zeit nebst Vorschlägen, die den Grund und Boden belastenden Rechte und Verbindlichkeiten daselbst aufzulösen, Berlin, Reimer, 1829

Haxthausen, August von, Über den Ursprung und die Grundlagen der Verfassung in den ehemals slavischen Ländern Deutschlands im Allgemeinen und des Herzogthums Pommern im Besondern, Berlin, Krause, 1842

Hegel, G. W. F., Elements of the Philosophy of Right, ed. A.W. Wood, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1991 [1821]

———, The Encyclopaedia: Logic, trans. T. F. Garaets, W. F. Suchting and H. S. Harris, Indianapolis, Hackett, 1991

———, Lectures on the History of Philosophy, 3 vols., trans. E. S. Haldane and Frances H. Simson, Lincoln, Nebr., University of Nebraska Press, 1995

———, Lectures on Natural Right and Political Science: The First Philosophy of Right, eds. J. Michael Stewart and Peter C. Hodgson, Berkeley, Calif., University of California Press, 1996

———, Phenomenology of Spirit, trans. A. V. Miller, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1979

———, The Science of Logic, trans. and ed. George di Giovanni, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2010

Heine, Heinrich, Ludwig Börne: Recollections of a Revolutionist, trans. Thomas S. Egan, London, Newman, 1881

———, On the History of Religion and Philosophy in Germany and Other Writings, ed. T. Pinkard, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2007

Herwegh, Marcel (ed.), Briefe von und an Georg Herwegh, 2nd edn, Munich, A. Langen, 1898

Herzen, Alexander, My Past and Thoughts: Memoirs of Alexander Herzen, vol. II, New York, A. A. Knopf, 1968

———, My Past and Thoughts: Memoirs of Alexander Herzen, vol. III, London, Chatto and Windus, 1968

Hess, Moses, Briefwechsel, ed. Edmund Silberner, The Hague, Mouton, 1959

———, The Holy History of Mankind and Other Writings, ed. Shlomo Avineri, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2004

Hundt, Martin (ed.), Der Bund der Kommunisten 1836–1852, Berlin, Akademie-Verlag Dietz, 1988

Hyndman, Henry Myers, The Record of an Adventurous Life, London, Macmillan, 1911

Institut Marksizma-Leninzma, Reminiscences of Marx and Engels, Moscow, Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1957

Kant, Immanuel, Kant’s Political Writings, ed. Hans Reiss, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1970

———, On History, ed. Lewis White Beck, Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill, 1980

———, Religion within the Boundaries of Mere Reason and Other Writings, eds. Allen G. Wood and George di Giovanni, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1998 [1793]

Kautsky, Karl, Ethics and the Materialist Conception of History, Chicago, C. H. Kerr and Company, 1914 [1906]

Kautsky, K., Jr (ed.), August Bebels’ Briefwechsel mit Karl Kautsky, Assen, Van Gorcum & Co., 1971

Kemble, John Mitchell, Saxons in England: A History of the English Commonwealth till the Period of the Norman Conquest, London, Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, 1849

Köppen, Karl Friedrich, Ausgewählte Schriften in zwei Bänden, ed. Heinz H. Pepperle, vol. 1, Berlin, Akademie Verlag, 2003

Lamprecht, Karl, Deutsches Wirtschaftsleben im Mittelalter, 4 vols., Leipzig, A. Dürr, 1885–6

Lassalle, Ferdinand, Nachgelassene Briefe und Schriften, 3 vols., ed. Gustav Meyer, Stuttgart, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1921–5

———, Die Philosophie Herakleitos des Dunkeln von Ephesos, Berlin, F. Duncker, 1858

———, Reden und Schriften: Aus der Arbeiteragitation 1862–1864, ed. Friedrich Jenaczek, Munich, Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1970

———, Die Theorie der erworbenen Rechte und der Collision der Gesetz: unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des römischen, französischen und preussischen Rechts, Leipzig, Brochaus, 1861

Liebknecht, Wilhelm, Karl Marx: Biographical Memoirs, London, Journeyman Press, 1975 [1901]

———, Wilhelm Liebknecht: Briefwechsel mit Karl Marx und Friedrich Engels, ed. Georg Eckert, The Hague, Mouton, 1963

Maine, Henry Sumner, Ancient Law: Its Connection with the Early History of Society and Its Relation to Modern Ideas, London, J. Murray, 1895 [1861]

———, Lectures on the Early History of Institutions, London, J. Murray, 1875

———, Village-Communities in the East and West: Six Lectures Delivered at Oxford, London, J. Murray, 1871

Marx, Eleanor, History of the Commune of 1871 from the French of Lissagaray, New York, International Publishing Company, 1898

Marx, Karl, Love Poems of Karl Marx, eds. Reinhard Lettau and Lawrence Ferlinghetti, City Light Books, San Francisco, 1977

———, Value, Price and Profit, ed. E. Aveling, London, Sonnenschein, 1898

Marx–Engels–Lenin Institute, Karl Marx: Chronik seines Lebens in Einzeldaten. Zusammengestellt vom Marx-Engels-Lenin-Institut Moskau, Moscow/Glashütten, Auvermann, 1971 [1931]

Maurer, Georg Ludwig von, Einleitung zur Geschichte der Mark-, Hof-, Dorf- und Stadtverfassung und der öffentlichen Gewalt, Vienna, Brand, 1896

Mayer, Gustav, Friedrich Engels: Eine Biographie, 2 vols., repr. Berlin, Dietz, 1970 [1919, 1932]

——— Radikalismus, Sozialismus und bürgerliche Demokratie, Frankfurt am Main, Suhrkamp, 1969

Mazzini, Giuseppe, A Cosmopolitanism of Nations: Giuseppe Mazzini’s Writings on Democracy, Nation Building, and International Relations, eds. Stefano Recchia and Nadia Urbinati, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 2009

McLennan, John Ferguson, Primitive Marriage: An Enquiry into the Origin of the Form of Capture in Marriage Ceremonies, Edinburgh, Black, 1865

Meier, Olga (ed.), The Daughters of Karl Marx: Family Correspondence 1866–1898, London, Deutsch, 1982

Menger, Anton, The Right to the Whole Produce of Labour: The Origin and Development of the Theory of Labour’s Claim to the Whole Product of Industry, trans. M. E. Tanner, London, Macmillan, 1889 [1886]

Mercier, Louis Sébastien, Néologie ou Vocabulaire de mots nouveaux, Paris, Moussard, 1803

Meyen, Eduard, Hallische Jahrbücher für deutsche Wissenschaft und Kunst, Leipzig, Verlag von Otto Wigand, no. 193, 12 August 1840

Moneypenny, William Flavelle, and George Earle Buckle, The Life of Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield, 2 vols., London, John Murray, 1929

Mönke, Wolfgang (ed.), Moses Hess: Philosophische und Sozialistische Schriften 1837–1850, Vaduz, Topos Verlag, 1980

Monz, Heinz, Karl Marx: Grundlagen der Entwicklung zu Leben und Werk, Trier, Verlag Neu, 1973

———, Karl Marx und Trier: Verhältnisse, Beziehungen, Einflüsse, Trier, Verlag Neu, 1964

———, Zur Persönlichkeit von Marx’ Schwiegervater Johann Ludwig von WestphalenSchriften aus dem Karl-Marx-Haus, Trier, no. 9, 1973

Morgan, Lewis. H., The American Beaver and His Works, Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott and Co., 1868

———, Ancient Society, or Researches in the Lines of Human Progress from Savagery through Barbarism to Civilization, ed. Eleanor Burke Leacock, Cleveland, World Pub. Co., 1963 [1877]

Möser, Justus, Osnabrückische Geschichte, 2nd edn, Berlin, 1780

Nasse, Erwin, On the Agricultural Community of the Middle Ages, and Inclosures of the Sixteenth Century in England, trans. Colonel H. A. Ouvry, London, Macmillan, 1871

Plekhanov, G. (N. Beltov), The Development of the Monist View of History, Moscow, Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1956 [1895]

Riazanov, David, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels: An Introduction to Their Lives and Work, London, Monthly Review Press, 1973 [1927]

——— (ed.), Marx-Engels-Archiv: Zeitschrift des Marx-Engels-Instituts in Moskau, Frankfurt am Main, Marx-Engels-Archiv Verlags-Gesellschaft, 1928

Ricardo, David, Des Principes de l’Économie Politique et de l’Impôt, Paris, J. P. Aillaud, 1835

———, The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, London, John Murray, 1817

Rousseau, J.-J., The Social Contract and Other Later Political Writings, ed. Victor Gourevitch, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1997

Ruge, Arnold, Arnold Ruges Briefwechsel und Tagebuchblätter aus den Jahren 1825–1880, ed. Paul Nerrlich, Berlin, Weidmann, 1886

———, Zwei Jahre in Paris: Studien und Erinnerungen, 2 vols., Leipzig, W. Jurany, 1846

Rumohr, Carl Friedrich von, Italienische Forschungen, Berlin and Stettin, Nicolai’sche Buchhandlung, 1827

Sass, Friedrich, Berlin in seiner neuesten Zeit und Entwicklung, Leipzig, Koffka, 1846

Savigny, Friedrich Karl von, The History of the Roman Law in the Middle Ages, trans. E. Cathcart, Edinburgh, A. Black, 1829

———, Of the Vocation of Our Age for Legislation and Jurisprudence, trans. Abraham Hayward, London, Littlewood and Co., 1828

———, Von Savigny’s Treatise on Possession or the Jus Possessionis of the Civil Law, trans. Erskine Perry, London, Sweet, 1848

Schlegel, Friedrich von, Kritische-Friedrich-Schlegel-Ausgabe, vol. VI, Munich, F. Schöningh, 1961

Seebohm, Frederic, The English Village Community – Examined in Its Relation to the Manorial and Tribal Systems and the Common or Open Field System of Husbandry – an Essay in Economic History, London, Longman, Green and co., 1883

Seiler, Sebastian, Das Komplott vom 13. Juni 1849oder der letzte Sieg der Bourgeoisie in Frankreich, Hamburg, Joffman und Campe, 1850

Sismondi, J.-C.-L. Simonde de, Nouveaux principes d’économie politique, ou, De la richesse dans ses rapports avec la population, 2 vols., Paris, Chez Delaunay, 1819

Smith, Adam, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, ed. Edwin Cannan, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1976 [1776]

Stein, Lorenz von, Der Socialismus und Communismus des heutigen Frankreichs: ein Beitrag zur Zeitgeschichte, 2nd edn, Leipzig, Otto Wigand, 1848

Stekloff, G. M., History of the First International, London, M. Lawrence, 1928

Stern, Daniel, Histoire de la Révolution de 1848, Paris, André Balland, 1985 [1850–52]

Stirner, Max, The Ego and Its Own, ed. David Leopold, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1995 [1845]

Stubbs, William, Constitutional History of Englandin Its Origins and Development, 3 vols., Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1875

Tocqueville, Alexis de, Recollections, eds. J. P. Mayer and A. P. Kerr, trans. G. Lawrence, London, Macdonald, 1970

Toussenel, Alphonse, Les Juifs, rois de l’époque: Histoire de la féodalité financière, Paris, G. de Gonet, 1845

Toynbee, Arnold, Lectures on the Industrial Revolution in England, London, Rivingtons, 1884

Ure, Andrew, The Philosophy of Manufactures; or, an Exposition of the Scientific, Moral and Commercial Economy of the Factory System of Great Britain, London, Charles Knight, 1835

Vinogradoff, Paul, Villainage in England: Essays in English Medieval History, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1968 [1892]

Vizetelly, Henry, Berlin under the New Empire: Its InstitutionsInhabitants, Industry, Monuments, Museums, Social Life, Manners, and Amusements, London, Tinsley, 1879

Webb, Sidney and Beatrice, A History of Trade Unionism, London, Longmans, 1902

Wright, Thomas, Our New Masters, London, Strahan and Co., 1873


Agulhon, Maurice, 1848, ou L’Apprentissage de la République 1848–1852, Paris, Éditions du Seuil, 1973

Alexandrian, Sarane, Le Socialisme Romantique, Paris, Éditions du Seuil, 1979

Anchel, Robert, Napoléon et les Juifs, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1928

Anderson, Kevin. B., Marx at the Margins: On Nationalism, Ethnicity, and Non-Western Societies, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2010

Archer, Julian P. W., The First International in France 1864–1872Its Origins, Theories and Impact, Lanham, Md/Oxford, University Press of America, 1997

Ashton, Rosemary, Little Germany: Exile and Asylum in Victorian England, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1986

Avineri, Shlomo, The Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1968

Baker, Keith, ‘Fixing the French Constitution’, in Inventing the French Revolution: Essays on French Political Culture in the Eighteenth Century, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1990

Barclay, David E., Frederick William IV and the Prussian Monarchy 1840–1861, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1995

Barclay, David E., and Eric D. Weitz (eds.), Between Reform and Revolution: German Socialism and Communism from 1840 to 1990, New York, Berghahn, 1998

Bayly, C. A., and E. S. Biagini (eds.), Giuseppe Mazzini and the Globalisation of Democratic Nationalism 1830–1920, London, Proceedings of the British Academy (no. 152), 2008

Beiser, Frederick C., The Fate of ReasonGerman Philosophy from Kant to Fichte, Cambridge Mass., Harvard University Press, 1987

Beiser, Frederick C., The Romantic ImperativeThe Concept of Early German Romanticism, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 2003

Beecher, Jonathan, Victor Considérant and the Rise and Fall of French Romantic Socialism, Berkeley, Calif., University of California Press, 2001

Bell, Duncan (ed.), Victorian Visions of Global Order: Empire and International Relations in Nineteenth-Century Political Thought, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1997

Berenson, Edward, Populist Religion and Left-Wing Politics in France, 1830–1852, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1984

Berlin, Isaiah, Karl Marx: His Life and Environment, 4th edn, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1978 [1939]

Bernstein, Édouard, Ferdinand Lassalle: Le Réformateur social, Paris, Rivière, 1913

Blumenberg, Werner, Portrait of Marx: An Illustrated Biography, trans. Douglas Scott, New York, Herder and Herder, 1972

Blumenkranz, B. (ed.), Histoire des Juifs en France, Toulouse, E. Privat, 1972

Breckman, Warren, Marx, the Young Hegelians, and the Origins of Radical Social Theory: Dethroning the Self, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1999

Brunner, Otto, Werner Conze and Reinhart Koselleck (eds.), Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe: Historisches Lexikon sur Politisch-Sozialen Sprache in Deutschland (vol. 1), 8 vols., Stuttgart, Klett-Cotta, 1972–97

Burrow, J. W., A Liberal Descent: Victorian Historians and the English Past, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1981

Bush, M. L. (ed.), Social Orders and Social Classes in Europe since 1500: Studies in Social Stratification, London, Longman, 1992

Campbell, Duncan A., English Public Opinion and the American Civil War, London, Royal Historical Society/Boydell Press, 2003

Carr, Edward Hallet, Michael Bakunin, London, Macmillan Press, 1975 [1937]

———, The Romantic Exiles: A Nineteenth-Century Portrait Gallery, London, V. Gollancz, 1933

Carver, Terrell, and Daniel Blank, Marx and Engels’s ‘German Ideology’ Manuscripts: Presentation and Analysis of the ‘Feuerbach Chapter’, New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2014

Catholic World, The, 6/34 (1868)

Claeys, Gregory, Imperial Sceptics: British Critics of Empire, 1850–1920, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2010

Clark, Christopher, Iron Kingdom: The Rise and Downfall of Prussia, 1600–1947, London, Allen Lane, 2006

Cohen, G. A., History, Labour and Freedom: Themes from Marx, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1988

Collins, Henry, and Chimen Abramsky, Karl Marx and the British Labour Movement: Years of the First International, London, Macmillan, 1965

Conze, Werner (ed.), Staat und Gesellschaft im deutschen Vormärz 1815–1848, Stuttgart, E. Klett, 1962 (Industrielle Welt, vol. 1)

Cook, Simon J., The Intellectual Foundations of Alfred Marshall’s Economic ScienceA Rounded Globe of Knowledge, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2009

Cornu, Auguste, Karl Marx et Friedrich Engels: Leur vie et leur oeuvre, vol. 1, Paris, Presses Universitaires de France, 1955

Cottier, Georges, L’Athéisme du jeune Marx: ses origines hégéliennes, Paris, Vrin, 1969

Daumard, Adeline, Les Bourgeois et la bourgeoisie en France depuis 1815, Paris, Flammarion, 1987

Davis, John A., and Paul Ginsborg (eds.), Society and Politics in the Age of the Risorgimento: Essays in Honour of Denis Mack Smith, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1991

Demetz, Peter, Marx, Engels and the Poets: Origins of Marxist Literary Criticism, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1967

Derfler, Leslie, Paul Lafargue and the Founding of French Marxism 1842–1882, Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, 1991

Dopsch, Alfons, The Economic and Social Foundations of European Civilisation, London, Kegan Paul, 1937 [1923–4]

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