One Matchless Time: A Life of William Faulkner - Jay Parini (2005)

Notes

CHAPTER ONE: ORIGINS

1. Don H. Doyle, Faulkner’s County: The Historical Roots of Yoknapatawpha (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001), 3. I draw much of the historical background for Yoknapatawpha County from Doyle’s book.

2. Ward L. Miner, The World of William Faulkner (New York: Grove Press, 1952).

3. Joseph Blotner, Faulkner: A Biography, 2 vols. (New York: Random House, 1974). I sometimes refer to the single-volume edition but indicate when this is so.

4. A. J. Bezzerides, William Faulkner: A Life on Paper (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1980), 23.

5. Robert Penn Warren. Interview with author, August 5, 1987.

6. Blotner, Faulkner, II, 1205.

7. Robert Penn Warren interview.

8. Malcolm Cowley, ed., The Portable Faulkner (1946; rev. ed. New York: Viking Penguin, 1967), viii.

9. William Faulkner, Absalom, Absalom! (New York: Random House, 1936), 142. I usually refer to the first edition of Faulkner’s books, although sometimes I refer to more popular paperback editions. In the bibliography, all first editions are listed.

10. Malcolm Cowley, ed., The Faulkner-Cowley File: Letters and Memories, 1944-1962 (New York: Viking, 1966), 66.

11. Joel Williamson, William Faulkner and Southern History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), 67.

12. Joseph Blotner, Faulkner, one-volume ed. (New York: Random House, 1984), 22.

13. Williamson, William Faulkner, 436.

14. William Faulkner, Sartoris (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1929), 299.

15. Quoted in John K. Bettersworth, Mississippi in the Confederacy: As They Saw It (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1961), 163.

16. William Faulkner, The Unvanquished (New York: Random House, 1938), 31.

17. Eric Foner, Reconstruction, 1863-1877: America’s Unfinished Revolution (New York: Harper & Row, 1988), 559.

18. Reported in Blotner, Faulkner (one-volume ed.), 34. See also, John Faulkner, My Brother Bill: An Affectionate Reminiscence (New York: Trident Press, 1963), 73. Hereafter MBB.

19. MBB, 11.

20. Quoted by Williamson, William Faulkner, 95.

21. For a full account of this scandal, see ibid., 92-94.

22. He hosted, for example, a banquet of railway engineers on January 12, 1901, as reported in the Oxford Eagle, January 14, 1901, 3.

23. Jill Faulkner Summers (Mrs. Paul D. Summers). Interview with author, February 14, 2003.

24. James B. Meriwether, ed., Essays, Speeches, and Public Lectures by William Faulkner (New York: Random House, 1966), 117. Hereafter ESP.

25. See MBB, 47-49.

26. Robert Penn Warren interview.

27. John T. Matthews, The Play of Faulkner’s Language (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1982), 16.

28. Robert A. Jellife, ed., Faulkner at Nagano (Tokyo: Kenyusha, 1956), 103.

29. Blotner, Faulkner, I, 85.

30. J. S. Smith interview. Carvel Collins Collection, University of Texas Libraries (Austin).

31. Faulkner’s report card is in the Faulkner Collection at the Alderman Library, University of Virginia.

32. Reminiscences of Ralph Muckenfuss. Blotner, Faulkner, I, 120.

33. William Faulkner, The Reivers (New York: Random House, 1962), 46.

34. Robert Penn Warren interview.

35. Oxford Eagle, November 16, 1909, 3.

36. Faulkner, The Reivers, 94.

CHAPTER TWO: TOWN LIFE

1. M. C. Wirth interview. Carvel Collins Collection, University of Texas Libraries.

2. MBB, 85.

3. Robert Coughlan, The Private World of William Faulkner (New York: Harper, 1954), 138-39.

4. Phil Stone, “William Faulkner: The Man and His Work,” in James B. Meriweather, “Early Notices of Faulkner by Phil Stone and Louis Cochran,” Mississippi Quarterly (summer 1964), 162.

5. Robert Frost, letter to George Wicher, June 21, 1921. Frost Collection, Dartmouth College Library.

6. Stone, “William Faulkner,” 162-63.

7. William Alexander Percy in Lanterns on the Levee (1941). See Blotner, Faulkner, I, 172.

8. “The Bear” appears in Go Down, Moses (New York: Random House, 1942.) Modern Library edition, 193.

9. Blotner, Faulkner, I, 179.

10. Oxford Eagle, September 10, 1913, 3.

11. Robert Penn Warren interview.

12. The Faulkner Reader (New York: Random House, 1954), viii.

13. Ben Wasson, “The Time Has Come,” Greenville [S.C.] Delta Democrat-Times, July 15, 1962.

14. Robert Penn Warren interview.

15. See Williamson, William Faulkner, 175.

16. Carvel Collins Collection, University of Texas Libraries.

17. James G. Watson, ed., Thinking of Home: William Faulkner’s Letters to His Mother and Father, 1918-1925 (New York: W.W. Norton, 1992), 23.

18. Ibid., 26.

19. Ibid.

20. Ibid., 41.

21. Ibid., 51.

22. Ibid.

23. Ibid., 57.

24. Ibid., 65.

25. Ibid., 84.

26. Ibid., 91.

27. Ibid., 96.

28. Toronto Star November 23, 1918, 6.

29. Watson, Thinking of Home, 106.

30. Ibid., 113.

31. Murry C. Falkner, The Falkners of Mississippi: A Memoir (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1967), 90-91.

32. MBB, 138-39.

33. Blotner, Faulkner, I, 251.

34. William Faulkner, letter to the editor, Mississippian, April 7, 1919, 3.

35. James W. Webb and A. Wigfall Green, eds., William Faulkner of Oxford (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1965), 46.

36. Louis Jiggits, letter to the editor, Mississippian, September 21, 1920, 5.

37. Blotner, Faulkner, I, 282.

38. Robert Penn Warren interview.

CHAPTER THREE: EXCURSIONS AND EXTENSIONS

1. Noel Polk, letter to the author, October 15, 2003.

2. Judith L. Sensibar, The Origins of Faulkner’s Art (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1984), 138, 163.

3. Stark Young, The Pavilion: Of People and Times Remembered, of Stories and Places (New York: Scribners, 1951), 59.

4. William Faulkner, The Town (New York: Random House, 1957), 350.

5. Elizabeth Anderson and Gerald R. Kelly, Miss Elizabeth: A Memoir (Boston: Little, Brown, 1969), 23-24, 61-63.

6. Watson, Thinking of Home, 136.

7. Cleanth Brooks. Interview with author, August 20, 1986.

8. James B. Meriwether and Michael Millgate, eds., Lion in the Garden: Interviews with William Faulkner, 1926-1962 (New York: Random House, 1968), 14. Hereafter LIG. Blotner, Faulkner, I, 325.

9. Quoted in “Early Notices of Faulkner by Phil Stone and Louis Cochran,” Mississippi Quarterly 17 (winter 1964), 139.

10. Thomas L. McHaney, “Untapped Faulkner: What Faulkner Read at the P.O.,” Faulkner at 100: Retrospect and Prospect. Faulkner and Yoknapatawpha 1997, eds. Donald M. Kartiganer and Ann J. Abadie (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1998), 180-87.

11. William Faulkner, “American Drama: Inhibitions,” Mississippian, March 17 and March 24, 1922.

12. William Faulkner, Review of Java Head, by Joseph Hergesheimer. Mississippian, April 13, 1923.

13. Blotner, Faulkner, I, 338.

14. Selected Letters of William Faulkner, ed. Joseph Blotner (New York: Random House, 1977). Hereafter SL.

15. This letter, which is in the Harvard University Library collection, was published in an article in the New Yorker, November 21, 1970, 50.

16. Joan St. C. Crane, “‘Case No. 133733-C’: The Inspector’s Letter to Postmaster William Faulkner,” Mississippi Quarterly (summer 1989), 228-45.

17. James W. Webb and A. Wigfall Green, eds. William Faulkner of Oxford (Baton Rouge, Louisiana State University Press, 1965), 57-58.

18. Oxford Eagle, November 19, 1924.

19. William Faulkner, New Orleans Sketches, ed. Carvel Collins (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1958), 132-33.

20. Sherwood Anderson, letter to Waldo Frank, quoted in Michael Reynolds, The Young Hemingway (New York: W.W. Norton, 1998), 182.

21. Frederick L. Gwynn and Joseph Blotner, eds., Faulkner in the University: Class Conferences at the University of Virginia, 1957-1958 (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1959), 230.

22. Hamilton Basso, “William Faulkner: Man and Writer,” Saturday Review (July 28, 1962), 11.

23. Watson, Thinking of Home, 149.

24. Ibid., 152.

25. Ibid., 156.

26. Ibid., 157.

27. Robert Penn Warren interview.

28. Faulkner, New Orleans Sketches, 8.

29. Ibid., 9.

30. Ibid., 19.

31. Ibid., 108.

32. Watson, Thinking of Home, 161.

33. William Spratling, “Chronicle of a Friendship: William Faulkner in New Orleans,” Texas Quarterly (spring 1966), 35.

34. Harold Dempsey, interviewed by Carvel Collins. Carvel Collins Collection, University of Texas Libraries.

35. Watson, Thinking of Home, 168.

36. Ibid., 170.

37. Quoted by Collins in his introduction to Faulkner, New Orleans Sketches, xxii.

38. These notes, and the manuscript of the novel, are in the Berg Collection, New York Public Library.

39. Watson, Thinking of Home, 175.

40. James G. Geller letter to Carvel Collins, n.d. Carvel Collins Collection, University of Texas Libraries.

41. Dempsey interview, Carvel Collins Collection.

42. Watson, Thinking of Home, 186.

43. William Faulkner, Soldiers’ Pay (New York: Boni & Liveright, 1926), 92.

44. Ibid., 52.

45. Ibid., 150.

46. Daniel J. Singal, The Making of a Modernist (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1997), 67.

47. Faulkner, Soldiers’ Pay, 48-49.

48. Noel Polk, letter to the author.

49. William Faulkner, “A Portrait of Elmer,” in Uncollected Stories of William Faulkner, ed. Joseph Blotner (New York: Random House, 1975), 610.

50. SL, 9.

51. Ibid., 10.

52. Ibid., 19.

53. Ibid., 11.

54. Ibid., 11-12.

55. Ibid., 13.

56. Ibid., 18.

57. Ibid., 22.

58. Ibid., 26.

59. Ibid., 29.

60. Ibid., 30.

61. Watson, Thinking of Home, 196.

CHAPTER FOUR: INTO HIS OWN

1. Blotner, Faulkner, I, 488.

2. Howard Mumford Jones and Walter B. Rideout, eds., Letters of Sherwood Anderson (Boston: Little, Brown, 1953), 155.

3. John Bassett, ed., William Faulkner: The Critical Heritage (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1975), 84.

4. Ibid., 52.

5. Ibid., 57.

6. Ibid., 56.

7. William Faulkner, letter to Helen Baird, 1926. Carvill Collins Collection. University of Texas Libraries.

8. Ibid.

9. Blotner, Faulkner, I, 438.

10. William Faulkner, Mosquitoes (New York: Boni & Liveright, 1927), 250.

11. William Faulkner, Sanctuary (New York: Cape and Smith, 1931), 4.

12. Frederick R. Karl, William Faulkner: American Writer (New York: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1981), 269.

13. A handwritten draft of forty-five pages of the novel turned up in the late 1970s, squashing the original idea that Mosquitoes had been written largely on the typewriter. According to Noel Polk, Faulkner always wrote his novels by hand, then typed them.

14. Faulkner, Mosquitoes, 10.

15. Ibid., 345.

16. André Bleikasten, The Most Splendid Failure: Faulkner’s The Sound and the Fury (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1976), 84.

17. Faulkner, Mosquitoes, 215.

18. Max Putzel, Genius of Place: William Faulkner’s Triumphant Beginnings (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1985), 78. Quoted in Singal, The Making of a Modernist, 83.

19. Faulkner, Mosquitoes, 71.

20. Singal, The Making of a Modernist, 83.

21. Faulkner, Mosquitoes, 71.

22. Ibid., 182.

23. Ibid., 182-83.

24. Untitled manuscript in a folder called Faulkner that was given by Joseph Blotner to the library, Beinecke Library, Yale University. Blotner quotes from this document in his biography.

25. Blotner, Faulkner, I, 528. This manuscript is in the Arents Collection, New York Public Library.

26. William Faulkner, Flags in the Dust, ed. Douglas Day (New York: Random House, 1973), 94-95, 263, 427, 7. The novel was reconstructed from original drafts by the editor, Douglas Day, who also supplied a useful introduction.

27. LIG, 255.

28. Blotner, Faulkner, I, 538.

29. See Blotner, Faulkner, 1984 one-volume ed., 270. It seems clear that Faulkner was terrified of marriage to Estelle, though compulsively drawn to the possibility at the same time.

30. Faulkner, Flags in the Dust, 418.

31. Bassett, William Faulkner, 63-65.

32. Ibid., 67.

33. Ibid., 68.

34. Ibid., 70.

35. SL, 38.

36. Blotner, Faulkner, I, 560.

37. Meriwether, Lion in the Garden, 146.

38. As John T. Matthews has said, “The Sound and the Fury poses the Compson brothers’ longing for Caddy as a synecdoche of the writer’s desire for ‘manufactured’ presence in the text. But The Sound and the Furyshows Faulkner that all novels frustrate and perpetuate desire; they are failures, unfinished and yet complete; they produce meaning through the play of limitess difference, of legtimately rival truths.” Matthews, The Play of Faulkner’s Language, 9.

39. Gwynn, Faulkner in the University, 45.

40. Minrose Gwin, The Feminine and Faulkner (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1989), 16. See also Faulkner and Women: Faulkner and Yoknapatawpha, eds. Doreen Fowler and Ann J. Abadie (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1986) and “Drowsing Maidenhead Symbol’s Self: Faulkner and the Fictions of Love” in Faulkner and the Craft of Fiction: Faulkner and Yoknapatawpha, eds. Doreen Fowler and Ann J. Abadie (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1989).

41. Philip M. Weinstein, Faulkner’s Subject: A Cosmos No One Owns (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), 13.

42. LIG, 146.

43. Matthews, The Play of Faulkner’s Language, 65.

44. LIG, 147.

45. Stephen M. Ross and Noel Polk, Reading Faulkner: The Sound and the Fury (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1996), 5.

46. LIG, 146.

47. André Bleikasten, The Ink of Melancholy: Faulkner’s Novels from The Sound and the Fury to Light in August (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990), 70.

48. Cleanth Brooks, William Faulkner: The Yoknapatawpha Country (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963), 331-32.

49. John T. Irwin, Doubling and Incest, Repetition and Revenge: A Speculative Reading of Faulkner (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975), 59.

50. Karl F. Zender, Faulkner and the Politics of Reading (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2002), 14.

51. Faulkner, Sound and the Fury, 81.

52. Ibid., 97.

53. Bleikasten, The Ink of Melancholy, 77.

54. Singal, William Faulkner, 120.

55. Karl F. Zender, The Crossing of the Ways: William Faulkner, the South, and the Modern World (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1989), 12.

56. Carvel Collins, “William Faulkner’s The Sound and the Fury,” in The American Novel from James Fenimore Cooper to William Faulkner, ed. Wallace Stegner (New York: Basic Books, 1960), 225.

57. Faulkner, The Sound and the Fury, 191.

58. The phrase belongs to John T. Matthews.

59. Bleikasten, The Ink of Melancholy, 169-70.

60. Faulkner, The Sound and the Fury, 314.

61. Brooks, William Faulkner: The Yoknapatwapha Country, 345.

62. Noel Polk, Children of the Dark House: Text and Context in Faulkner (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1996), 134.

63. Ibid., 134-35.

64. See ibid., 135.

65. Weinstein, Faulkner’s Subject, 15.

66. Floyd C. Watkins and John T. Hiers, eds., Robert Penn Warren Talking: Interviews, 1950-1978 (New York: Random House, 1980), 41.

CHAPTER FIVE: IN YOKNAPATAWPHA COUNTY

1. Jill Faulkner Summers interview.

2. Gwynn, Faulkner in the University, 90-91.

3. Bassett, William Faulkner, 74.

4. Ibid., 72.

5. Leslie Fiedler, Love and Death in the American Novel (New York: Stein and Day, 1966), 301.

6. In an early draft of the novel, Belle pointedly says to Horace: “Dont talk to me about love. You’re in love with your sister. What do books call it? What sort of complex?” See William Faulkner, Sanctuary: The Original Text, ed. Noel Polk (New York: Random House, 1981), 16.

7. Faulkner, Sanctuary, 7-8.

8. Albert J. Guerard, Triumph of the Novel: Dickens, Dostoevsky, Faulkner (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976), 8.

9. Faulkner, Sanctuary, 36.

10. Ibid., 98.

11. Original manuscript of Sanctuary in the Faulkner Collection, Alderman Library, University of Virginia.

12. Faulkner, Sanctuary, 289.

13. Henry Seidel Canby, “The School of Cruelty,” Saturday Review of Literature (May 21, 1931), 674.

14. Larry Levinger, “The Prophet Faulkner,” Atlantic Monthly (June 2000), 82.

15. Bleikasten, The Ink of Melancholy, 218.

16. Quoted by Faulkner in a later introduction to the novel, and reproduced in ESP, 177.

17. See Williamson, William Faulkner, 172.

18. This conversation was recorded in notes kept in the Louis Daniel Brodsky Collection in the Kent Library of Southeast Missouri State University.

19. Not published in Joseph Blotner’s original biography, the author decided to include it in his one-volume Faulkner: A Life in 1984. See this edition, 240.

20. Bassett, William Faulkner, 84.

21. Ibid., 87.

22. Ibid., 91.

23. Cleanth Brooks, The Yoknapatawpha Country (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963), 154-55.

24. William Faulkner, As I Lay Dying (New York: Random House, 1957 edition), 24. Originally published in 1930 by Cape and Smith.

25. Kevin Railey, Natural Aristocracy: History, Ideology, and the Production of William Faulkner (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1999), 89.

26. Faulkner, As I Lay Dying, 154.

27. Ibid., 160.

28. See Patrick O’Donnell, “The Spectral Road; Metaphors of Transference in Faulkner’s As I Lay Dying.” Papers on Language and Literature 20, 1 (winter 1984), passim.

29. Faulkner, As I Lay Dying, 22.

30. Harold Bloom, ed., American Fiction 1914-1945 (New York: Chelsea House, 1987), 10. This quotation is from Bloom’s introduction.

31. Faulkner, As I Lay Dying, 41.

32. Robert Penn Warren interview.

33. I’ll Take My Stand (New York: Harper, 1930). Quotation from Harper Torchbook edition (1962), xxiv.

34. Ibid., 328.

35. Ibid., 60.

36. Robert Penn Warren interview.

37. Ibid., 62.

38. Robert Penn Warren interview.

39. Sherwood Anderson, “They Come Bearing Gifts,” American Mercury XXI (October 1930), 129.

40. Bassett, William Faulkner, 93.

41. Ibid., 96.

42. LIG, 252.

43. Ibid., 123.

44. See Linton Massey, “Notes on the Unrevised Galleys of Faulkner’s Sanctuary,” Studies in Bibliography 8 (1956), 195-208.

45. Ibid., 202.

46. Polk, Children of the Dark House, 43.

47. Ibid.

48. See ibid., 51, and John T. Matthews, “The Elliptical Nature of Sanctuary,” Novel 17 (1984), 246-65.

CHAPTER SIX: THE CIRCLE WIDENS

1. Phil Stone, letter to Robert Coughlin. October 10, 1952. Carvel Collins Collection, University of Texas Libraries.

2. Bassett, William Faulkner, 119.

3. Ibid., 107.

4. Ibid., 111.

5. Anonymous review of Sanctuary, by William Faulkner, Memphis Evening Appeal, March 26, 1931, 8.

6. Jill Faulkner Summers interview.

7. See MBB, 170-71.

8. Robert Penn Warren interview.

9. Estelle Faulkner relayed this story to Joeseph Blotner in 1965. See Blotner, Faulkner, I, 702.

10. Most of the “Dark House” manuscript is in the Faulkner Collection, Alderman Library at the University of Virginia. A few pages are at the University of Texas Library.

11. William Faulkner, Collected Stories of William Faulkner (New York: Random House, 1950), 898.

12. See Blotner, Faulkner, I, 714.

13. LIG, 18.

14. SL, 52.

15. George Braziller. Interview with author, February 14, 2003.

16. SL, 53.

17. Ibid.

18. Interview with Jill Faulkner Summers.

19. SL, 59.

20. Ibid., 66.

21. Faulkner, Collected Stories, 475.

22. Jill Faulkner Summers interview.

23. Ibid.

24. Falkner, The Falkners of Mississippi, 200-201.

25. Blotner, Faulkner, I, 780, 787.

26. Bassett, William Faulkner, 138.

27. Ibid., 141.

28. Ibid., 145.

29. Ibid., 151.

30. Oxford Eagle, October 20, 1932, 3.

31. William Faulkner, Light in August (New York: Modern Library, 1959), 407. Original publication in 1932.

32. Philip M. Weinstein, What Else But Love? The Ordeal of Race in Faulkner and Morrison (New York: Columbia University Press, 1996), 170.

33. Jill Faulkner Summers interview.

34. SL, 84.

35. Ibid., 81.

36. Cleanth Brooks. Interview with author, August 11, 1985.

37. Gwynn, Faulkner in the University, 36.

38. William Faulkner, Pylon (New York: Harrison Smith and Robert Haas, 1935), 198.

39. Ibid., 54.

40. Ibid., 53.

41. Ibid., 323.

42. SL, 86-87.

43. SL, 60.

44. Zender, The Crossing of the Ways, 50.

CHAPTER SEVEN: THE WRITER AS PATRIARCH

1. SL, 90-91.

2. Bassett, William Faulkner, 184.

3. T. S. Mathews, “Eagles Over Mobile, or Three Yairs for Faulkner,” American Spectator (January 1936), 9.

4. Jill Faulkner Summers interview.

5. SL, 94-95.

6. Meta Carpenter Wilde and Orin Borsten, A Loving Gentleman: The Love Story of William Faulkner and Meta Carpenter (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1976), 15.

7. Ibid., 56.

8. Ibid., 75.

9. Corey Ford, The Time of Laughter (Boston: Little, Brown, 1967), 150-51.

10. Blotner, Faulkner, II, 945.

11. Cleanth Brooks interview.

12. Robert Penn Warren interview.

13. William Faulkner, Absalom, Absalom! (New York: Random House, 1936), 184.

14. Ibid., 250.

15. William Faulkner, Uncollected Stories of William Faulkner, ed. Joseph Blotner (New York: Vintage, 1979), 508.

16. SL, 84.

17. Faulkner, Absalom, Absalom!, 316.

18. Matthews, The Play of Faulkner’s Language, 15.

19. Faulkner, Absalom, Absalom!, 33.

20. Ibid., 209.

21. Ibid., 213.

22. Ibid., 267.

23. Joseph Blotner makes this point in his biography.

24. SL, 79.

25. Weinstein, Faulkner’s Subject, 53.

26. Singal, William Faulkner, 198.

27. See Helen Merrell Lynd, On Shame and the Search for Identity (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1958), 57 and passim.

28. Railey, Natural Aristocracy, 138.

29. Faulkner, Absalom, Absalom!, 279.

30. Hyatt Waggoner, “Past as Present: Absalom, Absalom!,” in Faulkner: A Collection of Critical Essays, ed. Robert Penn Warren (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1966), 182.

31. Polk, Children of the Dark House, 140-41.

32. Christopher Butler, Postmodernism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 70.

33. Robert Penn Warren interview.

34. Matthews, The Play of Faulkner’s Language, 155-56.

35. Quoted from T. S. Eliot, The Waste Land.

36. Bassett, William Faulkner, 207.

37. Harold Stauss, New York Times, October 31, 1936, 62.

38. Bassett, William Faulkner, 212.

39. Anonymous review of Absalom, Absalom!, Time, November 2, 1936, 67.

40. For a good survey of Faulkner’s early reputation and the response of reviewers to his work, see O. B. Emerson, Faulkner’s Early Literary Reputation in America (Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI Research Press, 1984).

41. Wilde and Borsten, A Loving Gentleman, 158.

42. Ibid., 178.

43. Elaine Steinbeck. Interview with author, June 20, 1997.

44. Wilde and Borsten, A Loving Gentleman, 189.

45. Ibid., 195.

46. Mario Vargas Llosa. Interview with author, October 22, 2002.

47. Jean-Paul Sartre, Literary and Philosophical Essays, trans. Annette Michelson (London: Rider and Co., 1955), 82.

48. Jill Faulkner Summers interview.

49. SL, 97-98.

50. One exception here might be his donation of the manuscript of Absalom to a group raising money for the loyalist side in the Spanish Civil War. But this seems a fairly isolated example of Faulkner’s interest in a concrete political cause before the early fifties.

51. William Faulkner, letter to Joan Williams, October 8, 1952. Faulkner Collection, Alderman Library, University of Virginia (Charlottesville).

52. George Braziller interview.

53. Ray Lewis White, ed., Sherwood Anderson’s Memoirs: A Critical Edition (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1969), 466.

54. ESP, 10.

55. SL, 102.

56. Ibid., 103.

57. Review of The Unvanquished, by William Faulkner, Christian Science Monitor, February 16, 1938, 27.

58. Bassett, William Faulkner, 226.

59. Ibid., 221.

60. Alfred Kazin. Interview with author, July 25, 1999.

61. MBB, 177.

62. Meriwether, Lion in the Garden, 219.

63. Cleanth Brooks interview.

64. William Faulkner, The Unvanquished (New York: Random House, 1938), 109.

65. Ibid., 154.

66. Ibid., 10.

CHAPTER EIGHT: WILDERNESS

1. J. F. Colfield in James W. Webb and A. Wigfall Green, eds., William Faulkner of Oxford (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1965), 110.

2. Chester McLarty, quoted in Larry Levinger, “The Prophet Faulkner,” Atlantic Monthly, June 2000, 81.

3. Jill Faulkner Summers interview.

4. MBB, 190-205.

5. SL, 105.

6. Wilde and Borsten, A Loving Gentleman, 237.

7. Ibid., 243-44.

8. M. Thomas Inge, ed., “The Faulkners: Recollections of a Gifted Family,” in Conversations with William Faulkner (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1999), 31.

9. See Blotner, Faulkner, II, 1014-15. Also see Bassett, William Faulkner, 230-43.

10. Bassett, William Faulkner, 245-45.

11. See Edmund L. Volpe, A Reader’s Guide to William Faulkner (New York: Farrar, Straus, 1964), 212-30, and William Van O’Connor, “Faulkner’s One-Sided ‘Dialogue’ with Hemingway,” College English (December 1962), 208-15.

12. Volpe, A Reader’s Guide, 230.

13. See Thomas L. McHaney, William Faulkner’s The Wild Palms: A Study (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1975).

14. Ibid., 39.

15. William Faulkner, If I Forget Thee, Jerusalem, ed. Noel Polk (New York: Library of America, 1990), 127. This is a corrected version of the The Wild Palms (New York: Random House, 1939), with the original title restored.

16. Ibid., 273.

17. McHaney, William Faulkner’s The Wild Palms, 193.

18. Singal, William Faulkner, 225.

19. McHaney, William Faulkner’s The Wild Palms, 10-11.

20. Anne Goodwyn Jones, “‘The Kotex Age’ Women, Popular Culture, and The Wild Palms,” in Faulkner and Popular Culture, ed. Doreen Fowler and Ann J. Abadie (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi), 142-43.

21. Singal, William Faulkner, 231, and James G. Watson, William Faulkner: A Self-Presentation and Performance (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2000), 166.

22. SL, 338.

23. Singal, William Faulkner, 230-31.

24. McHaney, William Faulkner’s The Wild Palms, 91.

25. Blotner, Faulkner, II, 1024.

26. Bassett, William Faulkner, 243.

27. Robert Penn Warren interview.

28. ESP, 198.

29. Blotner, Faulkner, II, 1035.

30. Bassett, William Faulkner, 251-52.

31. Ibid., 257.

32. Ibid., 261.

33. Brooks, The Yoknapatawpha Country, 172.

34. See Y. Y. Greet, “The Theme and Structure of Faulkner’s The Hamlet,” PMLA (September 1957), 775-90.

35. William Faulkner, The Hamlet (New York: Random House, 1940), 106.

36. Ibid., 131.

37. Jill Faulkner Summers interview.

38. SL, 139.

39. MBB, 222.

40. Faulkner, Collected Stories, 60.

41. SL, 146.

42. Blotner, Faulkner, II, 1102.

43. Bassett, William Faulkner, 297.

44. Horace Gregory, review of Go Down, Moses, by William Faulkner, New York Times Book Review, May 10, 1942, 1.

45. Bassett, William Faulkner, 299.

46. Review of Go Down, Moses, by William Faulkner, Time, May 11, 1942, 95.

47. Patrick O’Donnell, “Faulkner and Modernity,” The Cambridge Companion to William Faulkner, ed. Philip M. Weinstein (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 34.

48. Zender, Faulkner and the Politics of Reading, 75-76. One can find a good overview of critical reactions to Go Down, Moses as a whole in the editor’s introduction to New Essays on Go Down, Moses, ed. Linda Wagner-Martin (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 1-20.

49. William Faulkner, Go Down, Moses and Other Stories (New York: Random House, 1942), 154. Republished as Go Down, Moses by Random House in 1949. I quote from the latter edition.

50. Weinstein, Faulkner’s Subject, 59.

51. Faulkner, Go Down, Moses, 163.

52. Zender, The Crossing of the Ways, 109.

53. Faulkner, Go Down, Moses, 167.

54. Ibid., 175-76.

55. Ibid., 191.

56. Ibid., 135.

57. Ibid., 209.

58. Richard Godden and Noel Polk, “Reading the Ledgers,” Mississippi Quarterly (summer 2003). I’m grateful to Noel Polk for supplying an early typescript of this article.

59. Richard Gray, The Life of William Faulkner: A Critical Biography (Oxford: Blackwell, 1994), 282.

60. Faulkner, Go Down, Moses, 318.

61. Ibid., 340.

62. Weinstein, Faulkner’s Subject, 61.

63. Matthews, The Play of Faulkner’s Language, 272.

64. Arthur Mizener, “The Thin, Intelligent Face of American Fiction,” Kenyon Review 17 (spring 1955), 517.

65. See Weinstein’s discussion of this matter in Faulkner’s Subject, 60.

CHAPTER NINE: SEVEN LEAN YEARS

1. Blotner, Faulkner, II, 1103.

2. Ibid., 1129.

3. Anthony Quinn. Interview with author, October 12, 1996.

4. SL, 165.

5. Ibid., 168.

6. Anthony Quinn interview.

7. SL, 182.

8. Blotner, Faulkner, II, 1032.

9. Zender, The Crossing of the Ways, 67.

10. SL, 122.

11. William Faulkner, Requiem for a Nun (New York: Random House, 1951), 246-47. See Zender, The Crossing of the Ways, 101.

12. Elia Kazan. Interview with author, August 12, 1992. This interview was conducted when I was working on John Steinbeck.

13. Blotner, Faulkner, II, 1171.

14. Cowley, The Faulkner-Cowley File, 15. Also in SL, 185.

15. This phrase comes from “Notes Toward a Supreme Fiction” by Wallace Stevens.

16. Gore Vidal. Interview with author, April 9, 2002.

17. Elaine Steinbeck interview. Steinbeck was married to Zachary Scott at the time he and Faulkner were working together on this film.

18. Cowley, The Faulkner-Cowley File, 21.

19. Robert Cowley. Interview with author, May 22, 2002.

20. Cowley, The Faulkner-Cowley File, 25.

21. Elaine Steinbeck interview.

22. SL, 201.

23. William Faulkner, letter to Harold Ober, August 25, 1945. Faulkner Collection, Alderman Library, University of Virginia.

24. SL, 204.

25. Ibid., 211-12.

26. Robert Penn Warren interview.

27. SL, 216.

28. Ibid., 232.

29. Ibid., 233.

30. Ibid., 239.

31. Cleanth Brooks interview.

32. SL, 245.

33. Jill Faulkner Summers interview.

34. SL, 251-52.

35. Ibid., 261.

36. Ibid., 262.

37. Ibid., 266.

38. Bassett, William Faulkner, 332.

39. Ibid., 341-42.

40. Blotner, Faulkner, II, 1263.

41. Review of Intruder in the Dust, by William Faulkner, Time, October 4, 1948, 38.

42. Robert Cowley interview.

43. Weinstein, What Else But Love?, 124.

44. Irving Howe, William Faulkner: A Critical Study (New York: Random House, 1952), 33.

45. This quotation, from the original draft of the novel, is in P. Sanway, Faulkner: The Unappeased Imagination (Troy, N.Y.: Whitston Press, 1980), 84.

46. See, for example, Eric J. Sundquist, Faulkner: A House Divided (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983), 149-50.

47. William Faulkner, Intruder in the Dust (New York: Random House, 1948), 207.

48. Irwin, Doubling and Incest, 175.

49. Judith Bryant Wittenberg, Faulkner: The Transfiguration of Biography (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1979), 212.

CHAPTER TEN: THE WORLD’S EYE

1. SL, 277.

2. Ibid., 279.

3. Ibid., 282.

4. Robert Haas, letter to William Faulkner, February 22, 1949. Faulkner Collection, Alderman Library, University of Virginia (Charlottesville).

5. SL, 285.

6. Ibid., 286.

7. Blotner, Faulkner, II, 1287.

8. Jill Faulkner Summers interview.

9. Joan Williams. Interview with author, January 22, 2001.

10. Joan Williams, The Wintering (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1997), 2nd ed., 41, 54, 57.

11. Afterword to the 1997 edition of The Wintering, 376.

12. Jill Faulkner Summers interview.

13. Karl, William Faulkner, 787.

14. Wilde and Borsten, A Loving Gentleman, 316.

15. SL, 297.

16. William Faulkner, Knight’s Gambit (New York: Random House, 1949), 3.

17. Irwin, Doubling and Incest, 185.

18. William Faulkner, letter to Joan Williams, May 31, 1949. Manuscript in Faulkner Collection, Alderman Library, University of Virginia.

19. William Faulkner, letter to Joan Williams, December 29, 1949. Faulkner Collection, Alderman Library.

20. William Faulkner, letter to Joan Williams, December 31, 1949. Faulkner Collection, Alderman Library.

21. Dayton Kohler, “William Faulkner and the Social Consciousness,” College English (December 1949), 119.

22. SL, 302.

23. William Faulkner, letter to Joan Williams, March 9, 1950. Faulkner Collection, Alderman Library.

24. Blotner, Faulkner, II, 1219.

25. William Faulkner, letter to Joan Williams, June 17, 1950. Faulkner Collection, Alderman Library.

26. SL, 307.

27. William Faulkner, letter to Joan Williams, September 13, 1950. Faulkner Collection, Alderman Library.

28. Barbara Hand, “Faulkner’s Widow Recounts Memories of Weekend in Charlottesville,” Cavalier Daily, April 22, 1972, 4.

29. New York Times Book Review, August 20, 1950, 1; New York Herald Tribune, August 20, 1950, 1; Time, August 28, 1950, 79; Saturday Review of Literature, August 26, 1950, 12.

30. Cleanth Brooks interview.

31. Bassett, William Faulkner, 379.

32. Ibid., 341.

33. Ibid., 380.

34. Faulkner, Collected Stories, 776.

35. Jorge Luis Borges, Borges: A Reader, eds. Emir Rodriguez Monegal and Alastair Reid (New York: Dutton, 1991), 92-93.

36. Mario Vargas Llosa. Interview with author, October 30, 2002.

37. Alberto Moravia. Interview with author, August 4, 1988.

38. Cleanth Brooks interview.

39. William Faulkner, letter to Joan Williams, December 5, 1950. Faulkner Collection, Alderman Library, University of Virginia (Charlottesville).

40. Cowley, Faulkner-Cowley File, 129.

41. Elaine Steinbeck interview.

42. The entire speech is reprinted in ESP.

43. See ESP.

44. Jill Faulkner Summers interview.

45. Blotner, Faulkner, II, 1369.

46. Ellen Adler. Interview with author, September 8, 2002.

47. See Levinger, “The Prophet Faulkner,” 81.

48. See Watson, William Faulkner, 201.

49. Wilde and Borsten, A Loving Gentleman, 318.

50. William Faulkner, letter to Joan Williams, January 15, 1951. Faulkner Collection, Alderman Library, University of Virginia (Charlottesville).

51. Wilde and Borsten, A Loving Gentleman, 319.

52. See Watson, William Faulkner, 201. He notes that Saxe Commins assisted Faulkner by booking a room for Jonsson at the hotel.

53. SL, 315.

54. Reviews of Requiem for a Nun, by William Faulkner: Harvey Breit in Atlantic Monthly, October 1951, 53; Time, September 24, 1951, 114; Hal Smith in Saturday Review of Literature, September 29, 1951; Robert Penn Warren in New York Times, September 30, 1951, 32; Malcolm Cowley in New York Herald Tribune, September 30, 1951, 43; Anthony West in The New Yorker, September 22, 1951, 109.

55. Noel Polk, Faulkner’s Requiem for a Nun: A Critical Study (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1981). See especially 337-45 for a recapitulation of this evolution.

56. See Volpe, A Reader’s Guide, 281. Volpe, among others, argues that Faulkner has “followed his concept through to its logical conclusions and indicated that his vision of natural man has only limited validity.”

57. William Faulkner, Requiem for a Nun (New York: Vintage, 1975), 35. The original Random House edition was published in 1951.

58. Ibid., 96-97.

59. Ibid., 193.

60. Zender, The Crossing of the Ways, 101.

61. Michael Millgate, Faulkner’s Place (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1997), 109.

CHAPTER ELEVEN: IN HIS TIME

1. William Faulkner, letter to Joan Williams, January 1, 1952. Faulkner Collection, Alderman Library, University of Virginia.

2. William Faulkner, letter to Joan Williams, February 4, 1952. Faulkner Collection, Alderman Library.

3. SL, 328.

4. Graham Greene. Interview with author, August 20, 1988. I visited Greene at his home in southern France and spent a full day interviewing him. Extracts from my interview can be found in Graham Greene, A Man of Paradox, ed. A. F. Cassis (Chicago: Loyola University Press, 1994), 443-55.

5. William Faulkner, letter to Joan Williams, March 3, 1952. Faulkner Collection, Alderman Library.

6. SL, 331-32.

7. Memphis Commercial Appeal, May 16, 1952, 14.

8. Ellen Adler interview.

9. W. H. Auden, letter to Tania and James Stern. June 6, 1952. Letter courtesy of Richard Davenport-Hines.

10. SL, 332.

11. Robert Penn Warren interview.

12. SL, 333.

13. William Faulkner, letter to Saxe Commins, June 22, 1952. Faulkner Collection, Alderman Library.

14. William Faulkner, letter to Joan Williams, August 7, 1952. Faulkner Collection, Alderman Library.

15. SL, 339.

16. William Faulkner, letter to Joan Williams, September 27, 1952. Faulkner Collection, Alderman Library.

17. SL, 346.

18. Lillian Ross profile of Faulkner, in Meriwether, Lion in the Garden, 74-6.

19. SL, 347.

20. Blotner, Faulkner, II, 1453.

21. Alastair Reid. Interview with author, December 28, 2002.

22. Brinnin told this story to me at the home of Richard and Betty Eberhart in Hanover, New Hampshire, in 1977. A version of the story also appears in Blotner, Faulkner, II, 1458.

23. SL, 352.

24. Robert Coughlan’s Life article appeared in two parts, on September 28, 1953, and October 5, 1953. The second installment was called “The Man Behind the Faulkner Myth.”

25. SL, 354.

26. This story was passed around publishing circles in New York by Saxe Commins, and I’ve heard it from several sources, including Elaine Steinbeck, but I can find no specific confirmation in print. Noel Polk confirms that he has heard the story, too.

27. SL, 380.

28. Ibid., 357.

29. William Faulkner, letter to Joan Williams, January 11, 1954. Faulkner Collection, Alderman Library.

30. William Faulkner, letter to Joan Williams, January 24, 1954. Faulkner Collection, Alderman Library.

31. SL, 364.

32. LIG, 77-78.

33. Perspectives U.S.A. 10 (1955), 127.

34. Malcolm Cowley, New York Herald Tribune, August 1, 1954, 8.

35. Volpe, A Reader’s Guide, 304.

36. Blotner, Faulkner, II, 1152.

37. Ibid., 1493-95.

38. Keen and Nancy Butterworth, Annotations to William Faulkner’s A Fable (New York: Garland Press, 1989). I would also call attention to one article of considerable value here: Richard H. King, “A Fable: Faulkner’s Political Novel?,” Southern Literary Journal 17 (1985), 3-17.

39. William Faulkner, A Fable (New York: Random House, 1954), 158.

40. Ibid., 152.

41. Ibid., 180.

42. SL, 368.

43. See Time, August 23, 1954, 76.

44. Karl F. Zender, Faulkner and the Politics of Reading (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2002), 38.

45. SL, 372.

46. Ellen Adler interview.

47. Blotner, Faulkner, II, 1520.

48. Elaine Steinbeck interview.

49. Paul Flowers, Memphis Commercial Appeal, January 30, 1955, 3.

50. William Faulkner, “On Privacy: The American Dream: What Happened to It,” Harper’s (July, 1955), 33-38.

51. SL, 377.

52. Gore Vidal interview.

53. William Faulkner, New York Times, March 25, 1955. Included in ESP, 218.

54. SL, 382.

55. Ibid., 380.

56. Edwin Howard, “Faulkner in Egypt,” Memphis Press-Scimitar, June 14, 1955, 1.

57. SL, 384.

58. Many of the quotations and details of Faulkner’s ten-day visit to Japan are taken from Faulkner at Nagano, ed. Robert A. Jellifee (Tokyo: Kenyuasha, 1956). See also Blotner, Faulkner, II, 43-67.

59. LIG, 193.

60. Ibid., 195-97.

61. Blotner, Faulkner, II, 1569.

62. Alberto Moravia. Interview with author. I interviewed Moravia in Rome at his apartment overlooking the Tiber. He recalled having found it “almost impossible” to talk to Faulkner, but he had admired his novels for such a long time that he felt genuinely pleased to meet the man. “He was very much admired by Italian novelists after the war,” Moravia said.

63. ESP, 223.

64. Quoted in William Faulkner, A to Z, eds. A Nicholas Fargnoli and Michael Golay (New York: Checkmark Books, 2002), 234.

65. Meriwether, Lion in the Garden, 215-27.

66. Quoted by Kenneth Tynan, “Papa and the Playwright,” Esquire (May 1964), 140.

CHAPTER TWELVE: SIGNIFICANT SOIL

1. SL, 390.

2. Blotner, Faulkner, II, 1586.

3. SL, 391.

4. Estelle Faulkner, letter to Saxe Commins, November 5, 1956. Louis Daniel Brodsky Collection in the Kent Library at Southeastern Missouri State University. Quoted in Williamson, William Faulkner, 319.

5. Faulkner in the Reporter (March 22, 1956), 20. See interview in LIG, 257-64.

6. George Plimpton. Interview with author, January 15, 2002.

7. SL, 399.

8. William Faulkner, “If I Were a Negro,” Ebony (September, 1956), 70-73. The article is republished in ESP, 107-12.

9. SL, 402.

10. Quoted in James Atlas, Bellow: A Biography (New York: Random House, 2000), 248.

11. Elaine Steinbeck interview.

12. Blotner, Faulkner, II, 1625.

13. Ibid., 1629.

14. SL, 407.

15. Inge, Conversations with William Faulkner, 141.

16. Ibid., 135.

17. Gwynn, Faulkner in the University, 11-16.

18. Inge, Conversations with William Faulkner, 137.

19. Blotner, Faulkner, II, 1659.

20. Alfred Kazin, review of The Town, by William Faulkner, New York Times Book Review, May 5, 1952, 1.

21. Malcolm Cowley, review of The Town, by William Faulkner, New Republic, May 27, 1957, 20.

22. See Gwynn, Faulkner in the University, 107.

23. William Faulkner, The Town (New York: Random House, 1957), 259.

24. William Faulkner, The Mansion (New York: Random House, 1959), 119.

25. Brooks, The Yoknapatawpha Country, 217.

26. Railey, Natural Aristocracy, 161.

27. SL, 411.

28. Blotner, Faulkner, II, 1689. Notes of Lawrance Thompson, Faulkner Collection, Alderman Library, University of Virginia.

29. William Faulkner interview in Daily Princetonian, March 19, 1958, 2.

30. Inge, Conversations with William Faulkner, 96.

31. Blotner, Faulkner, II, 1693.

32. SL, 414.

33. Ibid., 415.

34. Ibid., 419.

35. William Faulkner, letter to Albert Erskine, undated. Faulkner Collection, Alderman Library, University of Virginia.

36. William Faulkner, letter to Joan Williams, April 25, 1959. Faulkner Collection, Alderman Library.

37. SL, 423-24.

38. Reviews of The Mansion, by William Faulkner: The New Republic, December 7, 1959, 17; Saturday Review, November 14, 1959, 20; Time, November 2, 1959, 90; New York Times Book Review, November 15, 1959, 1.

39. Faulkner, The Mansion, 36.

40. Brooks, The Yoknapatawpha Country, 230.

41. Faulkner, The Mansion, 295.

42. Gray, The Life, 352.

43. Faulkner, The Mansion, 295.

44. Ibid., 435.

45. SL, 440.

46. ESP, 113.

47. Blotner, Faulkner, II, 1760.

48. Ibid., 1786.

49. Jospeh L. Fant and Robert Ashley, eds., Faulkner at West Point (New York: Random House, 1964), 47-48.

50. SL, 458.

51. Ibid., 455.

52. Ibid., 458.

53. Blotner, Faulkner, II, 1811.

54. Fant and Ashley, Faulkner at West Point.

55. Ibid., 68.

56. Ibid., 50.

57. Ibid., 73.

58. Ibid., xiv.

59. William Faulkner, The Reivers (New York: Random House, 1962), 53.

60. Ibid., 20.

61. Ibid., 28.

62. Brooks, The Yoknapatawpha Country, 364.

63. Railey, Natural Aristocracy, 173.

64. Faulkner, The Reivers, 252.

65. Reviews of The Reivers, by William Faulkner: New York Herald Tribune, Book Section, May 27, 1962, 1; New York Times Book Review, June 3, 1962; New York Times, June 5, 1962, 23.

66. Quoted by Levinger, “The Prophet Faulkner,” 76.

CONCLUSION

1. Millgate, Faulkner’s Place, 51.

2. V. S. Naipaul, Literary Occasions (New York: Knopf, 2003), 30.

3. Robert Penn Warren interview.

4. Alberto Moravia interview.

5. Patrick O’Donnell, “Faulkner and Postmodernism,” in Weinstein, The Cambridge Companion to William Faulkner, 49.