The Animal Manifesto: Six Reasons for Expanding Our Compassion Footprint - Marc Bekoff (2010)


Many of the sources for which I’ve included websites can be found in the archives of my and Jane Goodall’s organization, Ethologists for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (EETA; As I was writing this book, I constantly found myself thinking about the important messages of eco-psychologists like David Abram, E. N. (Gene) Anderson, Warwick Fox, and Laura Sewall: how the ways in which we sense and feel the presence of individual animals directly influences how we interact with them; how good we feel when we interact with animals and nature in peaceful, kind, and benevolent ways; and how these good feelings motivate us to do more for the world at large. Detailed information about numerous topics in ethology, cognitive ethology, and human-animal interactions can be found in my other books Animals Matter, The Emotional Lives of Animals, Wild Justice: The Moral Lives of Animals (with Jessica Pierce), the Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior, the Encyclopedia of Human-Animal Relationships: A Global Exploration of Our Connections with Other Animals, and the Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare (second edition). A chronology of events related to animal protection can also be found in my Encyclopedia of Human-Animal Relationships and my Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare.

Books with information about nonanimal alternatives in research and animal protection organizations include my Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare and Animals Matter, Amy Bount Achor’s AnimalRights: A Beginner’s Guide, Nick Jukes and Mihnea Chiuia’s From Guinea Pig to Computer Mouse: Alternative Methods for a Humane Education, Jonathan Balcombe’s The Use of Animals in Higher Education: Problems, Alternatives, and Recommendations, and Why Dissection? Animal Use in Education by Lynette Hart and her colleagues. A web search for “animal protection organizations” will generate a very useful list of organizations around the world.

Abram, David. The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-Than-Human World. New York: Pantheon Books, 1996.

Adams, Carol. The Sexual Politics of Meat: A Feminist Vegetarian Critical Theory, 10th ed. New York: Continuum, 1999.

Allen, Colin, and Marc Bekoff. Species of Mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997.

Allen, Karen, et al. “Presence of Human Friends and Pet Dogs as Moderators of

Autonomic Responses to Stress in Women.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 61 (1991): 582–89.

Anderson, Allen, and Linda Anderson. Rescued: Saving Animals from Disaster. Novato, CA: New World Library, 2006.

Anderson, E. N. Ecologies of the Heart: Emotion, Belief, and the Environment. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Anderson, Virginia DeJohn. Creatures of Empire: How Domestic Animals Transformed Early America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Animal Welfare Information Center, Run by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the AWIC Bulletin provides current information on animal welfare to investigators, technicians, administrators, exhibitors, and the public. Appleby, Michael C., Joy A. Mench, and B. O. Hughes. Poultry Behaviour and Welfare. Cambridge, MA: CABI Publishing, 2004. Archer, J. The Nature of Grief: The Evolution and Psychology of Reactions toLoss. New York: Routledge, 1999.

Arluke, Arnold, and Clinton Sanders, eds. Between the Species: A Reader in Human-Animal Relationships. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Higher Education, Allyn & Bacon, 2008.

Balcombe, Jonathan. The Use of Animals in Education: Problems, Alternatives, and Recommendations. Washington, DC: Humane Society of the United States, 2000.

______. Pleasurable Kingdom: Animals and the Nature of Feeling Good. London: Macmillan, 2006.

Balcombe, Jonathan P., Neal D. Barnard, and Chad Sandusky. “Laboratory Routines Cause Animal Stress.” Contemporary Topics (American Association for Laboratory Science) 43 (2004): 42–51.

Baldwin, Ann, and Marc Bekoff. “Too Stressed to Work.” New Scientist (June 2, 2007): 24.

Bates, L. A., and R. W Byrne. “Creative or Created: Using Anecdotes to Investigate Animal Cognition.” Methods 42 (2007): 12–21.

Bateson, P. “Assessment of Pain in Animals.” Animal Behaviour 42 (1991): 827–39.

Baur, Gene. Farm Sanctuary: Changing Hearts and Minds About Animals and Food. New York: Touchstone, 2008.

Bearzi, M., and C. B. Stanford. Beautiful Minds: The Parallel Lives of Great Apes and Dolphins. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008.

Beck, Benjamin B. “Chimpanzee Orphans: Sanctuaries, Reintroduction, and Cognition.” In The Mind of the Chimpanzee: Ecological and Experimental Perspectives, edited by E. Lonsdorf, S. Ross, and T. Matsuzawa. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.

______. “Marking, Trapping, and Manipulating Animals: Some Methodological and Ethical Considerations.” In Wildlife Mammals as Research Models: In the Laboratory and Field, edited by K.A.L. Bayne and M. D. Kreger, 31–47. Greenbelt, MD: Scientists Center for Animal Welfare, 1995.

Bekoff, Marc. “Play Signals as Punctuation: The Structure of Social Play in Canids.” Behaviour 132 (1995): 419–29.

______. “Animal Emotions: Exploring Passionate Natures.” BioScience 50 (2000): 861–70.

______, ed. The Smile of a Dolphin: Remarkable Accounts of Animal Emotions. Washington, DC: Random House/Discovery Books, 2000.

______. Strolling with Our Kin: Speaking for and Respecting Voiceless Animals. New York: Lantern Books, 2000.

______. Minding Animals: Awareness, Emotions, and Heart. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

______, ed. Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2004.

______. “Wild Justice and Fair Play: Cooperation, Forgiveness, and Morality in Animals.” Biology & Philosophy 19 (2004): 489–520.

______. “Animal Emotions and Animal Sentience and Why They Matter: Blending ‘Science Sense’ with Common Sense, Compassion and Heart.” In Animals, Ethics, and Trade, edited by J. Turner and J. D’Silva, 27–40. London: Earthscan Publishing, 2006.

______. “Animal Passions and Beastly Virtues: Cognitive Ethology as the Unifying Science for Understanding the Subjective, Emotional, Empathic, and Moral Lives of Animals.” Zygon: Journal of Religion and Science 41 (2006): 71–104.

______. Animal Passions and Beastly Virtues: Reflections on Redecorating Nature. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2006.

______. “The Public Lives of Animals: A Troubled Scientist, Pissy Baboons, Angry Elephants, and Happy Hounds.” Journal of Consciousness Studies 13 (2006): 115–31.

______. Animals Matter: A Biologist Explains Why We Should Treat Animals With Compassion and Respect. Boston: Shambhala, 2007.

______. The Emotional Lives of Animals: A Leading Scientist Explores Animal Joy, Sorrow, and Empathy — and Why They Matter. Novato, CA: New World Library, 2007.

______, ed. Encyclopedia of Human-Animal Relationships: A Global Exploration of Our Connections with Other Animals. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007.

______. “Why ‘Good Welfare’ Isn’t ‘Good Enough’: Minding Animals and Increasing Our Compassionate Footprint.” Annual Review ofBiomedical Sciences 10 (2008): T1-T14.

______, ed. Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare, 2nd ed. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2009.

Bekoff, Marc, and Colin Allen. “Cognitive Ethology: Slayers, Skeptics, and Proponents.” In Anthropomorphism, Anecdote, and Animals: The Emperor’s New Clothes, edited by R. W. Mitchell, N. Thompson, and L. Miles, 313–34. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 1997.

Bekoff, Marc, Colin Allen, and Gordon M. Burghardt, eds. The Cognitive Animal: Empirical and Theoretical Perspectives on Animal Cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002.

Bekoff, Marc, and John A. Byers, eds. Animal Play: Evolutionary, Comparative, and Ecological Approaches. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Bekoff, Marc, and Dale Jamieson. “Reflective Ethology, Applied Philosophy, and the Moral Status of Animals.” Perspectives in Ethology 9 (1991): 1–47.

______. “Ethics and the Study of Carnivores: Doing Science While Respecting Animals.” In Carnivore Behavior, Ecology, and Evolution, edited by J. Gittleman, 16–45. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1996.

______, eds. Readings in Animal Cognition. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1996.

Bekoff, Marc, and Jessica Pierce. Wild Justice: The Moral Lives of Animals. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009.

Bentham, Jeremy. An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. New York: Hafner Press, 1789/1948.

Berry, Thomas. The Great Work: Our Way Into the Future. New York: Bell Tower, 1999.

______. “An interview with Thomas Berry.” Wild Earth (summer 2000): 93–97.

Beston, Henry. The Outermost House. New York: Ballantine Books, 1928/1956.

Bexell, Sarah M. “Effect of a Wildlife Conservation Camp Experience in China on Student Knowledge of Animals, Care, Propensity for Environmental

Stewardship, and Compassionate Behavior Toward Animals.” PhD diss., Georgia State University, 2006.

Bexell, Sarah M., Olga S. Jarrett, Luo Lan, Hu Yan, and Estelle A. Sandhaus. “Observing Panda Play: Implications for Zoo Programming and Conservation Efforts.” Curator 50 (2007): 287–97.

Bexell, Sarah M., Olga S. Jarrett, Xu Ping, and Feng Rui Xi. “Nurturing Humane Attitudes toward Animals: An Educational Camp Experience in China.” Encounter (2010): 1–3.

Bradshaw, G. A., A. N. Schore, J. L. Brown, J. H. Poole, and C. Moss. “Elephant Breakdown.” Nature 433 (2005): 807.

Bradshaw, G. A., and A. N. Schore. “How Elephants Are Opening Doors: Developmental Neuroethology, Attachment, and Social Context.” Ethology 133 (2007): 426–36.

Brakes, Philippa, A. Butterworth, M. Simmonds, and P. Lymbery. Troubled Waters: A Review of the Welfare Implications of Modern Whaling Activities. London: World Society for the Protection of Animals, 2004.

Burns, J. G., A. Saravanan, and F. H. Rodd. “Rearing Environment Affects the Brain Size of Guppies: Lab-Reared Guppies Have Smaller Brains than Wild-Caught Guppies.” Ethology 115 (2009): 122–33.

Carbone, Larry. What Animals Want: Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Chinese Animal Protection Network, This is the first Chinese network for animal protection.

Clubb, R., M. Rowcliffe, P. Lee, K.U. Mar, C. Moss, and G. Mason. “Compromised Survivorship in Zoo Elephants.” Science 322 (2008): 1649.

Coetzee, J. M. The Lives of Animals. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001.

Croke, Vicki. The Modern Ark: The Story of Zoos: Past, Present, and Future. New York: Scribners, 1997.

Darwin, Charles. The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex. New York: Random House, 1871/1936.

______. The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1872/1998. The complete works of Darwin can be found at

Davis, Karen. More Than a Meal: The Turkey in History, Myth, Ritual, and Reality. New York: Lantern Books, 2001.

______. The Holocaust and the Henmaid’s Tale: A Case for Comparing Atrocities. New York: Lantern Books, 2005.

Dawn, Karen. Thanking the Monkey: Rethinking the Way We Treat Animals. New York: HarperCollins, 2008.

DeGrazia, David. “Moral Vegetarianism from a Very Broad Basis.” In Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare, 2nd ed., edited by Marc Bekoff. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2009.

Doty, Mark. Dog Years. New York: HarperCollins, 2007.

Douglas-Hamilton, Iain, S. Bhalla, G. Wittemyer, and F. Vollrath. “Behavioural Reactions of Elephants Towards a Dying and Deceased Matriarch.” Applied Animal Behaviour Science 100 (2006): 87–102.

Dudzinski, Kathleen, and Toni Frohoff. Dolphin Mysteries: Unlocking the Secrets of Communication. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008.

Duncan, Ian J. H. “Poultry Welfare: Science or Subjectivity?” British Poultry Science 43 (2002): 643–52.

Ehrlich, Paul. A World of Wounds: Ecologists and the Human Dilemma. Oldendorf/Luhe, Germany: Ecology Institute, 1997.

Eisner, Gail A. Slaughterhouse. New York: Prometheus, 1997.

Finsen, L., and S. Finsen. The Animal Rights Movement in America: From Compassion to Respect. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1994.

Forthman, D., L.F. Kane, D. Hancocks, and P. F. Waldau, eds. An Elephant in the Room: The Science and Well-Being of Elephants in Captivity. North Grafton, MA: Tufts Center for Animals and Public Policy, Tufts University, 2009.

Fox, Michael W. Bringing Life to Ethics: Global Bioethics for a Humane Society. Albany, NY: SUNY Press, 2001.

______. Eating with Conscience. Troutdale, OR: New Sage Press, 1997.

Fox, W. Toward a Transpersonal Ecology: Developing New Foundations for Environmentalism. Foxhole, England: Green Books Ltd, 1995.

Francione, Gary L. Introduction to Animal Rights: Your Child or the Dog? Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2000.

______. Animals as Persons: Essays On the Abolition of Animal Exploitation. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008.

Franklin, Adrian. Animals and Modern Cultures: A Sociology of Human-Animal Relations in Modernity. London: Sage, 1999.

Fraser, David. Understanding Animal Welfare: The Science in Its Cultural Context. Sussex, England: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008.

Garner, R. “The Economics and Politics of Animal Exploitation.” In Political Animals: Animal Protection Politics in Britain and the United States. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1998.

Gilbert, F. F., and N. Gofton. “Terminal Dives in Mink, Muskrat and Beaver.” Physiology & Behavior 28 (1982): 835–40.

Goodall, Jane. Through a Window. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1990.

Goodall, Jane, and Marc Bekoff. The Ten Trusts: What We Must Do to Care for the Animals We Love. San Francisco: HarperCollins, 2002.

Greek, C. R., and J. S. Greek. Sacred Cows and Golden Geese: The Human Cost of Experiments on Animals. New York: Continuum, 2000.

______. Specious Science: How Evolution and Genetics Explain Why Medical Research on Animals Kills Humans. New York: Continuum, 2002.

Green People, This website provides links to organizations in the United States by state and to organizations around the world.

Greive, B. T. Priceless: The Vanishing Beauty of a Fragile Planet. Riverside, NJ: Andrews McMeel Publishing, 2003.

Griffin, Donald R. The Question of Animal Awareness: Evolutionary Continuity of Mental Experience. New York: Rockefeller University Press, 1976/1981.

______. Animal Minds. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992.

Group for the Education of Animal-Related Issues (GEARI), A nonprofit education organization.

Hadidian, John. Wild Neighbors: The Humane Approach to Living With Wildlife. Washington, DC: Humane Society Press, 2007.

Hall, Lee. Capers in the Churchyard: Animal Rights Advocacy in the Age of Terror. Darien, CT: Nectar Bat Press, 2006.

Hancocks, David. A Different Nature: The Paradoxical World of Zoos and Their Uncertain Future. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002.

Hatkoff, Amy. The Inner World of Farm Animals: Their Amazing Intellectual, Emotional, and Social Capacities. New York: Stewart, Tabori & Chang, 2009.

Heinrich, Bernd. Mind of the Raven: Investigations and Adventures with Wolf-Birds. New York: Cliff Street Books, 1999.

His Holiness the Dalai Lama. The Path to Tranquility: Daily Wisdom. Compiled and edited by Renuka Singh. New York: Viking Arkana, 1999.

______. “Understanding Our Fundamental Nature.” In Visions of Compassion: Western Scientists and Tibetan Buddhists Examine Human Nature, 66–80. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

Horowitz, Alexandra C., and Marc Bekoff. “Naturalizing Anthropomorphism:

Behavioral Prompts to Our Humanizing of Animals.” Anthrozoös 20 (2007): 23–36.

International Society for Anthrozoology, This organization studies human-nonhuman interactions and publishes the journal Anthrozoös.

Irvine, Leslie. If You Tame Me: Understanding Our Connections with Animals. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2004.

______. Filling the Ark. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2009.

Jamieson, Dale. “Against Zoos.” In In Defense of Animals, edited by Peter Singer, 108–17. New York: Basil Blackwell, 1985.

______. Ethics and the Environment. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2008.

Kellert, Stephen, and J. Berry. “Attitudes, Knowledge and Behaviors Toward Wildlife As Affected By Gender.” Wildlife Society Bulletin 15 (1997): 363–71.

Kelsey, Elin. Watching Giants: The Secret Lives of Whales. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009.

Keltner, Dacher. Born to Be Good: The Science of a Meaningful Life. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2009.

Knight, Andrew. “Non-animal Methodologies Within Biomedical Research and Toxicity Testing.” Alternatives to Animal Experimentation 25 (2008): 213—31.

Kumar, Satish. “Simplicity for Christmas and Always.” Resurgence (November/December 2000): 3.

Lawrence, Elizabeth A. Rodeo: An Anthropologist Looks at the Wild and the Tame. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1982.

______. Hoofbeats and Society: Studies of Human-Horse Interactions. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985.

Louv, Richard. Last Child in the Woods: Saving Our Children from Nature Deficit Disorder. Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin Books, 2005.

Mallonée, Jay S. Timber: A Perfect Life. Whitehall, MT: New Perceptions Press, 2007.

Mallonée, Jay S., and Paul Joslin. “Traumatic Stress Disorder Observed in an Adult Wild Captive Wolf.” Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 7 (2004): 107—26.

Marino, Lori, R. C. Conner, R.E. Fordyce, L.M. Herman, P.R. Hof, et al. “Cetaceans Have Complex Brains for Complex Cognition.” PLoS Biology 5, no. 5 (2007).

Masson, Jeffrey, and Susan McCarthy. When Elephants Weep: The Emotional Lives of Animals. New York: Delacorte Press, 1995.

McMillan, Frank D., with Kathryn Lance. Unlocking the Animal Mind: How Your Pet’s Feelings Hold the Key to His Health and Happiness. Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 2004.

Midgley, Mary. Animals and Why They Matter. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1983.

Midkiff, Ken. The Meat You Eat. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 2004.

Miller, Henry. Big Sur and the Oranges ofHieronymus Bosch. New York: New Directions, 1957.

Moss, Cynthia. Elephant Memories: Thirteen Years in the Life of an Elephant Family. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.

Newkirk, Ingrid. Making Kind Choices: Everyday Ways to Enhance Your Life Through Earthand Animal-Friendly Living. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 2005.

Niman, Nicolette H. Righteous Porkchop: Finding a Life and Good Food Beyond Factory Farms. New York: Collins Living, 2009.

Ogorzaly, Michael A. When Bulls Cry: The Case Against Bullfighting. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse, 2006.

Olmert, Meg Daley. Made for Each Other: The Biology of the Human-Animal Bond. New York: De Capo Press, 2009.

Orlans, Barbara F. “The Injustice of Excluding Laboratory Rats, Mice, and Birds from the Animal Welfare Act.” Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 10 (2000): 229–38.

Peterson, Dale. Eating Apes. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003.

Phelps, Norm. The Great Compassion: Buddhism and Animal Rights. New York: Lantern Books, 2004.

______. The Longest Struggle: Animal Advocacy from Pythagoras to PETA. New York: Lantern Books, 2007.

Pickover, Michelle. Animal Rights in South Africa. Capetown, South Africa: Double Storey, 2005.

Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.

______. In Defense of Food: An Eater’s Manifesto. New York: Penguin, 2008.

Poole, Joyce. Coming of Age with Elephants: A Memoir. New York: Hyperion, 1996.

______. “An Exploration of a Commonality Between Ourselves and Elephants.” Etica & Animali 9, no. 98 (1998): 85–110.

Poulsen, Else. Smiling Bears: A Zookeeper Explores the Behavior and Emotional Lives of Bears. Vancouver, British Columbia: Greystone Books, 2009.

Rachels, James. Created from Animals: The Moral Implications of Darwinism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.

Reardon, Lynn. Beyond the Homestretch: What I’ve Learned from Saving Racehorses. Novato, CA: New World Library, 2009.

Regan, Tom. The Case for Animal Rights. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1983.

______. Empty Cages: Facing the Challenge of Animal Rights. New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004.

Ridley, Mark. The Origins of Virtue: Human Instincts and the Evolution of Cooperation. New York: Viking, 1996.

Rilling, James K., D.A. Gutman, T.R. Zeh, G. Pagnoni, G.S. Berns, and C.D. Kitts. “A Neural Basis for Cooperation.” Neuron 36 (2002): 395–405.

Rollin, Bernard E. The Unheeded Cry: Animal Consciousness, Animal Pain, and Science. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Ryder, Richard D. “Speciesism.” In Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare, edited by Marc Bekoff, 320. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1998.

Salem, Deborah J., and Andrew N. Rowan, eds. The State of the Animals IV, zooy. Washington, DC: Humane Society Press, 2007.

Scharper, Stephen. Redeeming the Time. New York: Continuum, 1997.

Scully, Matthew. Dominion: The Power of Man, the Suffering of Animals. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2002.

Sewall, Laura. Sight and Sensibility: The Ecopsychology of Perception. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 1999.

“Shrouded by the Sea: The Animal Welfare Implications of Cetacean Bycatch in Fisheries — a Summary Document.” Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society (2008),

Singer, Peter. Animal Liberation, 2nd ed. New York: New York Review of Books, 1990.

Singer, Peter, and Jim Mason. The Way We Eat: Why Our Food Choices Matter. Emmaus, PA: Rodale, 2006.

Skutch, Alexander. The Minds of Birds. College Station, TX: Texas A & M University Press, 1996.

Slobodchikoff, C. N., B. S. Perla, and J. L. Verdolin. Prairie Dogs: Communication and Community in an Animal Society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009.

Smith, Ethan, with G. Dauncey. Building an Ark: 101 Solutions to Animal Suffering. Gabriola Island, British Columbia, Canada: New Society Publishers, 2007.

Sneddon, Lynne U. “The Evidence for Pain in Fish: The Use of Morphine as an Analgesic.” Applied Animal Behaviour Science 83 (2003): 153–62.

Solisti, Kate, and Michael Tobias, eds. Kinship with Animals. Tulsa, OK: Council Oaks Books, 2006.

Steiner, Gary. Animals and the Moral Community. New York: Columbia University Press, 2008.

Taussig, Nick. Gorilla Guerrilla. London: Revolver Books, 2008.

Taylor, Katy, N. Gordon, G. Langley, and W. Higgins. “Estimates for Worldwide Laboratory Animal Use in 2005.” Alternatives to Laboratory Animals 36 (2008): 327–42.

Tobias, Michael, and Jane Morrison. Sanctuary: Global Oases of Innocence. San Francisco: Council Oak Books, 2008.

Trungpa, Chögyam. Shambhala: The Sacred Path of the Warrior. Boston: Shambhala, 1988.

Turner, Jackie, and Joyce D’Silva, eds. Animals, Ethics, and Trade. London: EarthScan Publishing, 2006.

Unti, Bernard, and Andrew Rowan. “A Social History of Post War Animal Protection.” In The State of the Animals, edited by Deborah Salem and Andrew Rowan. Washington, DC: Humane Society Press, 2001. and_publications/humane_ bookshelf/the_ state_of_ the_ animals_ 2001.html.

Van Dernoot, L., and C. Burk. Trauma Stewardship: An Everyday Guide to Caring for Self While Caring for Others. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2009.

Waldau, Paul, and Kimberley Patton, eds. A Communion of Subjects: Animals in Religion, Science, and Ethics. New York: Columbia University Press, 2006.

Weil, Zoe. Above All, Be Kind: Raising a Humane Child in Challenging Times. Gabiola Island, British Columbia, Canada: New Society Publishers, 2003.

Wemelsfelder, Françoise, and Alistair B. Lawrence. “Qualitative Assessment of Animal Behaviour as an On-Farm Welfare-Monitoring Tool.” Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica 30 (2001): S21 —S25. White, Thomas I. In Defense of Dolphins: The New Moral Frontier. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 2007.

Williams, Erin, and Margo DeMello. Why Animals Matter: The Case for Animal Protection. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2007.

Williams, Terry Tempest. Finding Beauty in a Broken World. New York: Vintage, 2009.

Wise, Steven M. Rattling the Cage: Toward Legal Rights for Animals. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing, 2000.

______. “The Evolution of Animal Law Since 1950.” In The State of the Animals II, edited by Deborah Salem and Andrew Rowan. Washington, DC: Humane Society Press, 2003.

Woodroffe, R., S. Thirgood, and A. Rabinowitz, eds. People and Wildlife, Conflict or Coexistence? Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2005., Animal Protection Organizations, This blog focuses on animal news, politics, and organizations.

World Animal.Net, The world’s largest network of animal protection societies with consultative status at the United Nations.

Zahn-Waxler, C., M. Radke-Yarrow, E. Wagner, and M. Chapman. “Development of Concern for Others.” Developmental Psychology 28 (1992): 126–36.