Demon Fish: Travels Through the Hidden World of Sharks - Juliet Eilperin (2011)

Notes

INTRODUCTION: SHARK

  1. WildAid and Oceana, The End of the Line? Global Threats to Sharks, 2nd ed. WildAid, San Francisco, 2007, p. 12 (http://www.wildaid.org/PDF/reports/EndOfTheLine2007US_Oceana.pdf).

  2. Interview with Dalal Al-Abdulrazzak, Watson fellow, Dec. 10, 2007.

  3. Jeffrey C. Carrier, Discovering Sharks (St. Paul: Voyageur Press, 2006), pp. 9–10.

  4. Tom Vanderbilt, “When the Great White Way Was the Hudson,” New York Times, May 29, 2005, sec. 14, col. 1.

  5. ReefQuest Centre for Shark Research Web site, Biology of Sharks and Rays.

  6. EurekAlert! press release, July 15, 2005.

  7. Mote Marine Laboratory, “Sharks Smell in Stereo: Mote Research Explores Shark Senses as Never Before,” press release, June 11, 2010.

  8. Jennifer L. Molinar, ed., The Atlas of Global Conservation: Changes, Challenges, and Opportunities to Make a Difference (Berkeley: University of California Press and the Nature Conservancy, 2010).

  9. “Nature conservation has become one of the most important human endeavors on the planet, and the area under protection now exceeds the total area of permanent crops and arable land.” Stuart Chape, Mark Spalding, and Martin Jenkins, eds., The World’s Protected Areas: Status, Values, and Prospects in the Twenty-First Century (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2008).

1 THE WORLD-FAMOUS SHARK CALLER

  1. Glenys Köhnke, The Shark Callers: An Ancient Fishing Tradition of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea (Boroko: Yumi Press, 1974), p. 15.

  2. Ibid., p. 16.

2 AN ANCIENT FISH

  1. Nicholas H. Barton et al., Evolution (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2007); Eric Roston, The Carbon Age (New York: Walker, 2008).

  2. Skomal, Shark Handbook, pp. 16–22.

  3. “Origin of the Egyptians: Petrie Derives Them from the Stock Whence the Phoenicians Come,” New York Times, Aug. 9, 1894.

  4. Xavier Maniguet, The Jaws of Death: Shark as Predator, Man as Prey, trans. David A. Christie (New York: Skyhorse Publishing, 2007), p. 21.

  5. Oppian, Halieutica 5.20ff., at www.theoi.com/Ther/Ketea.html.

  6. From the collections of the National Archives in Waltham, Massachusetts, and Washington, D.C., the Peabody Essex Museum in Salem, the Marblehead Historical Society, and smaller collections in other archives. These logs have been rediscovered and collated by Dr. William Leavenworth at the University of New Hampshire under the aegis of History of Marine Animal Populations (HMAP), the Gulf of Maine Cod Project, and other organizations doing research in the environmental history of the sea.

  7. Louis Agassiz, “On the Method of Copulation Among Selachians,” Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 14 (1871), p. 340.

  8. Matthew T. McDavitt, “Cipactli’s Sword, Tlaltecuhtli’s Teeth: Deciphering the Sawfish & Shark Offerings in the Aztec Great Temple,” Shark News: Newsletter of the IUCN/SSC Shark Specialist Group 14 (March 2002).

  9. Matthew T. McDavitt, “The Cultural Significance of Sharks and Rays in Aboriginal Societies Across Australia’s Top End,” MESA’s SeaWeek (2005), pp. 3–4.

10. Martha Warren Beckwith, “Hawaiian Shark ‘Aumãkua,” in Nanaue the Shark Man & Other Hawaiian Shark Stories, ed. Dennis Kawaharada (Honolulu: Kalamaku Press, 1994), p. 2.

11. Ibid.

12. Leighton Taylor, Sharks of Hawai’i: Their Biology and Cultural Significance (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1993), p. 20.

13. Young, Shark! Shark! p. 93.

14. Beckwith, “Hawaiian Shark ‘Aumãkua,” p. 15.

15. Pa’ahana Wiggin, “Mikololou,” in Nanaue the Shark Man, pp. 71–72.

16. “Ka’ehikimanõ-o-pu’uloa,” in Nanaue the Shark Man, pp. 75–83.

17. Emma M. Nakuina, “Kahalaopuna,” in Nanaue the Shark Man, p. 41.

18. Emma Nakuina, “Nanaue,” in Nanaue the Shark Man, pp. 19–32.

19. Martha G. Anderson and Philip M. Peek, Ways of the Rivers: Arts and Environment of the Niger Delta (Los Angeles: UCLA Fowler Museum of Cultural History, 2002), p. 153.

20. Matthew T. McDavitt, “Cultural Significance,” in: Sharks, Rays, and Chimaeras: The Status of the Chondrichthyan Fishes, ed. Sarah L. Fowler et al. (Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, U.K.: IUCN, 2005), p. 31.

21. McDavitt, “Cultural Significance of Sharks and Rays,” pp. 2–3.

22. Ibid., p. 3.

23. Gerald L. Crow and Jennifer Crites, Sharks and Rays of Hawai’i (Honolulu: Mutual Publishing, 2002), p. 147.

24. Brent M. Handley, “Role of the Shark in Southern New England’s Prehistory: Deity or Dinner?” Bulletin of the Massachusetts Archaeological Society 57, no. 1 (1996), pp. 27–34.

25. McCormick and Allen, Shadows in the Sea, pp. 137–40.

26. McDavitt, “Cultural Significance,” p. 30.

27. Tom Jones, “The Xoc, the Sharke, and the Sea Dogs: An Historical Encounter,” in Fifth Paleugue Round Table, 1983, ed. Virginia M. Fields (San Francisco: Pre-Columbia Art Research Institute, 1985), pp. 211–220.

28. Oxford English Dictionary Online, shark, n., 2nd ed. (1989).

29. Ibid.

30. Dampier’s Voyages, ed. John Masefield (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1906), vol. 1, P. 107.

31. Ibid., vol. 2, pp. 426–27.

32. McCormick and Allen, Shadows in the Sea, p. 148.

33. Marcus Rediker, The Slave Ship: A Human History (New York: Viking, 2007), pp. 37–38.

34. Ibid., pp. 38–40.

35. Marcus Rediker, “Slavery: A Shark’s Perspective—a Strange Text Sheds New Light on the True Roots of Abolition,” Boston Globe, Sept. 23, 2007.

36. Julius L. Esping, Adrift and at Anchor: A Sailor’s Experience Among Sea Dogs and Land Sharks: With an Account of His Conversion and Labors as a Missionary Among Seamen (Boston: H. L. Hastings, 1870), pp. 112–23.

37. George Barker, Thrilling Adventures of the Whaler Alcyone: Killing Man-Eating Sharks in the Indian Ocean, Hunting Kangaroos in Australia (Peabody, Mass.: George Barker, 1916), pp. 33–34.

38. Capuzzo, Close to Shore, pp. 88–103.

39. Ibid., pp. 141–246.

40. Ibid., pp. 168–79.

41. Young, Shark! Shark! p. 78.

42. Ibid., pp. 18–19.

43. Ernest Hemingway, The Old Man and the Sea, excerpted in Great Shark Writings, ed. Taylor and Taylor, p. 317.

44. Zane Grey, An American Angler in Australia, excerpted in Great Shark Writings, p. 234.

45. McCormick and Allen, Shadows in the Sea, p. 31.

46. Mitchell Landsberg, “Roy Scheider, 75, ‘Jaws’ Star Excelled in Tough-Guy Role,” Los Angeles Times, Feb. 11, 2008.

47. As National Public Radio’s Cory Turner reported in his excellent June 2, 2010, piece, “Hunting Bruce; or, On the Trail of the ‘Jaws’ Shark,” the head of the mechanical shark measured six feet eight inches and weighed four hundred pounds. There were three mechanical sharks, nicknamed Bruce, since one was pulled by a boat to replicate swimming while two sat atop a metal arm in order to leap onto the deck of the Orca. All three Bruces were destroyed and the mold was lost, but a fourth shark, which was likely cast from the same mold, now looms above Aadlen Brothers Wrecking in Sun Valley, California.

48. Benchley, Jaws, p. 94.

49. Erich Ritter, Kai Lutz, and Marie Levine, “When Humans and Sharks Meet,” in New Developments in the Psychology of Motivation, ed. Filip M. Olsson (New York: Nova Biomedical Books, 2008), pp. 45–52.

50. EurekAlert! press release, Aug. 28, 2003.

51. Klimley, Secret Life of Sharks, pp. 195–215.

52. Ibid., p. 185.

53. WildAid and Oceana, The End of the Line? Global Threats to Sharks, 2nd ed. pp. 13 and 40.

3 A DEMON FISH

  1. John D. Stevens, Terence I. Walker, Sid F. Cook, and Sonja V. Fordham, “Threats Faced by Chondrichthyan Fish,” in Sharks, Rays, and Chimaeras: The Status of Chondrichthyan Fishes, ed. Sarah L. Flower et al. (Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge, U.K.: IUCN, 2005), pp. 48–57.

  2. www.st.nmfs.noaa.gov/st1/fus/fus07/03_recreationa12007.pdf.

  3. Ibid.

  4. George Vancouver, A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean and Round the World, 1791–1795, ed. W. Kaye Lamb, 4 vols. (London: Hakluyt Society, 1984).

4 DRIED SEAFOOD STREET

  1. Piamsak Menasveta, Sombat Inkong, and Pimporn Charaoensri, “Mercury Contents in Dried Shark Fins in Bangkok Markets,” Journal of the Royal Institute of Thailand (2002).

  2. Oceana, “The International Trade of Shark Fins: Endangering Shark Populations Worldwide,” March 2010.

  3. Shelley Clarke, “Shark Product Trade in Hong Kong and Mainland China and Implementation of the CITES Shark Listings,” TRAFFIC East Asia, Hong Kong, China (2004).

  4. Jim Tharpe, “Gov. Perdue Welcomed, State Will Open Trade Office in Beijing,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, March 31, 2008.

  5. David Barboza, “Waiter, There’s a Celebrity in My Shark Fin Soup,” New York Times, sec. 4, p. 3.

  6. Neil Ray, “Shark Fin Demand Sinks,” SeafoodSource, March 30, 2009.

  7. World Briefing, “Japan: Princess Becomes Fair Game,” New York Times, Feb. 5, 2008.

  8. TRAFFIC, The World Trade in Sharks: A Compendium of TRAFFIC’s Regional Studies (Cambridge, U.K.: TRAFFIC International, 1996).

  9. O. W. Barrett, “Shark Fishing in the West Indies,” Scientific Monthly 27, no. 2 (Aug. 1928), pp. 125–33.

10. McCormick and Allen, Shadows in the Sea, pp. 182–87.

11. Gary K. Ostrander, Keith C. Cheng, Jeffrey C. Wolf, and Marilyn J. Wolfe, “Shark Cartilage, Cancer, and the Growing Threat of Pseudoscience,” Cancer Research 64 (2004), pp. 8485–91.

12. Mock Joya, Things Japanese (Tokyo: Tokyo News Service, 1960), p. 261.

13. Ibid.

5 THE SHARK SLEUTHS

  1. Carol Vogel, “Swimming with Famous Dead Sharks,” New York Times, Oct. 1, 2006, sect. 2, p. 28.

  2. Arifa Akbar, “A Formaldehyde Frenzy as Buyers Snap Up Hirst Works,” Independent, Sept. 16, 2008.

  3. ENDCAP, Exotic Pet Trade Fact Sheet.

  4. Plea Agreement No. CR06-0051CW, United States of America v. Ira Gass, U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, Oakland Division.

  5. Robert Gammon, “The Man v. Moon,” East Bay Express, Jan. 31, 2007.

  6. Plea Agreement No. CR06-0051CW, United States of America v. John Newberry, U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California, Oakland Division.

  7. Demian D. Chapman, Danillo Pinhal, and Mahmood S. Shivji, “Tracking the Fin Trade: Genetic Stock Identification in Western Atlantic Scalloped Hammerheads Sharks Sphyrna lewini,” Endangered Species Research 9, no. 3 (2009), pp. 221–28.

  8. Robert D. Ward et al., “DNA barcoding Australian Chondrichthyans: Results and Potential Uses in Conservation,” Marine and Freshwater Research 59 (2008), pp. 57–71.

  9. Demian D. Chapman, Beth Firchau, and Mahmood S. Shivji, “Brief Communication: Parthenogenesis in a Large-Bodied Requiem Shark, the Blacktip Carcharhinus limbatus,” Journal of Fish Biology 73 (2008), pp. 1–5.

10. Malcolm P. Francis, “Observations on a Pregnant White Shark with a Review of Reproductive Biology,” in Great White Sharks: The Biology of Carcharodon carcharias, ed. A. Peter Klimley and David G. Ainley (San Diego: Academic Press, 1996), pp. 157–72.

11. Harold L. Pratt Jr. and Jeffrey C. Carrier, “A Review of Elasmobranch Reproductive Behavior with a Case Study on the Nurse Shark, Ginglymostoma cirratum,” Environmental Biology of Fishes 60 (2001), pp. 157–88.

6 SHARK TRACKERS

  1. Francesco Ferretti et al., “Patterns and Ecosystem Consequences of Shark Declines in the Ocean,” Ecology Letters 13, no. 8 (2010), p. 1056.

  2. Camhi, Pikitch, and Babcock, Sharks of the Open Ocean, pp. 27–30; Clark, The Lady and the Sharks, p. 90.

  3. MacQuitty, Eyewitness Shark, pp. 16–17.

  4. Mary M. Cerullo, The Truth About Great White Sharks (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 2000).

  5. Stephen Wroe et al. “Three-Dimensional Computer Analysis of White Shark Mechanics: How Hard Can a Great White Bite?” Journal of Zoology, 276 (2008), pp. 336–42.

  6. Edith A. Widder, “A Predatory Use of Counterillumination by the Squaloid Shark, Isistius brasiliensis,” Environmental Biology of Fishes 53 (1998), pp. 267–73.

  7. Jeffrey C. Carrier, Discovering Sharks (St. Paul: Voyageur Press, 2006), p. 18.

  8. John Maisey, Randall Miller, and Susan Turner, “The Braincase of the Chondrichthyan Doliodus from the Lower Devonian Campbellton Formation of New Brunswick, Canada,” Acta Zoologica 90, suppl. 1 (May 2009), pp. 109–22.

  9. Personal communication with John Maisey, Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, Aug. 23, 2010.

10. EurekAlert! press release, Apr. 9, 1999.

11. Shubin, Your Inner Fish, pp. 90–93.

12. Ibid., pp. 193–96.

13. J. Craig Venter Institute, “Of Jaws and Men: Initial Decoding of Elephant Shark Genome Helps Uncover Ancient DNA in Human Genome,” press release, Dec. 21, 2006.

14. Klimley, Secret Life of Sharks, p. 19.

15. Jayne M. Gardiner and Jelle Atema, “The Function of Bilateral Odor Arrival Time Differences in Olfactory Orientation of Sharks,” Current Biology 20, no. 13 (2010), pp. 1187–91.

16. Carrier, Discovering Sharks, p. 24.

17. Lisa Cook and Joel Simonetti, Why I Care About Sharks: Will Sharks Survive This Century? (Hong Kong: Big Fish Press, 2003), p. 8.

18. MacQuitty, Eyewitness Shark, p. 23.

19. Salvador J. Jorgensen et al., “Philopatry and Migration of Pacific White Sharks,” Proceedings of the Royal Society, doi:10.1098/rspb2009.1155. Published online Nov. 4, 2009.

20. Personal communication with Stanford University professor Barbara Black, January 4, 2011.

7 LIVING WITH SHARKS

  1. C. F. Smit and Vic Peddemors, “Estimating the Probability of a Shark Attack When Using an Electric Repellent,” South African Statistical Journal 37 (2003), pp. 59–60.

  2. Baldridge, pp. 11–14.

  3. Smit and Peddemors, “Estimating the Probability of a Shark Attack,” pp. 59–78.

  4. Richard Brill et al., “The Repulsive and Feeding-Deterrent Effects of Electropositive Metals on Juvenile Sandbar Sharks (Carcharhinus plumbeus),” Fishery Bulletin 107 (2009), pp. 298–307.

  5. Christopher H. Achen and Larry M. Bartels, “Blind Retrospection: Electoral Responses to Drought, Flu, and Shark Attacks,” paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Boston, Sept. 2002, pp. 1–9.

  6. Ibid., p. 20.

8 FISH FIGHT

  1. Kenneth R. Weiss, “Obituaries; Ransom A. Myers, 54, Warned That Overfishing Posed Sweeping Threat,” Los Angeles Times, March 29, 2007.

  2. Julia K. Baum and Ransom A. Myers, “Shifting Baselines and the Decline of Pelagic Sharks in the Gulf of Mexico,” Ecology Letters 7 (2004), pp. 135–45.

  3. Phillip J. Clapham et al., “Determining Spatial and Temporal Scales for Management: Lessons from Whaling,” Marine Mammal Science 24, no. 1 (2008), p. 184.

  4. Ibid., pp. 183–88.

  5. Ibid., pp. 190–91.

  6. Burr Heneman and Marci Glazer, “More Rare Than Dangerous: A Case Study of White Shark Conservation in California,” in Great White Sharks: The Biology of Carcharodon carcharias, ed. A. Peter Klimley and David G. Ainley (San Diego: Academic Press, 1996).

  7. WildAid, “At Rock Bottom: The Declining Sharks of the Eastern Tropical Pacific” (San Francisco: WildAid, 2005).

9 GAWKING AT JAWS

  1. Philip J. Motta et al., “Feeding Anatomy, Filter-Feeding Rate, and Diet of Whale Sharks Rhincodon typus During Surface Ram Filter Feeding off the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico,” Zoology, 113: 4 (August 2010) pp. 199–212.

  2. Taylor and Taylor, Great Shark Writings, pp. 48–49.

  3. Ibid., pp. 45–46.

CONCLUSION: SHARK NIRVANA

  1. Michael R. Heithaus et al., “Predicting Ecological Consequences of Marine Top Predator Declines,” Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23, no. 4 (2008).

  2. Francesco Ferretti et al., “Patterns and Ecosystem Consequences of Shark Declines in the Ocean,” Ecology Letters 13, no. 8 (2010), pp. 1065–71.

  3. Benjamin S. Halpern et al., “A Global Map of Human Impact on Marine Ecosystems,” Science, Feb. 15, 2008, pp. 948–52.

  4. Helen Kennedy and Alyssa Giachino, “One Fin Fellow: Coney Is. Lifeguard Rescues Shark to Cap Crazy Summer,” New York Daily News, Sept. 4, 2007.

  5. David E. Jennings et al., “Effects of Large-Scale Anthropogenic Development on Juvenile Lemon Shark (Negaprion brevirostris) Populations of Bimini, Bahamas,” Environmental Biology of Fishes, Dec. 2008.

  6. “Great White Shark Sightings on the Rise on the East Coast,” National Public Radio, August 13, 2010, and personal communication with Larry Selzer, president, Conservation Fund.

  7. Jennifer L. Molinar, ed., The Atlas of Global Conservation: Changes, Challenges, and Opportunities to Make a Difference (Berkeley: University of California Press and the Nature Conservancy, 2010), p. 155.

  8. Juliet Eilperin, “Hawaiian Marine Reserve to Be the World’s Largest: Bush to Designate National Park in Pacific Waters,” Washington Post, June 15, 2006.

  9. Nicholas A. J. Graham, Mark D. Spalding, and Charles R. C. Sheppard, “Reef Shark Declines in Remote Atolls Highlight the Need for Multi-faceted Conservation Action,” Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 20, no. 5 (2010).

10. Daniel G. Boyce, Marlon R. Lewis, and Boris Worm, “Global Phytoplankton Decline Over the Past Century,” Nature 466 (2010), pp. 591–96.

Bibliography

Benchley, Peter. Jaws. New York: Doubleday, 1974.

Camhi, Merry D., Ellen K. Pikitch, and Elizabeth A. Babcock, eds. Sharks of the Open Ocean: Biology, Fisheries, and Conservation. Oxford: Blackwell Science, 2008.

Capuzzo, Michael. Close to Shore: A True Story of Terror in an Age of Innocence. New York: Broadway Books, 2001.

Clark, Eugenie. The Lady and the Sharks. Sarasota, Fla.: Mote Marine Laboratory, 1969.

Klimley, A. Peter. The Secret Life of Sharks: A Leading Marine Biologist Reveals the Secrets of Shark Behavior. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2003.

MacQuitty, Miranda. Eyewitness Shark. New York: DK Publishing, 1992.

Matthiessen, Peter. Blue Meridian: The Search for the Great White Shark. New York: Penguin Books, 1997.

McCormick, Harold W., and Tom Allen, with William E. Young. Shadows in the Sea: The Sharks, Skates, and Rays. Philadelphia: Chilton Books, 1963.

Shubin, Neil. Your Inner Fish: A Journey into the 3.5-Billion-Year History of the Human Body. New York: Vintage Books, 2008.

Skomal, Greg. The Shark Handbook: The Essential Guide for Understanding the Sharks of the World. Kennebunkport, Maine: Cider Mill Press, 2008.

Taylor, Valerie, and Ron Taylor, with Peter Goadby, eds. Great Shark Writings. Woodstock, N.Y.: Overlook Press, 2000.

Young, William E. Shark! Shark! The Thirty-Year Odyssey of a Pioneer Shark Hunter. London: Kegan Paul, 1934.