Tropic of Chaos: Climate Change and the New Geography of Violence - Christian Parenti (2011)
1 On Africa the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change writes, “Warming is very likely to be larger than the global annual mean warming throughout the continent and in all seasons, with drier subtropical regions warming more than the moister tropics. Annual rainfall is likely to decrease in much of Mediterranean Africa and the northern Sahara, with a greater likelihood of decreasing rainfall as the Mediterranean coast is approached. Rainfall in southern Africa is likely to decrease in much of the winter rainfall region and western margins. There is likely to be an increase in annual mean rainfall in East Africa. It is unclear how rainfall in the Sahel, the Guinean Coast and the southern Sahara will evolve.” Susan Solomon, Dahe Qin, Martin Manning, and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Working Group I, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis: Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 850.
2 James Hansen, Storms of My Grandchildren: The Truth About the Coming Climate Catastrophe and Our Last Chance to Save Humanity (New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2009).
3 See “About Science and Impacts,” Pew Center on Global Climate Change, www.pewclimate.org/science-impacts/about.
4 The IPCC has rather famously lowered its projected sea level rises between its third and fourth assessment reports. But the fourth assessment’s lower range of projected rises has been roundly attacked as optimistic because they do not take into account new evidence of very rapid melting in Greenland and Antarctica. New Scientist summed up the dilemma of projecting sea level rises as follows: “Because modeling how the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets will react to rising temperatures is fiendishly complicated, the IPCC did not include either in its estimate. It’s no small omission: the Greenland ice cap, the smaller and so far less stable of the two, holds enough water that if it all melted, it would raise sea levels by 6 metres on average across the globe.” The same piece then goes on to quote Eric Rignot of the University of California, Irvine, and NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, saying, “As a result of the acceleration of outlet glaciers over large regions, the ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are already contributing more and faster to sea level rise than anticipated. . . . If this trend continues, we are likely to witness sea level rise 1 metre or more by year 2100.” See Catherine Brahic, “Sea Level Rise Could Bust IPCC Estimate,” New Scientist (March 2009).
5 John Vidal, “Global Warming Causes 300,000 Deaths a Year,” Guardian, May 29, 2009.
6 Jianjun Yin et al. “Model Projections of Rapid Sea-Level Rise on the Northeast Coast of the United States,” Nature Geoscience 2 (March 15, 2009): 262–266. In 2007 the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, based on data that was already several years dated upon publication, projected that neither Greenland nor Antarctica would lose significant mass by 2100. In fact, both are losing mass very quickly. From the new data come the new projections.
7 Koko Warner et al., “In Search of Shelter: Mapping the Effects of Climate Change on Human Migration and Displacement,” Earth Institute of Columbia University, May 2009, http://ciesin.columbia.edu/documents/clim-migr-report-june09_media.pdf.
8 Kristina Stefanova, “Rising Sea Levels in Pacific Create Wave of Migrants,” Washington Times, April 19, 2009.
9 Quoted in Susan George, “Globalisation and War” (paper presented at the International Congress of the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, New Delhi, March 10 2008); “Climate Change and Conflict,” International Crisis Group Report, November 2007, www.crisisgroup.org/en/key-issues/climate-change-and-conflict.aspx.
10 Dan Smith and Janani Vivekananda, A Climate of Conflict: The Links Between Climate Change, Peace and War (Stockholm: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, Febuary 2008), 7. This publication can be downloaded/ordered from www.sida.se/publications.
11 Statistically, “battle-related deaths” worldwide have declined since World War II and especially since the end of the Cold War—which in the frontline states of the Global South was often quite hot. But other amorphous types of violence linked to social breakdown are spreading. Take the case of El Salvador: twelve years of civil war ended in 1993, but “deaths by homicide in the postwar era at one point surpassed the death rate during the war.” And they remain almost as high today. Or consider Caracas. In the 1970s Venezuela suffered a series of small guerrilla insurgencies; in fact, the young paratrooper Hugo Chavez fought Maoist guerillas around Lake Maricaibo. Today, Venezuela is “at peace,” but the hillside barrios of Caracas are hyperviolent with crime; Caracas is far more violent than during the era of civil war. The Caracas murder rate is about 130 per 100,000. In 2008 a total of 2,415 people were killed and 5,098 others were injured. See, for example, Sara Miller Llana, “Will Venezuela’s Murder Rate Hurt Chávez?” Christian Science Monitor, December 3, 2008; “Highlights: Venezuela Crime, Narcotics Issues 29 Jun–5 Jul 09,” World News Connection (US Department of Commerce), July 5, 2009.
1 “Statement for the Record of Dr. Thomas Fingar,” Office of the Director of National Intelligence, June 25, 2008, www.dni.gov/testimonies/20080625_testimony.pdf (accessed on June 25, 2008); Kevin Whitelaw, “Climate Change Will Have Destabilizing Consequences, Intelligence Agencies Warn,” US News World Report, June 25, 2008. The report was called “The National Security Implications of Global Climate Change to 2030.”
2 Laura Sullivan, “Prison Economics Help Drive Ariz. Immigration Law,” All Things Considered (NPR Radio), October 28, 2010.
3 This report is widely available on the Web—for example, on the Global Business Network website at www.gbn.com/GBNDocumentDisplayServlet.srv?aid=26231&url=/UploadDocumentDisplayServlet.srv?id=28566.
4 On bombing and Paris negotiations, see Gabriel Kolko, Anatomy of a War: Vietnam, the United States and the Modern Historical Experience (New York: New Press, 1985), 440–444; Stanley Karrnow, Vietnam: A History (New York: Penguin, 1997).
5 Jeff Goodell, How to Cool the Planet: Geoengineering and the Audacious Quest to Fix Earth’s Climate (New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2010).
6 For a thorough discussion of the ocean’s thermaline circulation system, see the following: Tim Flannery, The Weather Makers: How Man Is Changing the Climate and What It Means for Life on Earth (New York: HarperCollins, 2006); Elizabeth Kolbert, Field Notes from a Catastrophe: Man, Nature and Climate Change (New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2006); Eugene Linden, The Winds of Change: Climate, Weather, and the Destruction of Civilizations (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006); Al Gore, Earth in the Balance (New York: Plume, 1993); Al Gore, An Inconvenient Truth (New York: Rodale Books, 2006); George Monbiot, Heat: How to Stop the Planet from Burning (New York: Doubleday, 2006).
7 Peter Schwartz and Doug Randall, “Report on Abrupt Climate Change and Its Implications for the United States National Security” (report prepared for the Pentagon Office of Net Assessment, Global Business Network, February 2003), 2.
8 CNA Corporation, National Security and the Threat of Climate Change (Alexandria, VA: CNA Corporation, 2007), 44.
9 CNA Corporation, National Security and the Threat of Climate Change, 16.
10 CNA Corporation, National Security and the Threat of Climate Change, 60.
11 Kurt M. Campbell et al., The Age of Consequences: The Foreign-Policy National Security Implications of Global Climate Change (Washington DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies and the Center for New American Security, 2007), 35.
12 Campbell et al., Age of Consequences, 9.
13 Campbell et al., Age of Consequences, 85–86.
14 Jonathan Pearlman and Ben Cubby, “Defense Warns of Climate Conflict,” Sydney Morning Herald, January 7, 2009; the Australian Defense Forces analysis, titled Climate Change: The Environment, Resources and Conflict, was completed in November 2007.
15 “Climate Change and International Security” (paper from the High Representative and the European Commission to the European Council, S113/08, March 14, 2008), 1–2. This report is available online at www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressData/en/reports/99387.pdf.
16 “Climate Change and International Security,” 3–5.
17 Thomas Barnett, “The Pentagon’s New Map,” Esquire, March 2003. It is tempting to give American foreign policy an intellectual coherence that it doesn’t necessarily have. Although general goals are agreed on, namely projecting American power for the sake of American business, policy circles are divided into different schools of thought, cliques, and networks that compete for the influence of opposing visions.
18 Immanuel Wallerstein, The Modern World-System I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century (New York: Academic Press, 1974).
19 John Stuart Mill, Principles of Political Economy (New York: Longman, Green and Co., 1909), 685.
20 Larry Elliott and Mark Tran, “UN Report Warns of Threat to Human Progress from Climate Change,” Guardian, November 4, 2010.
1 Interview with Colonel Gary Anderson, USMC, March 1999; Frank L. Jones, “Marine Corps Civil Affairs and the Three Block War,” Marine Corps Gazette 86, no. 3 (March 1, 2002). Derek Summerfield, “The Psychosocial Effects of Conflict in the Third World,” Development in Practice 1, no. 3 (autumn 1991): 159–173: 2.
2 CNA Corporation, National Security and the Threat of Climate Change (Alexandria, VA: CNA Corporation, 2007), 44. Emphasis added. That was Gen. Anthony Zini (Ret.) reflecting on the military implications of climate change, but Woolsey, Panetta, and the others all make similar statements.
3 Tactics in Counterinsurgency (FM 3–24.2). US Military Counterinsurgency Field Manual (Washington, DC: Department of the Army, 2009), p. viii.
4 John A. Nagl, Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife: Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya and Vietnam (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005); David Kilcullen, The Accidental Guerrilla: Fighting Small Wars in the Midst of a Big One (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009); Thomas Ricks, The Gamble: General David Patraeus and the American Military Adventure in Iraq, 2006–2008 (New York: Penguin Press, 2009). For an excellent and critical history of counterinsurgency in Colombia see, Forrest Hylton, “Plan Colombia: The Measure of Success,” Brown Journal of World Affairs Vol. XVII, no. I (Fall/Winter 2010): 99115.
5 For the classic discussion of anomie, see Robert K. Merton, “Social Structure and Anomie,” American Sociological Review 3, no. 5 (October 1938): 672–682.
6 Jose Harris, “War and Social History: Britain and the Home Front During the Second World War,” Contemporary European History 1, no. 1 (March 1992): 17–35: 18.
7 Indeed, that is what unlucky “guests” of the Taliban, like Jerey van Dyke, describe. By his account, the Taliban give the impression that drone strikes build unity on the ground, even if they fray and wear upon the Taliban leadership networks. Jerey Van Dyke, Captive: My Time As a Prisoner of the Taliban (New York: Times Books, 2010).
8 Summerfield, “The Psychosocial Effects of Conflict,” 159–173: 2.
9 I am thinking here most specifically of political Islam. See Oliver Roy, The Failures of Political Islam (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994), in which French scholar Roy argues that political Islam, once in power, necessarily tempers its radicalism, for there is no “Islamic” way to run a modern economy or state because Islam is not a social theory but a moral theory.
10 Robert J. Bunker, “Epochal Change: War over Social and Political Organization,” Parameters 27 (summer 1997): 15–25.
11 As often happens in colonial situations, there were both resistance and creative adaptation on the part of the colonized people. As explained in Theda Perdue and Michael Green’s excellent The Cherokee Nation and the Trail of Tears, the Cherokees used the “civilizing” process, turning it to their own national ends. They adopted modern farming methods and tools, as well as created a Cherokee script, newspapers, a constitution, and a modern sovereign state. They engaged in long-distance trade and the cash economy, even buying and owning slaves, and brought in white indentured servants to work their lands. But they resisted efforts to privatize their land holdings and hung on to their language and customs and thereby, through partial acculturation, thwarted conquest. Interestingly, the Kikuyu of Kenya and the Chagga of Tanzania also both resisted and adapted to colonialism in a similar fashion to the Cherokee. On the Cherokee, see Theda Perdue and Michael Green, The Cherokee Nation and the Trail of Tears (New York: Viking, 2007).
12 Erving Goffman, Asylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patients and Other Inmates (New York: Anchor, 1961). General George Crook quoted in John A. Nagl, Counterinsurgency Lessons from Malaya and Vietnam: Learning to Eat Soup with a Knife (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005).
13 If this sounds a lot like Judeo-Christian eschatology, that is because there was significant influence from the Mormon Church and, strangely, the Shakers on the founding leaders of the Ghost Dance Cult, like the Paiute prophet Wovoka. See Frank D. McCann Jr., “The Ghost Dance, Last Hope of Western Tribes, Unleashed the Final Tragedy,” Montana: The Magazine of Western History 16, no. 1 (winter 1966): 25–34. For a historiographical survey of the literature on the Lakota ghost dance, see Michael A. Sievers, “The Historiography of ‘The Bloody Field . . . That Kept the Secret of the Everlasting Word’: Wounded Knee,” South Dakota History 6, no. 1 (1975): 33–54; Raymond J. DeMallie, “The Lakota Ghost Dance: An Ethnohistorical Account,” The Pacific Historical Review 51, no. 4 (November 1982): 385–405.
14 Captain E. D. Swinton, D.S.O., R.E., The Defense of Duffer’s Drift (Washington, DC: US Infantry Association, 1916), 9.
15 Swinton, The Defense of Duffer’s Drift, 36.
16 Hans Schmidt, Maverick Marine: General Smedley D. Butler and the Contradictions of American Military History (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1998).
17 For more on this, see Dunbar Ortiz, “Indigenous Rights and Regional Autonomy in Revolutionary Nicaragua,” Latin American Perspectives 14, no. 1 (winter 1987): 43–66; Jane Freeland, “Nationalist Revolution and Ethnic Rights: The Miskitu Indians of Nicaragua’s Atlantic Coast,” Third World Quarterly 11, no. 4 (October 1989): 166–190. A famous innovator of small-war tactics and doctrine was Maj. Gen. Merritt A. Edson (USMC), who led, and later wrote about, a 1928 campaign to pacify Nicaragua’s Rio Coco.
18 On the last example, see the excellent article by Shane Bauer, “Iraq’s New Death Squad,” The Nation, June 22, 2009.
19 United States Marine Corps, Small Wars Manual (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1940), 2.
20 This is from a report from the Brady brigade commander dated October 1919, quoted in Hans Schmidt, The United States Occupation of Haiti, 1915–1934 (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995), 105.
21 Like the cavalry, the marines, emphasizing small mobile units, adopted local methods of transportation—on rivers, mountain trails, or country roads. Resupply was limited, and marines tended to live off the land—which is to say, the local population. Discussing marine suppression of rebellion in Haiti during America’s intermittent fourteen-year occupation there, Lester Langley gives this description of tactics: “Marine commanders in the guard had to adapt to rebel tactics. A patrol could travel twenty to thirty miles in a day, moving single file along trails flanked by dense growth, stopping usually at midafternoon to rest. Since pack mules ordinarily moved slower than men, animals were limited to the minimum necessary for carrying blanket, rolls, food, and ammunition. . . . Everything was sacrificed to speed on the trail, to having men in condition to fight. . . . What could not be scavenged was flown in by the air squadron.” Lester D. Langley, The Banana Wars: United States Intervention in the Caribbean, 1898–1934 (Wilmington, DE: SR Books, 2002), 207. This was the age of gun boat diplomacy, and the manual refers explicitly to the imperial nature of such engagements: “Small wars, generally being the execution of the responsibilities of the President in protecting American interests, life and property abroad, are therefore conducted in a manner different from major warfare. In small wars, diplomacy has not ceased to function and the State Department exercises a constant and controlling influence over the military operations. The very inception of small wars, as a rule, is an official act of the Chief Executive who personally gives instructions without action of Congress.”
22 Louis Gannett, “In Haiti,” The Nation, September 28, 1927.
23 Schmidt, Maverick Marine, 2.
24 Ernesto Che Guevara, Guerrilla Warfare (Lincoln, NE: Bison Books, 1998), 19.
25 Guevara, Guerrilla Warfare, 10.
26 Guevara, Guerrilla Warfare, 10–11.
27 Danilo Valladares, “Youth Gangs—Reserve Army for Organized Crime,” Inter Press Service, September 21, 2010.
28 Dennis Rodgers, “Living in the Shadow of Death: Gangs, Violence and Social Order in Urban Nicaragua, 1996–2002,” Journal of Latin American Studies 38, no. 2 (2006): 267–292: 267.
29 Here is a random sampling of stories on the postwar violence: “Gunmen Slaughter 14 Football Players,” Independent (UK), November 1, 2010; Valladares, “Youth Gangs”; Nick Miroff and William Booth, “Violence Accompanies Mexican Drug Cartels As They Move South,” Washington Post, July 27, 2010. And here are academic articles analyzing the crisis: Sonja Wolf, “Subverting Democracy: Elite Rule and the Limits to Political Participation in Post-War El Salvador,” Journal of Latin American Studies 41, no. 3 (2009): 429–465; Rodgers, “Living in the Shadow of Death.”
30 Tim Rogers, “The Spiral of Violence in Central America,” Z Magazine, September 2000.
31 Mark Bowden, Black Hawk Down: A Story of Modern War (Berkeley, CA: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1999).
32 Mike Davis, “The Pentagon As Global Slumlord,” TomDispatch.com, April 19, 2004, www.alternet.org/story/18457.
33 See Greg Grandin’s excellent Empire’s Workshop: Latin America, the United States, and the Rise of the New Imperialism (New York: Metropolitan, 2005), 87–88.
34 Peter Maas, “The Salvadorization of Iraq?” New York Times Magazine, May 1, 2005.
1 On Africa, the IPCC writes, “Warming is very likely to be larger than the global annual mean warming throughout the continent and in all seasons, with drier subtropical regions warming more than the moister tropics. Annual rainfall is likely to decrease in much of Mediterranean Africa and the northern Sahara, with a greater likelihood of decreasing rainfall as the Mediterranean coast is approached. Rainfall in southern Africa is likely to decrease in much of the winter rainfall region and western margins. There is likely to be an increase in annual mean rainfall in East Africa. It is unclear how rainfall in the Sahel, the Guinean Coast and the southern Sahara will evolve.” Susan Solomon, Dahe Qin, Martin Manning, and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Working Group I, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis: Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 850.
2 Mwangi Ndirangu, “The Vanishing Snow of Mount Kenya,” Daily Nation (Nairobi), December 17, 2009.
3 M. Boko et al. “Africa,” in Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. M. L. Parry et al. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 440.
4 John Vidal, “Climate Change Is Here, It Is a Reality,” Guardian, September 3, 2009.
5 The Kalenjin are made up of the Kipsigis, Nandi, Tugen, Keiyo, Marakwet, Pokot (in the past called the Suk), Sabaot, and Terik. Many of these tribes live in the Mount Elgon region, overlapping the Kenya-Uganda border. They were the political base of Daniel Arap Moi. Kalenjin political identity had first begun to take shape in the 1940s, among independent but culturally and linguistically similar tribes. Kalenjin translates roughly as “I tell you,” and it seems to have emerged among servicemen who were shipped off to fight for Britain in World War II. These men addressed each other as kale (which referred to one who had killed an enemy in battle). Wartime radio broadcasts hailed them with the plural kalenjok. After the war a Kalenjin political club formed at Alliance High School and at Makerere College. From the beginning the Kalenjin united to counterbalance the power of the Kikuyu, who had lost most of their land to the British, then led the Mau Mau rebellion and were soon to dominate postindependence political and economic life in Kenya. By 1948 there was a Kalenjin Union in Eldoret and a monthly magazine called Kalenjin in the 1950s. See Benjamin E. Kipkorir, The Marakwet of Kenya (Nairobi: East African Educational Publishers, 1982).
6 “Clashes in North Kenya over Cattle Raiding Kill 26,” Associated Press Worldstream, August 1, 2008.
7 On the population and geography of this culture, see Elliot Fratkin, “East African Pastoralism in Transition: Maasai, Boran, and Rendille Cases,” African Studies Review 44, no. 3 (December 2001): 1–25. Fratkin writes, “Pastoralists occupy 70 percent of the total land of Kenya, 50 percent of Tanzania, and 40 percent of Uganda. But their populations are numerically small (fewer than 1.5 million of Kenya’s 30 million, Tanzania’s 35 million, and Uganda’s 23 million people), and they find themselves politically disempowered and economically marginalized in national polities that are dominated by people from agricultural communities. Pastoralist groups of East Africa include cattle-keeping Maasai (300,000 in southern Kenya and 150,000 in northern Tanzania), Samburu (75,000), Turkana (200,000), Boran and Orma (75,000), and Karimojong, Dodoth, Teso, and Jie peoples in Uganda (total about 200,000). Camel-keeping pastoralists occupy the drier regions of northeastern Kenya, southern Ethiopia, and Somalia and include Afro-Asiatic-speaking Gabra (25,000), Rendille (25,000), and pastoral Somali (about 1 million of Somalia’s 6.5 million people). In addition, many agricultural groups in East Africa raise large herds of cattle, including Kalenjin speakers (Nandi, Kipsigi, Pokot) in western Kenya and Bantu-speaking Ba Ankole in western Uganda and Tutsi in Rwanda and Burundi” (3–4).
8 Fratkin, “East African Pastoralism,” 8.
9 Eleanor J. Burke, Simon J. Brown, and Nikolaos Christidis, “Modeling the Recent Evolution of Global Drought and Projections for the Twenty-First Century with the Hadley Centre Climate Model,” Journal of Hydrometeorology 7, no. 5 (October 2006): 1113–1125.
10 Dr. David Kimenye, “Life on the Edge of Climate Change: The Plight of the Pastoralists in Northern Kenya,” Christian Aid, November 13, 2006, p. 2.
11 Mwaniki Wahome, “For Agriculture, Larger Budget Allocation Vital,” The Nation , June 12, 2008; see also the introduction of Victor A. Orindi, Anthony Nyong, and Mario Herrero, “Pastoral Livelihood Adaptation to Drought and Institutional Interventions in Kenya,” in Fighting Climate Change: Human Solidarity in a Divided World (occasional paper, Human Development Report Office, United Nations Development Program, 2007/2008).
12 USAID FEWS NET, Weather Hazards Impacts Assessment for Africa, December 13–20, 2007.
13 Jeffrey Gettleman, “Ripples of Dispute Surround Tiny Island in East Africa,” New York Times, August 17, 2009.
14 Barnabas Bii and Kennedy Masibo, “Banditry Death Toll Rises Now to 74,” The Nation (Kenya), August 5, 2008; “Kenya to Forcefully Disarm Pastoralists in Rift Valley,” World News Connection, August 3, 2008; Lucas Ng’asike, “Raiders Shoot Dead 30 Herders,” The Nation (Kenya), August 12, 2008; “11 Killed As They Pursue Raiders,” The Nation (Kenya), August 20, 2008; Peter Ng’etich, “Ten Herders Die in Bomb Raid,” The Nation (Kenya), August 22, 2008; “‘Sudanese Raiders’ Kill Eight in Northwestern Kenya” (text of report by Kenyan privately owned TV station KTN on 30 August), BBC International Reports, Monitoring Service, August 30, 2008; Peter Ng’etich and Oliver Mathenge, “Two Reservists Killed in Raid,” The Nation (Kenya), September 2, 2008; Peter Ng’etich, “Two Killed As Raiders Steal Cattle,” The Nation (Kenya), September 4, 2008.
15 Claire McEvoy and Ryan Murray, “Gauging Fear and Insecurity: Perspectives on Armed Violence in Eastern Equatoria and Turkana North,” Sudan Issue Briefs 14 (July 2008): 10: 14.
1 J. K. Muhindi et al., Rainfall Atlas for Kenya (Nairobi: Drought Monitoring Center, 2001), 5.
2 Where the trade winds collide and the air rises, we find an area of strange calm, known to sailors as the doldrums.
3 Muhindi et al., Rainfall Atlas for Kenya, 7. John E. Oliver, Encyclopedia of World Climatology (New York: Springer), p. 430.
4 Recall the basics: as the Earth, tipped on its axis, revolves around the sun during the course of a year, the sun focuses more forcefully on one, then the other, hemisphere. In the process, it slowly transits north and south across the equator. During its summer, the Northern Hemisphere is tipped toward the sun, and the ITCZ is pulled north toward the Tropic of Capricorn. As the season changes, the Southern Hemisphere receives a greater portion of sunlight, and the ITCZ is pulled south across the equator toward the Tropic of Cancer.
5 On Africa the IPCC writes, “Warming is very likely to be larger than the global annual mean warming throughout the continent and in all seasons, with drier subtropical regions warming more than the moister tropics. Annual rainfall is likely to decrease in much of Mediterranean Africa and the northern Sahara, with a greater likelihood of decreasing rainfall as the Mediterranean coast is approached. Rainfall in southern Africa is likely to decrease in much of the winter rainfall region and western margins. There is likely to be an increase in annual mean rainfall in East Africa. It is unclear how rainfall in the Sahel, the Guinean Coast and the southern Sahara will evolve.” Susan Solomon, Dahe Qin, Martin Manning, and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Working Group I, Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis: Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 850.
6 Katharine Houreld, “Kenya: 10 Million Risk Hunger After Harvests Fail,” Associated Press, January 9, 2009.
7 “Heavy Rains to Affect Hundreds of Thousands,” IRIN, November 14, 2008.
8 The preceding section is based on James Hansen, Storms of My Grandchildren: The Truth About the Coming Climate Catastrophe and Our Last Chance to Save Humanity (New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2009); Bill McKibben, Earth: Making a Life on a Tough New Planet (New York: Henry Holt & Co., 2010); Tim Flannery, The Weather Makers: How Man Is Changing the Climate and What It Means for Life on Earth(New York: HarperCollins, 2006); Elizabeth Kolbert, Field Notes from a Catastrophe: Man, Nature and Climate Change (New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2006); Eugene Linden, The Winds of Change: Climate, Weather, and the Destruction of Civilizations (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006); Al Gore, Earth in the Balance (New York: Plume, 1993); Al Gore, An Inconvenient Truth (New York: Rodale Books, 2006); George Monbiot, Heat: How to Stop the Planet from Burning (New York: Doubleday, 2006). Climate Change 2007: Working Group I: The Physical Science Basis: Human and Natural Drivers of Climate Change, IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (2007): http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg1/en/spmsspm-human-and.html. For latest atmospheric CO2 concentrations see http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/
9 “Towards a Goal for Climate Change Stabilisation,” ch. 13 (13.5) in Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change (Treasury of the Government of the UK, 2006).
10 Clive Hamilton, Charles Stuart Professor of Public Ethics, Centre for Applied Philosophy and Public Ethics at the Australian National University, “Is It Too Late to Prevent Catastrophic Climate Change?” (lecture to a meeting of the Royal Society of the Arts, Sydney, Australia, October 21, 2009), 11. Available at www.clivehamilton.net.au (accessed January 19, 2011).
11 Kevin Anderson et al, “From Long-Term Targets to Cumulative Emission Pathways : Reframing UK Climate Policy,” Energy Policy 36, no. 10 (2008): 3714–3722.
12 For details on this activism, see the 350.org website (www.350.org). Hassen’s paper can be found at J. Hansen et al., “Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim?” Cornell University Library, October 15, 2008, http://arxiv.org/abs/0804.1126.
13 For a review of the literature and its research methods, see Nils Petter Gleditsch, “Armed Conflict and the Environment: A Critique of the Literature,” Journal of Peace Research 35, no. 3 (May 1998): 381–400.
14 “Thousands Flee amid Fears of Fighting Along Border,” IRIN, November 29, 2008.
15 This debate is covered very well in Adanoo Wario Roba and Karen M. Witsenburg, Surviving Pastoral Decline: Pastoral Sedentarization, Natural Resource Management and Livelihood Diversification in Marsabit District, Northern Kenya (Lampeter, PA: Edwin Mellen Press, 2008), 735.
16 Val Percival and Thomas Homer-Dixon, “Environmental Scarcity and Violent Conflict: The Case of South Africa,” Journal of Peace Research 35, no. 3 (May 1998): 279–298: 281.
17 Kennedy Agade Mkutu, Guns and Governance in the Rift Valley: Pastoral Conflict and Small Arms (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2008), 7.
18 David Anderson, “Stock Theft and Moral Economy in Colonial Kenya,” Africa: Journal of the International African Institute 56, no. 4 (1986): 399–416: 406.
19 Anderson, “Stock Theft,” 408; for discussion of a similar process in Tanzania, see Michael L. Fleisher, “Kuria Cattle Raiding: Capitalist Transformation, Commoditization, and Crime Formation Among an East African Agro-Pastoral People,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 42, no. 4 (October 2000): 745–769.
1 J. Forbes Munro, “Shipping Subsidies and Railway Guarantees: William Mackinnon, Eastern Africa and the Indian Ocean, 1860–93,” Journal of African History 28, no. 2 (1987): 209–230: 210. Munro forcefully argues against the lame, very typical apologias that would have Mackinnon going to Africa out of noneconomic interests. In fact, the company was run by shipowners and merchants who stood to gain from expanded trade due to opening East Africa, even if the company itself were bankrupted.
2 Quoted in G. H. Mungeam, “Masai and Kikuyu Responses to the Establishment of British Administration in the East Africa Protectorate,” Journal of African History 11, no. 1 (1970): 127–143: 136.
3 R. B. Buckley, “Colonization and Irrigation in the East Africa Protectorate,” The Geographical Journal 21, no. 4 (April 1903): 349–371: 350, 355–356.
4 John Lonsdale and Bruce Berman, “Coping with the Contradictions: The Development of the Colonial State in Kenya, 1895–1914,” Journal of African History 20, no. 4 (1979): 487–505.
5 J. M. Lonsdale, “The Politics of Conquest: The British in Western Kenya, 1894–1908,” The Historical Journal 20, no. 4 (December 1977): 841–870: 851.
6 As Lonsdale and Berman put it in “Coping with the Contradictions,” “Late-nineteenth-century imperialism in Africa was the final sortie by which the world capitalist system captured the last continent to remain partially beyond its pale. The system was comprised, then as now, of a hierarchy of many differing modes of production linked at the level of exchange and all under the domination of the most advanced forms of capital, whether that was based in the formally responsible imperial power or in one of its industrial rivals” (486).
7 Lonsdale, “The Politics of Conquest.”
8 Lonsdale and Berman, “Coping with the Contradictions.”
9 Colin Leys, Underdevelopment in Kenya: The Political Economy of Neo-Colonialism (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975).
10 Frank Corfield, The Origins and Growth of Mau Mau: An Historical Survey (Nairobi: Government of Kenya, 1960).
11 Caroline Elkins, Imperial Reckoning: The Untold Story of Britain’s Gulag in Kenya (New York: Owl Books, 2005).
12 David Anderson, “Stock Theft and Moral Economy in Colonial Kenya,” Africa: Journal of the International Af rican Institute 56, no. 4 (1986): 399–416: 405.
13 On colonial and postindependence efforts to create law and order in development among pastoralists, see Fratkin, “East African Pastoralism”; for clear argument that raiding has increased since 1980, see Dr. Paul Goldsmith, Conceptualizing the Costs of Pastoralist Conflicts in Northern Kenya (Cemiride, Kenya: The Center for Minority Rights Development, March 2005). Attempts to turn nomadic pastoralists into more sedentary ranchers and agriculturalists are, unfortunately, associated with rapid soil degradation.
14 “Obote Is Ousted by Ugandan Army,” New York Times, January 26, 1971.
15 “Uganda’s New Military Ruler,” New York Times, January 28, 1971.
16 “Amin, Uganda’s New Leader, Charges Tanzania Plans an Attack,” New York Times, January 28, 1971.
17 Patrick Chabal and Jean-Pascal Daloz, Africa Works: Disorder As a Political Instrument (Oxford: University of Indiana Press/International African Institute, 1999), 15.
18 “Fall of Idi Amin,” Economic and Political Weekly 14, no. 21 (May 26, 1979): 907–910: 907.
19 “US Senate Votes to Lift Economic Sanctions That Had Been Applied Against Uganda During Former Pres Idi Amin’s Reign,” New York Times, May 8, 1979; “Conflict Between Uganda Pres Amin and US over Amin’s Order Forbidding Americans to Leave,” New York Times, March 6, 1977.
20 “When a State Goes Insane,” New York Times, May 2, 1979; “Fall of Idi Amin”; John Darton, “Invaders in Uganda Close In on Capital,” New York Times, April 5, 1979.
21 Gregory Jayne, “African Apocalypse,” New York Times, November 16, 1980.
22 Mustafa Mirzeler and Crawford Young, “Pastoral Politics in the Northeast Periphery in Uganda: AK–47 As Change Agent,” Journal of Modern Af rican Studies 38, no. 3 (September 2000): 407–429: 416.
23 Barry Shilachter, “Ugandan Warriors Becoming Dirt Farmers in Settlement Scheme,” Associated Press, August 4, 1985.
24 Jayne, “African Apocalypse.”
25 David Crary, “Well-Armed Cattle Raiders Terrorize East African Villages,” AP Online, November 17, 1986.
26 Conan Businge, “400,000 Illegal Guns in Circulation,” New Vision (Uganda), December 19, 2008.
27 “Where Natural and Man-Made Disaster Go Together,” The Economist, June 14, 1980.
28 On guns, see Mirzeler and Young, “Pastoral Politics in the Northeast Periphery”; on drought, see Elliot Fratkin, “East African Pastoralism in Transition: Maasai, Boran, and Rendille Cases,” African Studies Review 44, no. 3 (December 2001): 1–25: 8.
29 Jayne, “African Apocalypse.”
30 Jayne, “African Apocalypse,” 417.
31 The Economist, “Where Natural and Man-Made Disaster Go Together.”
1 I. M. Lewis, Blood and Bones: The Call of Kinship in Somali Society (Trenton, NJ: Red Sea Press, 1994), 150; I. M. Lewis, “Somalia Nationalism Turned Inside Out,” MERIP Reports, no. 106 (June 1982); I. M. Lewis, A Pastoral Democracy: A Study of Pastoralism and Politics Among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa (London: Oxford University Press, 1962); I. M. Lewis, The Modern History of Somaliland: From Nation to State (New York: F. A. Praeger, 1965); David D. Laitin and Said S. Samatar, Somalia: A Nation in Search of a State (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1987); Abdi Ismail Samatar, “Destruction of State and Society in Somalia: Beyond the Tribal Convention,” The Journal of Modern African Studies 30, no. 4 (December 1992): 625–641.
2 John Markakis, “Garrison Socialism: The Case of Ethiopia,” MERIP Reports, no. 79 (June 1979): 5.
3 Robert G. Patman, The Soviet Union in the Horn of Africa: The Diplomacy of Intervention and Disengagement (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), 49.
4 Gian Carlo Pajetta, “Interview on Ethiopia and Somalia,” New Left Review 1, no. 107 (January–February 1978): 43–45; Emilio Sarzi Amade, “Ethiopia’s Troubled Road,” New Left Review 1, no. 107 (January–February 1978): 40–43.
5 “The Soviet Flight from Egypt,” Time, July 31, 1972.
6 “The Model Socialist State That Prays Five Times a Day,” The Economist, May 14, 1977.
7 Piero Gleijeses, Conflicting Missions: Havana, Washington, and Africa, 1959–1976 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002). This book is a truly impressive accomplishment, based on ten years of research using declassified US intelligence, interviews with principal players, and, most importantly, vaults of never before revealed Cuban documents from the Communist Party Central Committee, armed forces, and foreign ministry.
8 “The Cubans in Africa,” Newsweek, March 13, 1978.
9 David B. Ottaway, “Soviets Said to Press Somalia for Cease-Fire in Ethiopia,” Washington Post, August 4, 1977; Gebru Tareke, “The Ethiopia-Somalia War of 1977 Revisited,” The International Journal of African Historical Studies 33, no. 3 (2000): 635–667: 642.
10 Pamela S. Falk, “Cuba in Africa,” Foreign Affairs 65, no. 5 (summer 1987): 1077–1096.
11 David Ottoway, “Soviet Wooing of Ethiopia May Push Somalia Toward U.S.,” Washington Post, February 28, 1977; Murrey Marder, “Soviets: Carter Distorted Role in Somalia,” Washington Post, January 14, 1978; “Cuba, Somalia to Resume Diplomatic Relations,” Xinhua General News Service, August 1, 1989.
12 Harry Ododa, “Somalia’s Domestic Politics and Foreign Relations Since the Ogaden War of 1977–78,” Middle Eastern Studies 21, no. 3 (July 1985): 285–297: 285.
13 For details on the war, see Tareke, “The Ethiopia-Somalia War of 1977 Revisited” ; David D. Laitin, “The War in the Ogaden: Implications for Siyaad’s Role in Somali History,” Journal of Modern African Studies 17, no. 1 (March 1979): 95–115; Mohamud H. Khalif, “The Politics of Famine in the Ogaden,” Review of African Political Economy 27, no. 84 (June 2000): 333–337; I. M. Lewis, “The Ogaden and the Fragility of Somali Segmentary Nationalism,” African Affairs 88, no. 353 (October 1989): 573–579; Jeffrey Clark, “Debacle in Somalia,” Foreign Affairs 72, no. 1 (1992–1993) : 109–123; Ododa, “Somalia’s Domestic Politics and Foreign Relations.”
14 “Somalia Says Two Towns Hit by Ethiopian Planes,” Washington Post, December 29, 1977.
15 David B. Ottaway, “Castro Seen Mediator in Africa Talks,” Washington Post, March 18, 1977; “Red Hands Off the Red Sea,” The Economist, March 26, 1977; Arnaud de Borchgrave,” Trouble on the Horn,” Newsweek, June 27, 1977.
16 Clark, “Debacle in Somalia.”
17 Abdi Ismail Samatar, “Structural Adjustment As Development Strategy? Bananas, Boom, and Poverty in Somalia,” Economic Geography 69, no. 1 (January 1993): 25–43: 27.
18 Charles Mitchell, “Ethiopia Bombs Somali Towns,” United Press International, May 25, 1984.
19 Clark, “Debacle in Somalia,” 111.
20 World Bank figures are cited in Samatar, “Structural Adjustment As Development Strategy?”
21 Ismail I. Ahmed and Reginald Herbold Green, “The Heritage of War and State Collapse in Somalia and Somaliland: Local-Level Effects, External Interventions and Reconstruction,” Third World Quarterly 20, no. 1 (February 1999): 113–127: 115–116.
22 Terrence Lyons and Ahmed Ismail Samatar, State Collapse, Multilateral Intervention, and Strategies for Political Reconstruction (Washington DC: Brookings Institution, 1995), 1. For a discussion of the state, state officials, and the politics of their discourse, see Stefano Harney, State Work: Public Administration and Mass Intellectuality (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2002).
1 Martin Dugard, Into Africa: The Epic Adventures of Stanley and Livingstone (New York: Broadway, 2004).
2 Failed states: this phrase appears to be the property of the pro-war, national security intellectuals and the Pentagon planners who see a future of open-ended counterinsurgency. As it can carry a whiff of racism, a hint victim blaming, some on the Left oppose the idea. See Nome Chomsky, Failed States: The Abuse of Power and the Assault on Democracy (New York: Metropolitan Books, 2006).
3 Max Weber, The Theory of Social and Economic Organization (New York: Free Press, 1964), 154,
4 Stephen Harney, State Work Public Administration and Mass Intellectuality (New York: Monthly Review, 2002). Harney makes the point that the state is an idea that is produced as an institution only by the labor of its officialdom.
5 Max Weber, “Politics As a Vocation,” in From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, ed. H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills (New York: Oxford University Press, 1959), 77–128.
6 Norman F. Cantor, In the Wake of the Plague (New York: Harper Perennial, 2002); Barbara W. Tuchman, A Distant Mirror: The Calamitous 14th Century (New York: Ballantine Books, 1987). It is worth noting that Rome fell slowly, weakened by corruption, hierarchy, imperial overreact, and bloat well before its sacking. The Visigoths first crossed the Danube not as an invading army but as armed refugees fleeing the Huns, who were pressing in from the east. They tricked into Rome, violated the terms of their amnesty, and kept their arms, then slowly started making war again. See, for examples, chapter 2 in Frederic Austin Ogg, A Source Book of Medieval History: Documents Illustrative of European Life and Institutions from the German Invasions to the Renaissance (New York: American Book Company, 1908).
7 Walt W. Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990).
8 Charles Tilly, “War Making and State Making As Organized Crime,” in Bringing the State Back In, ed. Peter Evans, Dietrich Rueschemeyer, and Theda Skocpol (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 169–191.
9 Tilly, “War Making and State Making,” 170.
10 Tilly, “War Making and State Making,” 183.
11 Anthony Giddens, The Nation-State and Violence, vol. 2 of A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987).
1 We were in the little village of Tutu in Sherzad District. Khogyani is made up of a cluster of districts: Bihsud, Khogyani, Sherzad, Shinwar, Bati Kot, Pachir Wa Agam, and, depending on who is explaining the region, parts of Chaparhar and Surkh Rod.
2 Matthew Savage et al., “Socio-Economic Impacts of Climate Change in Afghanistan,” Department of International Development and Stockholm Environment Institute DFID CNTR 08 8507, executive summary, 2.
3 “Floods in Pakistan” (publication of the Humanitarian Communication Group, United Nations, October 4, 2010).
4 Tage R. Sivall, “Synoptic-Climatological Study of the Asian Summer Monsoon in Afghanistan,” Geograf iska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography 59, no. 1/2 (1977): 67–87; chart on 76.
5 Savage et al., “Socio-Economic Impacts of Climate Change in Afghanistan,” 5.
6 Raja Anwar, The Tragedy of Afghanistan (London: Verso, 1988), 69.
7 Louis Dupree, Afghanistan (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002).
8 James P. Sterba, “Starving Afghan Children Await Death Along Roads,” New York Times, June 16, 1972, 1; Sterba e-mail to author, April 9, 2009.
9 Henry Kamm, “Afghans Striving to Aid Famine Areas,” New York Times, November 19, 1972, 28.
10 “Upheaval in Kabul,” New York Times, July 20, 1973, 30.
11 “Afghan Parliament, in Session for a Year, Has Voted No Legislation,” New York Times, November 22, 1970.
12 James P. Sterba, “Afghans Begin Inquiry on Distribution of Food for Famine Relief,” New York Times, July 11, 1972, 6.
13 “Leftist Protest Mars Agnew’s Arrival in Kabul: Students in Afghan Capital Fail to Halt Motorcade Crowds Welcome Visitor,” New York Times, January 7, 1970.
14 An Afghan Village, produced by Norman Miller with the co-operation of Toryali Shafaq Afghan Films and the Government of Afghanistan, 1974.
15 “Afghan King Overthrown: A Republic Is Proclaimed,” New York Times, July 18, 1973.
16 Kamm, “Afghans Striving to Aid Famine Areas.”
17 “Afghanistan Coup Topples Monarchy,” MERIP Reports, no. 19 (August 1973): 18.
18 “Afghans Seem Happy That King Is Gone,” New York Times, July 24, 1973.
19 Amaury de Riencourt, “India and Pakistan in the Shadow of Afghanistan,” Foreign Affairs 61, no. 2 (winter 1982): 416–437.
20 Anwar, The Tragedy of Afghanistan, 78–81.
21 The story of Murtaza Bhutto is laid out in historical and personal detail in Raja Anwar, The Terrorist Prince: The Life and Death of Murtaza Bhutto (Verso: London, 1997), and also in Fatima Bhutto’s Songs of Blood and Sword (New York: Nation Books, 2010).
22 S. R. Sonyel, “Enver Pasha and the Basmaji Movement in Central Asia,” Middle Eastern Studies 26, no. 1 (January 1990): 52–64; Martha B. Olcott, “The Basmachi or Freemen’s Revolt in Turkestan, 1918–24,” Soviet Studies 33, no. 3 (July 1981): 352–369 ; William S. Ritter, “The Final Phase in the Liquidation of Anti-Soviet Resistance in Tadzhikistan: Ibrahim Bek and the Basmachi, 1924–31,” Soviet Studies 37, no. 4 (October 1985): 484–493.
23 For more on this history, see Steve Coll, Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001 (New York: Penguin, 2004).
24 Savage et al., “Socio-Economic Impacts of Climate Change in Afghanistan,” 5.
25 Matthew King and Benjamin Sturtewagen, Making the Most of Afghanistan’s River Basins: Opportunities for Regional Cooperation (New York: East West Institute, 2010), 17.
26 Savage et al., “Socio-Economic Impacts of Climate Change in Afghanistan,” 21.
27 Emma Graham-Harrison and Sue Pleming, “Spectre of Afghan Drought Brings Hunger, Poppy Fears,” Reuters, January 14, 2010.
28 “Floods Destroy 3,000 Houses in Takhar Abdul Matin Sarfaraz,” Pajhwok Afghan News, May 7, 2010; “Floods Inflict Heavy Damage on Four Districts,” Pajhwok Afghan News, May 9, 2010.
29 Steff Gaulter, “Flood of Misery: Pakistan’s Uneasy Relationship,” Al Jazeeria.net, August 9, 2010.
30 Graham-Harrison and Pleming, “Spectre of Afghan Drought”; Sediqullah Bader, “Afghanistan: Drought, Poppy Profits Cause Wheat Shortage,” Inter Press Service, August 7, 2006.
31 Graham-Harrison and Pleming, “Spectre of Afghan Drought.”
32 Quoted in Johann Hari, “Legalize It; Why Destroy Poppies and Afghan Farmers When the World Needs Legal Opiates?” Los Angeles Times, November 6, 2006.
33 Ahmed Rashid, Descent into Chaos: The United States and the Failure of Nation Building in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Central Asia (New York: Viking, 2008), 401.
34 Michael Renner, “Water Challenges in Central-South Asia,” Noref Policy Brief No. 4 (Oslo: Norwegian Peacebuilding Centre, December 2009).
1 Quoted in Timur Toktonaliev and Izomiddin Ahmedjanov, “Why Anger Finally Boiled Over in Kyrgyzstan,” Bradenton Herald (Florida), April 20, 2010.
2 Luke Harding, “Kyrgyzstan Opposition Seizes Power After Day of Protests,” Guardian, April 9, 2010. Numerous reports noted the utility price hikes, but few explored their history and causes. See Michael Schwritz, “Kyrgyzstan, Facing Continuing Violence, Reaches Out to Russia for Help,” New York Times, June 13, 2010; see also “Kyrgyzstan: A Hollow Regime Collapses,” Asia Briefing No. 102, International Crisis Group, April 27, 2010, www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/asia/central-asia/kyrgyzstan/B102-kyrgyzstan-a-hollow-regime-collapses.aspx.
3 Michael Schwirtz, “Fierce Fighting in Kyrgyzstan Poses Challenge to Government,” New York Times, June 12, 2010.
4 “Kyrgyz Govt Calls for Increasing Utilities Prices,” Russia & CIS Business and Financial Daily (newswire), April 2, 2008.
5 Andrew E. Kramer, “Government Buildings Retaken in Kyrgyzstan,” New York Times, May 14, 2010; “Uzbekistan: Concern at Ethnic Trouble in Kyrgyzstan,” Institute for War and Peace Reporting, May 25, 2010, http://iwpr.net/report-news/uzbekistan-concern-ethnic-trouble-kyrgyzstan; Jonibek Kadamjayov, “Fergana Valley: Relations Cooling, Uzbek-Kyrgyz Border Growing Increasingly Violent,” EurasiaNet.org, March 9, 2010, www.eurasianet.org/departments/civilsociety/articles/eav030910a.shtml.
6 Luke Harding, “Kyrgyzstan Calls for Russian Help to End Ethnic Riots,” Guardian (UK), June 12, 2010.
7 “Where Is the Justice? Interethnic Violence in Southern Kyrgyzstan and Its Aftermath,” Human Right Watch, August 16, 2010, www.hrw.org/en/reports/2010/08/16/where-justice-0.
8 Kramer, “Government Buildings Retaken in Kyrgyzstan”; “Uzbekistan: Concern at Ethnic Trouble in Kyrgyzstan.”
9 “Electricity Cut at Night in Kyrgyzstan for Six Months: Minister,” Agence France-Presse, April 14, 2008; “Bakiyev Calls for an End to Rolling Blackouts in Kyrgyzstan,” Central Asia General Newswire/Interfax, January 12, 2010.
10 Peter Leonard, “Uzbeks Rebut Critics of Pullout from Power Grid,” Associated Press, December 3, 2009.
11 Gulnara Mambetalieva, “Energy Fears As Kyrgyz Winter Approaches: Threat of More Blackouts Despite Efforts to Hoard Water for Hydropower Ahead of Cold Season,” RCA Issue 557, Institute for War and Peace Reporting, December 3, 2008, http://iwpr.net/report-news/energy-fears-kyrgyz-winter-approaches.
12 Mambetalieva, “Energy Fears.”
13 Quoted in Mambetalieva, “Energy Fears.”
14 Quoted in Mambetalieva, “Energy Fears.”
15 “Kyrgyz Protest Electricity Price Hike,” Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, February 25, 2010, www.rferl.org/content/Kyrgyz_Protest_Electricity_Price_Hike_/1968192.html.
16 “Bishkek Mayor Believes Rise of Electricity, Heating Tariffs to Bring Poor Population to Abject Poverty,” AKIpress News Agency, November 13, 2009.
17 Ahmed Rashid, “The Fires of Faith in Central Asia,” World Policy Journal 18, no. 1 (spring 2001): 45–55.
18 Martin C. Spechler, “The Economies of Central Asia: A Survey,” Comparative Economic Studies 50, no. 1 (March 1, 2008): 30–50.
19 Ahmed Rashid, “The New Struggle in Central Asia: A Primer for the Baffled,” World Policy Journal 17, no. 4 (winter 2000–2001): 33–45: 42.
20 “Millions of People in Central Asia Live Below the Poverty Line,” Times of Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan), August 10, 2010.
21 Spechler, “The Economies of Central Asia.”
22 Gareth Evans, “Force Is Not the Way to Meet Central Asia’s Islamist Threat,” International Herald Tribune, March 10, 2001.
23 S. R. Sonyel, “Enver Pasha and the Basmaji Movement in Central Asia,” Middle Eastern Studies 26, no. 1 (January 1990): 52–64; Martha B. Olcott, “The Basmachi or Freemen’s Revolt in Turkestan, 1918–24,” Soviet Studies 33, no. 3 (July 1981): 352–369 ; William S. Ritter, “The Final Phase in the Liquidation of Anti-Soviet Resistance in Tadzhikistan: Ibrahim Bek and the Basmachi, 1924–31,” Soviet Studies 37, no. 4 (October 1985): 484–493; Louis Dupree, Afghanistan (New York: Oxford, 2002).
24 Ahmed Rashid, Jihad: The Rise of Militant Islam in Central Asia (New York: Penguin, 2002), 44.
25 Rashid, Jihad, 96.
26 “KGB Chief Visits Soviet Border Areas Attacked by Afghan Rebels,” Associated Press, April 30, 1987.
27 “Pakistan’s ‘Fanatical’ Uzbek Militants,” BBC News, October 29, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8331860.stm.
28 “ Volume of Water in Toktogul Exceeds 19.472 Billion Cubic Meters,” zprtssrg.com, August 2, 2010.
1 Stephan Faris, “The Last Straw,” Foreign Policy (July 1, 2009).
2 Phillips Talbot, “Kashmir and Hyderabad,” World Politics 1, no. 3 (April 1949): 321–332: 323.
3 Talbot, “Kashmir and Hyderabad,” 327. Both parties were said to have secretly accepted an agreement to fix the Pakistan-Indian border along the Line of Control in 1971. But when Pakistan finally won the release of its ninety thousand prisoners of war captured in East Pakistan and Bangladesh, it reneged.
4 Alice Thorner, “The Kashmir Conflict,” Middle East Journal 3, no. 1 (January 1949): 17–30: 18.
5 Thorner, “The Kashmir Conflict,” 19.
6 Thorner, “The Kashmir Conflict,” 25.
7 Thorner, “The Kashmir Conflict,” 25.
8 Robert Trumblull, “Use of Regulars Laid to Pakistan,” New York Times, July 18, 1948.
9 Quoted in Undala Z. Alam, “Questioning the Water Wars Rationale: A Case Study of the Indus Waters Treaty,” The Geographical Journal 168, no. 4 (December 2002): 341–353.
10 Sumit Ganguly, Conflict Unending: India-Pakistan Tensions Since 1947 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002); J. V. Deshpande, “Talking with Pakistan,” Economic and Political Weekly 36, no. 16 (April 21–27, 2001): 1303–1306.
11 Alam, “Questioning the Water Wars Rationale.”
12 Alam, “Questioning the Water Wars Rationale.”
13 Alam, “Questioning the Water Wars Rationale.”
14 Alam, “Questioning the Water Wars Rationale.”
15 From June to mid-August 2010, fifty-seven protesters had been killed. Aijaz Hussain, “Officer Lauded in Indian Kashmir for Hurling Shoe,” Associated Press, August 16, 2010; Tariq Ali, “Not Crushed, Merely Ignored,” London Review of Books 32, no. 14 (July 22, 2010).
16 Jessica Stern, “Pakistan’s Jihad Culture,” Foreign Affairs 79, no. 6 (November–December 2000): 115–126: 117.
17 Stern, “Pakistan’s Jihad Culture,” 118.
18 Ben Arnoldy, “The Other Kashmir Problem: India and Pakistan Tussle over Water,” Christian Science Monitor, August 11, 2010.
19 Shripad Dharmadhikary, “Mountains of Concrete: Dam Building in the Himalayas,” Table 3, International Rivers Network, December 2008, www.internationalrivers.org/files/IR_Himalayas.pdf.
20 “India Constructing 52 Dams on Pak Water,” The Nation, April 9, 2010.
21 Andrew Buncombe and Omar Waraich, “India Is Stealing Water of Life, Says Pakistan,” The Independent (UK), March 26, 2009.
22 Athar Parvaiz, “Indus Water Treaty Agitates Kashmiris,” Inter Press Service, October 15, 2008.
23 Ifrah Kazmi and Maria Fatima, “ Water—Save the Last Drop!” Business Recorder, May 29, 2010.
24 Manipadma Jena, “Not a Single Drop to Drink,” The Telegraph (Kolkata, India), May 6, 2010.
25 Karin Brulliard, “Rhetoric Heated in Water Dispute Between India, Pakistan,” Washington Post, May 28, 2010.
26 M. Zulqernain, “Pak Must Keep Option of Force over Water Row with India: JuD,” Press Trust of India, May 10, 2010.
27 “Pak Radical Outfit Issues Warning to India over Water Dispute,” Press Trust of India, May 30, 2010.
28 Ahmed Rashid, Descent into Chaos: The United States and the Failure of Nation Building in Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Central Asia (New York: Viking, 2008), 221.
29 Christian Parenti, “Afghanistan: The Other War,” The Nation, March 27, 2006.
30 Parenti, “Afghanistan”; see also the documentary Fixer: The Taking of Ajmal Naqshbandi, directed by Ian Olds (HBO, 2009).
31 Matt Waldman, “The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistan’s ISI and Afghan Insurgents” (Discussion Paper 18, Carr Center for Human Rights Policy and Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, June 2010), 1; also see Declan Walsh, “Clandestine Aid for Taliban Bears Pakistan’s Fingerprints,” Guardian, July 5, 2010.
32 Dennis C. Blair, “Annual Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community” (testimony before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, February 2, 2010).
33 “U.S. Seeks to Balance India’s Afghanistan Stake,” Reuters, May 31, 2010; Abdul Waheed Wafa and Alan Cowell, “Bomber Strikes Afghan Capital; At Least 41 Die,” New York Times, July 8, 2008; Anand Gopal, “Indian Embassy in Kabul Is Bombed,” Wall Street Journal, October 9, 2009; Aman Sharma, “Indians Easy Target in Kabul,” Mail Today (India), February 28, 2010.
1 R. D. Oldham, “The Evolution of Indian Geography,” The Geographical Journal 3, no. 3 (March 1894): 169–192: 180.
2 The Western press has announced the decline of the Maoists ever since the date of their birth. For example, see Kasturi Rangan, “Maoist Movement Declining in India,” New York Times, August 5, 1972. Then, three years later the same author in the same paper reported, “Maoist extremists in India, after being quiet for nearly 3 years, have become active again.” Kasturi Rangan, “Maoists Resume Violence in India,” New York Times, June 9, 1975.
3 See Figure 2.5 in Main Report, vol. 1 of Drought in Andhra Pradesh: Long-Term Impacts and Adaptation Strategies, Final Report (Washington, DC: South Asia Environment and Social Development Department, World Bank, September 2005), 28.
4 “Hyderabad: Silver Jubilee Durbar,” Time, February 22, 1937, www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,770599,00.html. Despite the nizam’s decadence, he occasionally showed concern for public welfare. When adivasis rebelled in the 1930s, he sent out a German anthropologist, Christoph von Fürer-Haimendorf, to better understand the tribal people’s grievances. Haimendorf came back recommending investment in education and health care as a means to counteract the social and economic exclusion of the tribals. To his credit, the nizam followed the suggestions, and the Gond people of Adilabad District saw conditions improve considerably. To this day the Gonds remember Haimendorf fondly, even as one of their own.
5 N. S. Jodha, “Role of Credit in Farmers’ Adjustment Against Risk in Arid and Semi-Arid Tropical Areas of India,” Economic and Political Weekly 16, no. 42/43 (October 17–24, 1981): 1696–1709; J. G. Ryan et al., “Socio-Economic Aspects of Agricultural Development in the Semi-Arid Tropics” (paper presented at the International Workshop on Farming Systems, ICRISAT, Hyderabad, India, November 18–21, 1974).
6 Edward Duyker, Tribal Guerrillas: The Santals of West Bengal and the Naxalite Movement (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987).
7 “Chaos in West Bengal,” New York Times, March 18, 1970. On the reluctance of the Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) to actually rule, see “The Reluctant Rulers,” Economic and Political Weekly 2, no. 10 (March 11, 1967): 510–511. Williams Borders, “Once-Volatile Indian State Peaceful Under Red Rule,” New York Times, January 28, 1978; Kasturi Rangan, “Five-Party Marxist Coalition Takes Over West Bengal,” New York Times, June 22, 1977.
8 Joseph Lelyveld, “Left Communists in West Bengal Are Deeply Split,” New York Times, July 5, 1967. Naxalite methods were a hybrid of modern ideological zeal and the bloody-minded pragmatism of West Bengal social banditry: Pulan Devi plus The Little Red Book. To their credit, the Naxalites also organized nonviolent mass movements that used direct actions to occupy land, confront landlords, and set up road blockades to demand justice, an end to repression, and economic concessions from the state.
Throughout India, Marxist parties have played crucial roles in coalition governments or even dominated them. Very often their progressive reforms have led to real development. Not only were these reforms progressive in content, but they were often radical in form: policy was not just delivered from the top down, but grassroots mobilization was also facilitated. Under the first United Front government in West Bengal in the early 1970s, four Marxist parties held the balance of power; the same rough coalition was later elected as the Left Front. In those heady days, Jyoti Basu, of the Communist Party (Marxist), was given the Home Ministry portfolio and thus had control of the state police. He used these forces to help peasants facilitate land seizures and played referee during the sometimes violent confrontations with the employer class. But the developmentalist thrust of most Indian communists was never enough for the Naxalite fanatics. In their eyes the mainstream communist parties were a Soviet-style capitulation to imperialism. The Naxals preferred the righteous path of Chairman Mao. In those days, West Bengal was a crazy Red maelstrom of center-left versus left, versus ultraleft, versus underground left.
9 S. Harpal Singh, “Gonds on the Path of Progress,” Hindu, April 20, 2009; N. S. Saksena, India, Towards Anarchy, 1967–1992 (New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, 1993), 76.
10 “Maoists Target Jawans Again,” Hindustan Times, April 5, 2010.
11 “Andhra Pradesh Receives 27% Excess Rain During Monsoon,” Hindu Business Line, July 27, 2010.
12 Orville Schell, “The Message from the Glaciers,” New York Review of Books, May 27, 2010.
13 Z. W. Kundzewicz et al., “Freshwater Resources and Their Management,” Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. M. L. Parry et al. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 187, available at www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg2/ar4-wg2-chapter3.pdf. Estimates are that 120 million to 1.2 billion people in Asia will face increased water stresses by the mid-2020s.
14 James Lamont et al., “India Widens Climate Rift with West,” Financial Times, July 23, 2009.
15 Some scientists predict that by the end of the century, India will experience a three- to five-degree Celsius temperature increase and with it a 20 percent rise in summer monsoon rainfall.
16 Dennis C. Blair, “Annual Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community” (testimony before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, February 2, 2010).
17 Schell, “The Message from the Glaciers.”
18 Kundzewicz et al., “Freshwater Resources and Their Management, 493.
19 Emily Wax, “Global Warming Threatens to Dry Up Ganges,” Washington Post, June 24, 2007.
20 That characterization came from Charles Kennel, senior strategist at the University of California, San Diego, Sustainability Solutions Institute and former director of Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Cited in Stephen Leahy, “Climate Change: Snow Cover Turning to Lake in the Himalayas,” Inter Press Service, May 7, 2009.
21 Aiguo Dai, Taotao Qian, and Kevin E. Trenberth, “Changes in Continental Freshwater Discharge from 1948–2004,” National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado, November 18, 2008; also personal communication from Dr. Aiguo Dai of the National Center for Atmospheric Research.
22 “Water Levels Dropping in Some Major Rivers As Global Climate Changes,” University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, April 21, 2009, www.ucar.edu/news/releases/2009/flow.jsp (cited on May 5, 2009). National Center for Atmospheric Research scientists “examined stream flow from 1948 to 2004 [and] found significant changes in about one-third of the world’s largest rivers. Of those, rivers with decreased flow outnumbered those with increased flow by a ratio of about 2.5 to 1. Several of the rivers channeling less water serve large populations, including the Yellow River in northern China, the Ganges in India, the Niger in West Africa, and the Colorado in the southwestern United States. In contrast, the scientists reported greater stream flow over sparsely populated areas near the Arctic Ocean, where snow and ice are rapidly melting.”
23 “Water Levels Dropping in Some Major Rivers As Global Climate Changes,” University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, April 21, 2009, www.ucar.edu/news/releases/2009/flow.jsp (cited on May 5, 2009). National Center for Atmospheric Research scientists “examined stream flow from 1948 to 2004, found significant changes in about one-third of the world’s largest rivers. Of those, rivers with decreased flow outnumbered those with increased flow by a ratio of about 2.5 to 1. Several of the rivers channeling less water serve large populations, including the Yellow River in northern China, the Ganges in India, the Niger in West Africa, and the Colorado in the southwestern United States. In contrast, the scientists reported greater stream flow over sparsely populated areas near the Arctic Ocean, where snow and ice are rapidly melting.”
24 David Mosse, “Rule and Representation: Transformations in the Governance of the Water Commons in British South India,” Journal of Asian Studies 65, no. 1 (2006): 61–90: 63.
25 Karl Wittfogel, Oriental Despotism: A Comparative Study of Total Power (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1957), 15. Wittfogel’s hydraulic despotism is an extension of Marx’s conception of an “Asiatic mode of production.”
26 Murray J. Leaf, “Irrigation and Authority in Rajasthan,” Ethnology 31, no. 2 (April 1992): 115–132.
27 Kathleen Gough, “Modes of Production in Southern India,” Economic and Political Weekly 15, no. 5/7 (February 1980): 337–364; M. J. K. Thavaraj, “The Concept of Asiatic Mode of Production: Its Relevance to Indian History,” Social Scientist 12, no. 7 (July 1984): 26–34.
28 Mosse, “Rule and Representation,” 65.
29 Amy Waldman, “Debts and Drought Drive India’s Farmers to Despair,” New York Times, June 6, 2004.
30 Anuradha Mittal, “Harvest of Suicides: How Global Trade Rules Are Driving Indian Farmers to Despair,” Earth Island Journal (March 22, 2008); also see Somini Sengupta, “On India’s Despairing Farms, a Plague of Suicide,” New York Times, September 19, 2006.
31 Sengupta, “On India’s Despairing Farms.”
32 E. Revathi, “Farmers’ Suicide,” Economic and Political Weekly 33, no. 20 (May 16–22, 1998): 1207. These amounts are calculated at thirty-six rupees to the dollar, which was the rate of exchange when the article quoted was written.
33 “Climate Change Impacts in Drought and Flood Affected Areas: Case Studies in India South Asia Region” (India Country Management Unit, Sustainable Development Department, Social, Environment and Water Resources Management Unit, Document of the World Bank, Report No. 43946-IN, June 1, 2008), 40.
34 W. W. Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto, 3rd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).
35 Bernhard Glaeser, ed. The Green Revolution Revisited: Critique and Alternatives (London: Allen and Unwin, 1987).
36 K. N. Ninan and H. Chandrashekar, “Green Revolution, Dryland Agriculture and Sustainability: Insights from India,” Economic and Political Weekly 28, no. 12/13 (March 20–27, 1993): A2–A7.
37 Ernest Feder, “McNamara’s Little Green Revolution: World Bank Scheme for Self-Liquidation of Third World Peasantry,”‘ Economic and Political Weekly 11, no. 14 (April 3, 1976).
38 A. K. Chakravarti, “Green Revolution in India,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 63, no. 3 (September 1973): 319–330. For critiques of the Green Revolution, see France Moore Lappe, Aid As Obstacle (Oakland, CA: Food First Books, 1980).
39 Vamsi Vakulabharanam, “Immiserizing Growth: Globalization and Agrarian Change in Telangana Between 1985 and 2000” (PhD diss., University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Economics Department, 2004).
40 Vakulabharanam, “Immiserizing Growth.”
41 Vakulabharanam, “Immiserizing Growth,” iv–vii. Or, to quote Vakulabharanam: “First, even as the prices of market-oriented crops have declined between 1991 and 2000 (during the phase of globalization), the planted area in the output of these crops has been rising rapidly. Second, between 1985 and 2000 the annual exponential growth rate of real agricultural output in the telethon region of South India has been more than 4%, higher than much of the developing world during the same period, even as a majority of the farming population has undergone significant income/consumption losses, tragically manifested in the suicides of more than a thousand farmers.”
42 Vakulabharanam, “Immiserizing Growth,” 107.
43 Lakshman Yapa, “What Are Improved Seeds? An Epistemology of the Green Revolution,” Economic Geography 69, no. 3, Environment and Development, Part 1 (July 1993): 254–273.
44 Ramachandra Guha, “A War in the Heart of India,” The Nation, June 27, 2007; “Naxalites Abandon Train, Passengers Unharmed,” Hindu, March 15, 2006; Sonali Das, “Naxals Release Passengers on Train,” Times of India, April 22, 2009; Mehul Srivastava, “Maoists in India Blow Up Pipelines, Putting $78 Billion at Risk,” Bloomberg, July 29, 2010.
45 For example, see Air Commander Arjun Subramaniam, “Air Power to Fight Guerrilla War,” Sify News, February 13, 2009. This piece ran in Indian papers and can be found online at www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-07-29/Maoists-in-india-blow-up-pipelines-as-78-billion-in-resources-threatened.html.
46 On the early days of the Greyhounds, see K. Balagopal, “Herald the Hunting Dogs That Are Grey in Colour,” Economic and Political Weekly 23, no. 28 (July 9, 1988); M. Shatrugna, “NTR and the Naxalites,” Economic and Political Weekly 24, no. 28 (July 15, 1989).
47 Jason Motlagh, “India’s Maoists Shift to Attacks on Police,” Washington Times, November 22, 2007; Jason Motlagh, “The Maoists in the Forest: Tracking India’s Separatist Rebels,” Virginia Quarterly Review84, no. 3 (July 1, 2008): 102–129.
48 “Guns Are Again Booming in Andhra Pradesh,” Indo-Asian News Service, April 3, 2005.
49 Sumanta Banerjee, “Naxalites: Time for Introspection,” Economic and Political Weekly 38, no. 44 (November 1–7, 2003): 4635–4636: 4635.
50 Omer Farooq, “India’s Andhra Pradesh State Announces Cease-Fire Against Communist Rebels,” Associated Press, June 16, 2004.
51 Rakesh K. Singh, “New Centre Plan to Solve Naxal Issue,” World News Connection, August 6, 2006; “On the development front, the centre has decided to allocate Rs 500 crores [$116 million] during the 11th Five-Year Plan for development of infrastructure in Naxal-hit areas. Emphasis will be laid on upgrading existing roads and tracks in inaccessible areas and securing camping grounds at strategic locations.” Devyani Srivastava, “Terrorism in India (Jan–Mar 2008),” IPCS (Indian Government) Special Report No. 54, June 2008.
52 “Guns Are Again Booming in Andhra Pradesh.” Two other poets, Gaddar and Kalyan Rao, were also on political murder charges.
53 “Salva-Judum Men Go After Maoist Sympathizers,” Hindu, March 13, 2006.
54 Anshuman G. Dutta, “Holding State to Ransom India: ‘Spread’ of Left-Wing Extremism Prompts States to Raise Commando Outfits,” World News Connection, May 21, 2006.
55 “Salva Judum ‘Massacred’ Chhattisgarh Tribals: Panel,” Hindu, January 28, 2009.
56 “Salva Judum ‘Massacred’ Chhattisgarh Tribals.”
57 Farhan Bokhari and James Lamont, “An Altered Reality,” Financial Times, May 12, 2009.
58 Admittedly, this class, or clique, of superrich took a serious hit in 2009 as the Indian economy finally caught the cold of economic decline that had started in the West. Naazneen Karmali, “India’s Billionaire Drop-Offs,” Forbes.com, March 11, 2009, www.forbes.com/2009/03/11/india-financial-loss-billionaires-2009-billionaires-india.html.
1 For an overview of that literature, see Joan Neff Gurney and Kathleen J. Tierney, “Relative Deprivation and Social Movements: A Critical Look at Twenty Years of Theory and Research,” The Sociological Quarterly 23, no. 1 (winter 1982): 33–47. On violence in cities, see Saskia Sassen, “When the City Itself Becomes a Technology of War,” Theory, Culture & Society 27, no. 6 (December 17, 2010).
2 Celia Landmann Szwarcwald et al. “Income Inequality and Homicide Rates in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,” American Journal of Public Health 89, no. 6 (June 1999): 849.
3 “Rio Drug Gangs Battle Police, 13 People Killed,” Reuters, November 24, 2010.
4 “Rains, Floods in São Paulo Kill 64,” Agence France-Presse, January 29, 2010.
5 “Lula Skips G20 Summit due to Deadly Brazil Floods,” Times of Oman (Reuters) June 27, 2010; Felipe Dana, “Brazil: Population of Small Village Survived Massive Flooding by Clinging to Jack Fruit Trees,” Canadian Press, June 24, 2010.
6 G. Magrin et al., “Latin America,” in Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vuln erability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. M. L. Parry et al. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), Section 13.2.2, “Weather and Climate Stresses.”
7 Anthony Pereira, “Brazil’s Agrarian Reform: Democratic Innovation or Oligarchic Exclusion Redux?” Latin American Politics and Society 45, no. 2 (summer 2003): 41–65: 42.
8 Gary Duffy, “Changing Times for Brazil’s Landless,” BBC News, January 23, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7845611.stm.
9 F. E. Wagner and John O. Ward, “Urbanization and Migration in Brazil,” American Journal of Economics and Sociology 39, no. 3 (July 1980): 249–259: 256.
10 Wagner and Ward, “Urbanization and Migration in Brazil,” 249.
11 Anthony W. Pereira, “The Dialectics of the Brazilian Military Regime’s Political Trials,” Luso-Brazilian Review 41, no. 2 (2005): 162–183.
12 In English, see Brazil Archdiocese of São Paulo, A Shocking Report on the Pervasive Use of Torture by Brazilian Military Governments, 1964–1979, Secretly Prepared by the Archdiocese of São Paulo, ed. Joan Dassin, trans. Jaime Wright (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1998).
13 Ben Penglase, “The Bastard Child of the Dictatorship: The Comando Vermelho and the Birth of ‘Narco-Culture’ in Rio de Janeiro,” Luso-Brazilian Review 45, no. 1 (2008): 118–145: 125.
14 Penglase, “The Bastard Child.”
15 Penglase, “The Bastard Child”; Luke Dowdney, Children of the Drug Trade: A Case Study of Children in Organized Armed Violence in Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro: 7 Letras, 2003); Louis Kontos and David C. Brotherton, eds., Encyclopedia of Gangs (Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood, 2007), 16–18.
16 Enrique “Desmond” Arias, Drugs and Democracy in Rio de Janeiro: Traff icking, Social Networks, and Public Security (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006); also see Carlos Amorim, Comando Vermelho, a história secreta do crime organizado (Rio de Janeiro: Editora Record, 1993); William da Silva, Quatrocentos contra um (Rio de Janeiro: Vozes, 1991); Dowdney, Children of the Drug Trade; Aziz Filho and Francisco Alves Filho, Paraíso armado inter-pretações da violência no Rio de Janeiro (São Paulo: Editora Garçoni, 2003); Michel Misse, Crime e violência no Brazil contemporâneo (Rio de Janeiro: Editora Lumen Juris, 2006).
17 James Brooke, “Brazil Writhes Under Debt Burden,” Miami Herald, February 7, 1983. An excellent critic of neolibralism in Brazil is offered by James F. Petras and Henry Veltmeyer, Cardoso’s Brazil: A Land for Sale (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003). “March by São Paulo Jobless Turns to Looting Riot; One Dead,” Miami Herald, April 6, 1983.
18 Renato P. Colistete, “Revisiting Import-Substituting Industrialization in Brazil: Productivity Growth and Technological Learning in the Post-War Years” (draft paper prepared for the Conference “Latin America, Globalization, and Economic History,” University of California, Los Angeles, April 24–25, 2009), 7, available online at www.international.ucla.edu/economichistory/Summerhill/Colistete.pdf.
19 Colistete, “Revisiting Import-Substituting Industrialization in Brazil,” 32.
20 David Harvey, “Neo-Liberalism As Creative Destruction,” Geograf iska Annaler 88, no. 52 (June 1, 2006): 145–158: 148.
21 Philip Armstrong, Andrew Glyn, and John Harrison, Capitalism Since 1945 (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1991), 155. For the quintessential story of successful state-led capitalist development, see Alice Amsden, Asia’s Next Giant: South Korea and Late Industrialization (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992).
22 Juliet B. Schor, The Overworked America: The Unexpected Decline of Leisure (New York: Basic Books, 1992), 111.
23 Charles Sable quoted in Bennett Harrison and Barry Bluestone, The Great U-Turn: Corporate Restructuring and the Polarizing of America (Boulder, CO: Basic Books, 1990), 10.
24 On excess capacity or overaccumulation, see Armstrong, Glyn, and Harrison, Capitalism Since 1945, esp. ch. 11.
25 Brooke, “Brazil Writhes Under Debt Burden.”
26 Harrison and Bluestone, The Great U-Turn, 7; see also Norman Glickman, “Cities and the International Division of Labor,” in The Capitalist City, ed. Peter Michael Smith (Oxford: Blackwell, 1987), 71.
27 Samuel Bowles, David M Gordon, and Thomas E. Weisskopf, After the Waste Land: A Democratic Economics for the Year 2000 (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 1990), 45. See Figure 4.4, “Declining Profitability After the Mid Sixties”; Andrew Glyn et al., “The Rise and Fall of the Golden age,” in The Golden Age of Capitalism: Reinterpreting the Post-War Experience, ed. Stephen A. Marglin and Juliet B. Schor (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990), 77, figure 2.10.
28 John Morris, “Markets Recover from Losses, but Outlook Is Grim,” American Banker, December 6, 1982.
29 Paul Volker is quoted by Steven Rattner, “Volker Asserts U.S. Must Trim Living Standards,” New York Times, October 18, 1979, A1.
30 George Hanc, An Examination of the Banking Crises of the 1980s and Early 1990s, vol. 1 of History of the 80s (Arlington, VA: FDIC Public Information Center, 1999), 199.
31 Andres Oppenheimer, “Recession, Debt Batter Americas,” Miami Herald, April 18, 1983.
32 “Brazil Inflation Sets a Record,” New York Times, December 29, 1989.
33 James Brooke, “Growth of Southern Giants Stifled by Austerity Plans,” Miami Herald, April 18, 1983.
34 Oppenheimer, “Recession, Debt.”
35 Juan de Onis, “Brazil Wants New Loans, Not Outside Pressures,” Los Angeles Times, June 23, 1986.
36 Mark Weisbrot, “Quem será capaz de levar o país adiante?” Folha de São Paulo (Brazil), August 27, 2010.
37 Enrique “Desmond” Arias, “The Dynamics of Criminal Governance: Networks and Social Order in Rio de Janeiro,” Journal of Latin American Studies 38, no. 2 (May 2006): 293–325.
38 For details, see Mike Davis, Late Victorian Holocausts: El Niño Famines and the Making of the Third World (London: Verso, 2002).
39 Timothy Finan, “Drought and Demagoguery: A Political Ecology of Climate Variability in Northeast Brazil” (paper presented at the workshop “Public Philosophy, Environment, and Social Justice,” Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs, October 21–22, 1999), 3.
40 Liqiang Sun et al., “Climate Variability and Corn Yields in Semiarid Ceara, Brazil,” Journal of Applied Meteorology 46, no. 2 (February 1, 2007), 226–239.
41 Sun et al., “Climate Variability,” 227.
42 Rob Wilby, “Review of Climate Scenarios in Northeast Brazil” (a technical brief for Tearfund, Teddington, UK, June 2008), 2; Saulo Araujo, “Lessons from Northeast Brazil: ‘You Can’t Fight the Environment,’” Grassroots International, March 2, 2009, www.grassrootsonline.org/news/blog/lessons-northeast-brazil-you-can’t-fight-environment.
43 Joseph A. Page, The Brazilians (New York: Da Capo Press, 1996), 186.
44 Section 126.96.36.199, “Natural Ecosystems,” in Magrin et al., Climate Change 2007.
45 Edmund Conway, “Economics IMF Warns That It May Soon Be Broke,” Daily Telegraph, May 5, 2006. The heading for this section comes from the excellent book by Theda Skocpol, Peter B. Evans, and Dietrich Rueschemeyer, eds., Bringing the State Back In (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985).
46 Christian Parenti, “Retaking Rio,” The Nation, May 31, 2010.
47 Donald R. Nelson and Timothy J. Finan, “Praying for Drought: Persistent Vulnerability and the Politics of Patronage in Ceara, Northeast Brazil,” American Anthropologist 111, no. 3 (September 2009): 302–316: 305.
1 Darlene Superville, “Michelle Obama Launches Solo Agenda on Mexico Tour,” Associated Press, April 14, 2010.
2 Charles Bowden on Democracy Now, April 14 2010.
3 Kevin Johnson, “Violence Drops in U.S. Cities Neighboring Mexico,” USA Today, December 28, 2009.
4 “Juarez Massacres: Where Will Cartels Attack Next?” El Paso Times, February 2, 2010.
5 Elisabeth Malkin, “Gunmen in Mexico Kill 13 at Party,” New York Times, January 31, 2010.
6 William Booth, “Mexico’s Drug Gangs Go on the Offensive Against Authorities,” Washington Post, May 2, 2010.
7 Shuaizhang Feng, Alan B. Krueger, and Michael Oppenheimer, “Linkages Among Climate Change, Crop Yields and Mexico-US Cross-Border Migration,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107, no. 32 (August 10, 2010): 14257–14262.
8 Nacha Cattan, “Climate Change Set to Boost Mexican Immigration to the US, Says Study,” Christian Science Monitor, July 27, 2010.
9 Oli Brown, Migration and Climate Change (Geneva: International Organization for Migration, 2008), 10.
10 Sam Knight, “Human Tsunami,” Financial Times, June 19, 2009.
11 Quoted in Amy Kazmin, “Rising Sea Levels Hit Bangladesh Livelihoods,” Financial Times, September 22, 2009.
12 William Lacy Swing, “Let’s Invest Now for Tomorrow’s Migration,” Migration (Magazine of the International Organization for Migration), winter 2010.
13 Kazmin, “Rising Sea Levels Hit Bangladesh Livelihoods.”
14 A similar, but different, story could be told about Africans and Middle Easterners moving to Europe. The best book on these dynamics is still Saskia Sassen, The Mobility of Labor and Capital (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990).
15 A 2007 longitudinal country profile plotting Mexico’s loss of mangroves, titled “Mangroves of North and Central America, 1980–2005: Country Reports,” can be found on the Food and Agriculture Organization website at ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/ai446t/ai446t00.pdf ; for more on the crisis, see “President Felipe Calderon Signs Legislation to Protect Coastal Wetlands; Governors Threatened to Define New Law,” Mex Economic News & Analysis on Mexico, February 14, 2007.
16 The Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations keeps data on fisheries. Its country profile of Mexico notes, “The current status of the decreasing production trend in fisheries yield is due to overexploitation, poor management, an increase of fishing effort, lack of surveillance, naturally occurring changes in each reservoir and the poor quality of broodstock and fingerlings produced at government fish culture centers that have resulted in smaller fish size and hybridization.” This is found at “Fishery and Aquaculture Country Profiles: Mexico,” FAO, Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, www.fao.org/fishery/countrysector/FI-CP_MX/en. For a graph of total catch over time, see www.fao.org/fishery/countrysector/FI-CP_MX/3/en.
17 Alonso Aguilar Ibarra, Chris Reid, and Andy Thorpe, “The Political Economy of Marine Fisheries Development in Peru, Chile and Mexico,” Journal of Latin American Studies 32, no. 2 (May 2000): 503–527: 521.
18 For a full discussion of Mexican corporatism and fisheries policy, see Emily Young, “State Intervention and Abuse of the Commons: Fisheries Development in Baja California Sur, Mexico,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 91, no. 2 (June 2001): 283–306: 242.
19 Ibarra, Reid, and Thorpe, “The Political Economy of Marine Fisheries,” 526.
20 John Wright, “Mexico Announces Liberalization of Foreign Investment Rules,” AP Online, May 15, 1989.
21 Young, “State Intervention and Abuse of the Commons,” 288.
22 Young, “State Intervention and Abuse of the Commons,” 300.
23 Tim Weiner, “In Mexico, Greed Kills Fish by the Seaful,” New York Times, April 10, 2002.
24 Tim L. Merrill and Ramón Miró, eds., Mexico: A Country Study (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1996).
25 Richard Grant, God ’s Middle Finger: Into the Lawless Heart of the Sierra Madre (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2008), 242.
26 Mexico lost 6.9 percent from FAO 2005 assessment. “A lingering question in economic geography is the degree to which there is a link between neoliberal policies and environmental degradation. Research is needed to relate such policies empirically to local-level decision making, both to evaluate their consequences and to contribute to an understanding of how cross-scalar dynamics drive processes of land-use change” (Martín Ricker, “The Role of Mexican Forests in the Storage of Carbon to Mitigate Climate Change” [“El papel de los bosques mexicanos en el almacenamiento de carbono para mitigar el cambio climático”], Sociedad Mexicana de Física, April 2008,www.smf.mx/C-Global/webElpapelbosquesmex2.htm); COSYDDAC, The Forest Industry and Forest Resources in the Sierra Madre de Chihuahua: Social, Economic, and Ecological Impacts (La industria forestal y los recursos forestales en la Sierra Madre de Chihuahua: Impactos sociales, económicos y ecológicos), Texas Center for Policy Studies, December 1999, www.texascenter.org/publications/forestal.pdf.
27 Rene Dumont, “Mexico: The ‘Sabotage’ of the Agrarian Reform,” New Left Review I/17 (winter 1962): 46–63.
28 Elisabeth Malkin, “Mexico Now Enduring Worst Drought in Years,” New York Times, September 12, 2009.
29 “Mexico Says Corn Supply Not Threatened by Drought,” EFE World News Service, January 5, 2010.
30 Koko Warner et al., “In Search of Shelter: Mapping the Effects of Climate Change on Human Migration” (report by CARE International and UN University, 2009), http://ciesin.columbia.edu/documents/ClimMigr-rpt-june09.pdf.
31 Herbert Ingram Priestley, “The Contemporary Program of Nationalization in Mexico,” The Pacific Historical Review 8, no. 1 (March 1939): 59–74: 60. Under Diaz, however, Mexico was hardly a banana republic; in fact he began as something of a progressive, nineteenth-century liberal and presided over some meaningful development—encouraging railroads, telegraphs, and basic factories—but declined into sclerotic corruption.
32 Carleton Beals, Porfirio Diaz, Dictator of Mexico (Philadelphia: J. P. Lippincott, 1932), 307.
33 Paul Garner, Porfirio Diaz (London: Longman, 2001).
34 Beals, Porfirio Diaz, 334.
35 Adolfo Gilly, The Mexican Revolution (New York: New Press, 2005); John Womack Jr., Zapata and the Mexican Revolution (New York: Vintage, 1970); there was, in fact, quite a bit of behind-the-scenes jockeying and rivalry between foreign capitalists to support either the Diaz government or the revolution. Even among American firms, which generally supported President Francisco Madera, there was subterfuge and division. John Skirius, “Railroad, Oil and Other Foreign Interests in the Mexican Revolution, 1911–1914,” Journal of Latin American Studies 35, no. 1 (February 2003): 25–51.
36 Frank Tannenbaum, Peace by Revolution: An Interpretation of Mexico (New York: Columbia University Press, 1933), 115.
37 COSYDDAC, The Forest Industry and Forest Resources.
38 This translation of Mexico’s 1917 constitution can be found at www.latinamericanstudies.org/mexico/1917-Constitution.htm.
39 Gilly, The Mexican Revolution, 338.
40 Dumont, “Mexico.”
41 Remonda Bensabat Kleinberg, “Strategic Alliances: State-Business Relations in Mexico Under Neo-Liberalism and Crisis,” Bulletin of Latin American Research 18, no. 1 (January 1999): 71–87: 72.
42 Kleinberg, “Strategic Alliances.”
43 Terry McKinley and Diana Alarcon, “Mexican Bank Nationalization,” Latin American Perspectives 20, no. 3 (summer 1993): 80–82: 80.
44 Priestley, “The Contemporary Program of Nationalization in Mexico,” 66.
45 Priestley, “The Contemporary Program,” 62.
46 Of course, as one academic reminds us, the postrevolutionary Mexico “never operated along purely corporatist lines, and some sectors of society were tied to these arrangements much more closely than others.” James G. Samstad, “Corporatism and Democratic Transition: State and Labor During the Salinas and Zedillo Administrations,” Latin American Politics and Society 44, no. 4 (winter 2002): 1–28: 3. See Gilly’s classic radical history The Mexican Revolution.
47 For a good overview of the changing relationship between the state and capital in Mexico, see Kleinberg, “Strategic Alliances,” 72.
48 As Leo Panitch described it in a classic essay, corporatism is “a political structure within advanced capitalism which integrates organized socioeconomic producer groups through a system of representation and cooperative mutual interaction at the leadership level and mobilization and social control at the mass level.” Leo Panitch, “Recent Theorizations of Corporatism: Reflections on a Growth Industry,” British Journal of Sociology 31 (1980): 159–187: 173. For more on the subject and its links to authoritarian states, see David Collier, ed., The New Authoritarianism in Latin America (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1980).
49 George Philip, Oil and Politics in Latin America: Nationalist Movements and State Companies (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982); George W. Grayson, Oil and Mexican Foreign Policy(Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1988). It was during this crisis of nationalization that the current ruling party, the Partido Accion Nacional (PAN), was formed from a coalition of right-wing groups, including bankers, industrial capitalists, landowners, religious elements, and even members of the Union Nacional Sinarquista, a Catholic and cryptofascist party on the model of the Falange. Michelle Dion, “The Political Origins of Social Security in Mexico During the Cárdenas and Ávila Camacho Administrations,” Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 21, no. 1 (winter 2005): 59–95.
50 Kleinberg, “Strategic Alliances,” 72.
51 George W. Grayson, “Oil and U.S.-Mexican Relations,” Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs 21, no. 4 (November 1979): 427–456: 428; Arthur Howe, “OPEC’S Grip on Oil Markets Slipping Away,” Philadelphia Inquirer, December 7, 1983.
52 On the guerilla movements of Mexico, see O’Neill Blacker, “Cold War in the Countryside: Conflict in Guerrero, Mexico,” The Americas 66, no. 2 (October 2009): 181–210; on labor, see Dale A. Hathaway, Allies Across the Border: Mexico’s “Authentic Labor Front” and Global Solidarity (Boston: South End Press, 2000).
53 Adam David Morton, “Structural Change and Neoliberalism in Mexico : ‘Passive Revolution’ in the Global Political Economy,” Third World Quarterly 24, no. 4 (August 2003): 631–653.
54 William Chislett, “Black Gold Fuels Economic Turnaround,” Globe and Mail, May 26, 1980. In 1978, it looked as though the shah of Iran’s regime might collapse, and if Iran tipped into chaos, oil would spike. Just as prices were rising, Pemex Mexico found another enormous petroleum patch. By the end of 1976, Mexico was producing eight hundred thousand barrels daily and exporting about ninety-four thousand barrels each day. By 1980 production was approaching 2.2 million barrels a day, and exports had increased ninefold, to 850,000 barrels a day. This was the fastest increase in oil production in world history.
55 John Crewdson and Vincent J. Schodolski, “Price of Reform Cripples Mexico,” Chicago Tribune, November 23, 1986.
56 Chislett, “Black Gold Fuels Economic Turnaround.”
57 Alan Ridding, “Taming Mexico’s Passion for More,” New York Times, September 12, 1982.
58 Michael Kevane, “Commodities in Crisis: The Commodity Crisis of the 1980s and the Political Economy of International Commodity Policies, by Alfred Maizels,” Economic Development and Cultural Change 45, no. 1 (October 1996): 205–208.
59 James Thompson and Sean O’Grady, “Commodity Crisis Sparks Fear of Food Inflation on High Street,” The Independent (UK), August 10, 2010. For a historical chart of commodity prices, see the Index Mundi website (www.indexmundi.com). The IMF’s Commodity Price Index is found at www.indexmundi.com/commodities/?commodity=commodity-price-index&months=300.
60 Walden Below, Dark Victory: The United States and Global Poverty (Oakland, CA: Food First Books, 1999).
61 Oakland Ross, “Dropping Oil Prices Leave Mexico in Economic Limbo,” Globe and Mail, August 6, 1982.
62 Michael Vaply, “Today’s Catastrophe,” Globe and Mail, August 20, 1982.
63 Marlise Simons, “Mexican Peso Devalued for Second Time in 6 Months,” New York Times, August 7, 1982.
64 Alan Riding, “Mexico Devalues Peso 30%,” New York Times, February 19, 1982; Alan Riding, “Worry Spreads After Peso Curbs,” New York Times, August 14, 1982.
65 Robert A. Bennett, “Mexico Seeking Postponement of Part of Debt,” New York Times, August 20, 1982.
66 Richard J. Meislin, “Mexico Is Selling Stock Held by Seized Banks,” New York Times, May 22, 1984.
67 “Mexican Peso Plunges in Value,” Globe and Mail, August 20, 1982; Robert Bennett, “Bankers Pressured to Assist Mexico,” New York Times, August 21, 1982.
68 “Mexico Plans 106 Closings,” New York Times, November 17, 1982; on Ocean Garden Products, see Young, “State Intervention and Abuse of the Commons,” 288.
69 Katherine Ellison, “Mexico Sheds Its Assets,” San Jose Mercury News, October 22, 1989.
70 Alan Riding, “Bankers Cheer Mexico’s Austerity Plan,” New York Times, December 3, 1982.
71 Crewdson and Schodolski, “Price of Reform Cripples Mexico.”
72 Penny Lernoux, “Rescue Missions Impossible: Lessons of the Mexican Bailout,” The Nation, October 6, 1984.
73 Steven Zahniser and Zachary Crago, “NAFTA at 15: Building on Free Trade,” Outlook Report No. WRS-09-03, March 2009.
74 Noam Chomsky, Profit over People (New York: Seven Stories Press, 1999).
75 Elisabeth Malkin, “Nafta’s Promise, Unfulfilled,” New York Times, March 23, 2009.
76 Timothy Wise, “Fields of Free Trade: Mexico’s Small Farmers in a Global Economy,” Dollars & Sense, December 2003.
77 Malkin, “Nafta’s Promise.”
78 Malkin, “Nafta’s Promise.”
79 Wise, “Fields of Free Trade.”
80 George Dyer-Leal and Antonio Yúnez-Naude, “NAFTA and Conservation of Maize Diversity in Mexico,” Commission for Environmental Cooperation of North America, 2003, www.cec.org/Page.asp?PageID=1180&ContentID=&SiteNodeID=472.
81 Matilde Pérez, “En materia alimentaria para México, el TLCAN está reprobado: Oxfam.” La Jornada, January 2, 2010, www.jornada.unam.mx/2010/01/02/index.php?section=politica&article=008n2pol.
82 Chomsky, Profit over People.
83 Dyer-Leal and Yúnez-Naude, “NAFTA and Conservation of Maize Diversity.”
84 Olivier Pavón, “Afrontar ‘con mucho corazón’ apertura total del TLC, aconseja Alberto Cárdenas,” La Crónica de Hoy, December 20, 2007, www.cronica.com.mx/nota.php?id_nota=338675.
85 Gilly, The Mexican Revolution, 337.
86 Rural Poverty in Mexico, vol. 4 of Mexico: Income Generation and Social Protection for the Poor, Report No. 32867MX (World Bank: Washington DC, 2005), 170. The CIA’s World Factbook lists poverty rates as “18.2% using food-based definition of poverty; asset based poverty amounted to more than 47% (2006).”
87 Mark Smith, “Serial Murders a Source of Fear and Mystery/New Spate of Killings Baffle Police, Who Hold a Suspect,” Houston Chronicle, March 31, 1996; Sam Dillon, “Rape and Murder Stalk Women in Northern Mexico,” New York Times, April 18, 1998; Jodi Bizar, “9 Held in Juarez Slayings 6 Teen-Agers Among Serial Killing Suspects,” San Antonio Express-News, May 7, 1998.
88 Charles Bowden, Murder City: Ciudad Juárez and the Global Economy’s New Killing Fields (New York: Nation Books, 2010), xiii.
89 Bowden, Murder City, 104–105.
90 Jen Phillips, “The Cartels Next Door,” Mother Jones Magazine, July/August 2009.
91 Warren Richey, “Drug Runners Shift Routes As U.S. Steps Up Pressure,” South Florida Sun-Sentinel, November 24, 1989; Jole Williams, “U.S. Border’s War on Drugs Shifts to Texas,” Denver Rocky Mountain News, October 15, 1989; William Overend, “Adventures in the Drug Trade,” Los Angeles Times Magazine, May 7, 1989.
92 “Columbia Drug Smugglers Using ‘Mexican Pipeline,’” San Francisco Chronicle, January 1, 1988.
93 Astian Rotel, “Barons of a Bloody Turf War,” Los Angeles Times, June 4, 1993.
94 James Brooke, “A Drug Lord Is Buried As a Folk Hero,” New York Times, December 4, 1993; “Cali Cocaine Cartel Leaders Offer Surrender Deal,” Agence France-Presse, December 17, 1993.
95 Ken Dermota, “Snow Business: Drugs and the Spirit of Capitalism,” World Policy Journal 16, no. 4 (winter 1999–2000): 15–24: 15.
96 Anita Snow, “Mexican Drug Smugglers Get Sophisticated,” Contra Costa Times, September 17, 1995.
97 Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, “International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, 1996,” US Department of State, www.state.gov/www/global/narcotics_law/1996_narc_report/index.html.
98 Jorge Chabat, “Mexico’s War on Drugs: No Margin for Maneuver,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 582 (July 2002): 134–148: 136.
99 Tracey Eaton, “NAFTA Tied to Drug Traffic: U.S. Task Force Says Smugglers Exploit Rising Cross-Border Trade,” Dallas Morning News, May 11, 1998.
100 Dermota, “Snow Business,” 16.
101 Robert Collier, “Mexico’s New Emperor of Narcotics,” San Francisco Chronicle , February 26, 1996.
102 Nick Reding, Methland: The Death and Life of an American Small Town (New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2009).
103 Mark Fineman, “Vast Mexican Drug Empire Up for Grabs,” Los Angeles Times, July 29, 1997.
104 Jorge G. Castañeda, “What’s Spanish for Quagmire?” Foreign Policy 177 (January 1, 2010).
105 Quoted in “Mexicans Wince at U.S. Jab on Corruption, but Admit It’s Accurate,” EFE World News Service, June 15, 2005.
106 David Luhnow and Jose De Cordoba, “Mexico Detains Former Top Drug Cop,” Wall Street Journal, November 22, 2008.
107 The sequence of statements is laid out by Jorge Castañeda, “The Danger Across the Border,” Newsweek (International Edition), February 2, 2009. US Joint Forces Command, The Joint Operating Environment 2008: Challenges and Implications for the Future Joint Force (Suffolk, VA: US Joint Forces Command, Center for Joint Futures, December 2008), 36.
108 Jens Erik Gould, “Calderon Rejects ‘Absurd’ Reports on Mexico Drug War,” Bloomberg.com, March 12, 2009, www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=axUjKcbAt82w.
109 Castañeda, “The Danger Across the Border.”
110 “¿Qué quieren de nosotros?” El Diario (Ciudad Juarez), September 19, 2010.
1 Oli Brown, Migration and Climate Change (Geneva: International Organization for Migration, 2008), 10.
2 Sam Knight, “Human Tsunami,” Financial Times, June 19, 2009.
3 Andrew Ross, “Greenwashing Nativism,” The Nation, July 29, 2010.
4 Melissa Del Bosque, “Droning in Dollars,” Texas Observer, August 20, 2010.
5 Peter Andreas, “Redrawing the Line: Borders and Security in the Twenty-First Century,” International Security 28, no. 2 (autumn 2003): 78–111: 88.
6 Giorgio Agamben, State of Exception (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005), 2; Gopal Balakrishnan, The Enemy: An Intellectual Portrait of Carl Schmitt (Verso: London, 2000).
7 “Border Emergency,” Washington Post, August 26, 2005.
8 “CBP Air and Marine Unit Gets New Helos for Border Security,” Aerospace Daily & Defense Report 223, no. 23 (August 2, 2007).
9 “Securing America’s Borders: CBP Fiscal Year 2009 in Review Fact Sheet,” CBP.gov, November 24, 2009, www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/newsroom/news_releases/archives/2009_news_releases/nov_09/11242009_5.xml.
10 “Stryker Soldiers Train in Southern New Mexico,” US Federal News, November 15, 2005.
11 “Previously Secret Memos and Data Show Bush-Era Immigration Raids Were Law Enforcement Failure” (report by the Immigration Justice Clinic, Cardozo School of Law, New York, February 4, 2009).
12 “Raids on Workers: Destroying Our Rights,” United Food and Commercial Workers International, 2009, www.ufcw.org/docUploads/UFCW ICE rpt FINAL 150B_061809_130632.pdf?CFID=10424600&CFTOKEN=46213002 (page 1).
13 “Raids on Workers,” 5.
14 Margaret Ramirez, “’96 Immigration Law Causing Rise in Deportations,” Los Angeles Times, September 22, 1998.
15 “Detained and Dismissed: Women’s Struggles to Obtain Health Care in United States Immigration Detention,” Human Rights Watch, March 17, 2009, www.hrw.org/en/reports/2009/03/16/detained-and-dismissed.
16 Dora Schriro, “Immigration Detention: Overview and Recommendations,” Department of Homeland Security, Immigration and Customs Enforcement, October 6, 2009, www.ice.gov/doclib/about/offices/odpp/pdf/ice-detention-rpt.pdf; Nina Bernstein, “Report Critical of Scope of Immigration Detention,” New York Times, October 6, 2009.
17 “Immigrants Face Lengthy Detentions but Have Few Rights Change of Policy,” Daily Herald, March 22, 2009.
18 See “Treated As Criminals: Asylum-Seekers in the USA,” chapter 5 of USA: Rights for All, Amnesty International, October 1998, www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/AMR51/035/1998/en/fd3dc1e9-da98–11dd-80bc-797022e51902/amr510351998en.html.
19 William Fisher, “U.S.: Immigration Detention Abuses Continue,” Inter Press Service, March 31, 2010.
20 Valeria Fernández, “U.S.: Detained Migrant Women Shackled During Childbirth,” Inter Press Service, March 4, 2010.
21 Adam Nossiter, “Arkansas Woman, Left in Cell, Goes 4 Days with No Food or Water,” New York Times, March 12, 2008.
22 Amy Goldstein and Dana Priest, “Some Detainees Drugged for Deportation,” Washington Post, May 14, 2008.
23 Tom Barry, “A Death in Texas: Profits, Poverty, and Immigration Converge,” Boston Review (November–December 2009).
24 Barry, “A Death in Texas.”
25 “Locked Up Far Away: The Transfer of Immigrants to Remote Detention Centers in the United States,” Human Rights Watch, December 2, 2009, www.hrw.org/en/node/86789.
26 Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America (1835; New York: Harper Perennial, 1966), 237.
27 Kurt M. Campbell et al., The Age of Consequences: The Foreign-Policy National Security Implications of Global Climate Change (Washington DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies and the Center for New American Security, 2007), 85–86.
28 Campbell et al., Age of Consequences, 85–86; “Boyles Guest Brenda Walker Called Mexico ‘One of the Most Despicable Countries on Earth’; Said ‘Mexicans Are Good at . . . Establishing Smuggling Infrastructures’ and ‘Can Get Through . . . WMDs,’” Colorado Media Matters, October 20, 2006, http://colorado.mediamatters.org/items/200610200003. A profile of Brenda Walker is available at www.adl.org/immigration/blogosphere/Brenda_Walker.asp.
29 “Boyles’ Guest Gheen Called Mexicans Who Contend Racism Is Driving U.S. Immigration Debate ‘Brown Nazis,’” Colorado Media Matters, October 9, 2007, http://colorado.mediamatters.org/items/200710100001.
30 David Able, “Severin Suspended for Comments About Mexican Immigrants,” Boston, May 1, 2009, www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2009/05/01/severin_suspended_for_comments_about_mexican_immigrants.
31 Able, “Severin”; “Savage: ‘Burn the Mexican Flag!’” Media Matters for America, March 31, 2006, http://mediamatters.org/research/200603310008.
32 Madison Grant, Passing of the Great Race, Or, the Racial Basis of European History (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1916). This book shaped the worldviews of people like Theodore Roosevelt and William Randolph Hearst and helped justify American imperial expansion and the racially based immigration quotas of 1924.
33 “Boortz Suggested Superdome As Place to ‘Store 11 Million Hispanics Just Waiting to Ship ’Em Back to Nicaragua, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico,’” March 29, 2006, Media Matters for America, http://mediamatters.org/research/200603290004.
34 “Boortz on Illegal Immigrants: ‘Give ’Em All a Little Nuclear Waste and Let’Em Take It On Down There to Mexico,” Media Matters for America, June 22, 2007, http://mediamatters.org/mmtv/200706220005.
35 “CNN ‘Conspiracy Theorist’ Lou Dobbs Discredits His Network—One Wild Claim at a Time,” July 23, 2009, http://mediamatters.org/mobile/research/200907230035.
36 Lou Dobbs, “Border Insecurity; Criminal Illegal Aliens; Deadly Imports; Illegal Alien Amnesty,” CNN, April 14, 2005, http://edition.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0504/14/ldt.01.html.
37 Transcript of Beck available at “Beck Again Warned That If Muslims Don’t ‘Act Now’ by ‘Step[ping] to the Plate’ to Condemn Terrorism, They ‘Will Be Looking Through a Razor Wire Fence at the West,’” Media Matters for America, September 7, 2006, http://mediamatters.org/mmtv/200609070002.
38 From the May 1, 2006, broadcast of Westwood One’s The Radio Factor with Bill O’Reilly, available at “O’Reilly Alleged Immigrant Protest ‘Organizers’ Have Hidden ‘Hardcore Militant Agenda’to Take Back American Southwest,” Media Matters for America, May 3, 2006, http://mediamatters.org/mmtv/200605030009.
39 Bill O’Reilly quoted in “Media Figures Attacked Mexican-Flag-Wavers, but Not Those Waving Irish, Italian, or Israeli Flags,” April 3, 2006, Media Matters for America, http://mediamatters.org/research/200604030012.
40 Democracy Now, Headlines, May 11, 2010; Ken Silverstein, “Tea Party in Sonora,” Harper’s (July 2010).
41 Jonathan J. Cooper, “Ariz. Governor Signs Bill Banning Ethnic Studies,” Associated Press, May 12, 2010.
42 Bill O’Reilly, “The Truth About Arizona and Illegal Aliens,” FOX News, May 4, 2010, www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,592129,00.html.
43 Paul Rubin, “One-on-One Time with a Pinal County Deputy—Whose Claim He Was Shot by a Drug Smuggler Is Full of Holes—Produces Startling Results,” New Times (Phoenix), November 25, 2010.
44 Matthews said Republicans “have a right to fear” seeing a “majority Latino population” and challenged Goodman, “Do you live in a Mexican neighborhood?” March 31, 2006, http://mediamatters.org/research/200603310012.
45 In an NBC plug for Buchanan’s anti-immigrant book, Matthews declared that “thanks to this show,” the book would “probably” remain “number one on Amazon,” August 25, 2006, http://mediamatters.org/research/200608250008.
46 Patrick J. Buchanan, State of Emergency: The Third World Invasion and Conquest of America (New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2006), 1–2.
47 Buchanan, State of Emergency, 6, 12, 28.
48 Richard Hofstadter, “The Paranoid Style in American Politics,” Harper’s Magazine , November 1964, 77–86.
49 “Broad Approval for New Arizona Immigration Law: Democrats Divided, but Support Key Provisions,” Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, May 12, 2010, http://people-press.org/report/613/arizona-immigration-law.
50 Jane Mayer, “Covert Operators,” New Yorker, August 30, 2010; George Monbiot, “The Tea Party Movement: Deluded and Inspired by Billionaires,” Guardian, October 25, 2010.
51 Ian Traynor, “Sweden Joins Europe-Wide Backlash Against Immigration,” Guardian, September 24, 2010, www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/sep/24/sweden-immigration-far-right-asylum.
52 Anthony Faiola, “Anti-Muslim Feelings Propel Right Wing,” Washington Post, October 26, 2010.
53 Kate Connolly, “Gypsies Trapped Behind ‘European Wall of Shame,’” Guardian, October 24, 1999.
54 Bill McKibben, Earth: Making a Life on a Tough New Planet (New York: Henry Holt & Co., 2010), 145–146.
1 Next Generation Nuclear Plant: A Report to Congress (prepared by the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy, April 2010), 23, available at http://nuclear.energy.gov/genIV/neGenIV1.html.
2 Mark Hertsgaard, “Regreening Africa,” The Nation, November 19, 2009.
3 One can find literature on this at the UN Development Program’s Global Environmental Facility website at www.pnud-energia.org.bo.
4 For a great takedown, see Robert Skidelsky, Keynes: The Return of the Master (London: Allen Lane, 2009); Mark Weisbrot, “Brazil’s Elections Will Matter for the Rest of the World,” Folha de Sao Paulo(Brazil), October 8, 2010; Mark Weisbrot, “Who Will Allow Brazil to Reach Its Economic Potential?” Folha de Sao Paulo (Brazil), August 27, 2010.
5 Jia Lynn Yang, “Companies Pile Up Cash but Remain Hesitant to Add Jobs,” Washington Post, July 15, 2010.
6 William Alden, “Wall Street Set for Best Two Years Ever, Thanks to Bailout,” Huffington Post, December 13, 2010.
7 Aaron Lucchetti and Stephen Grocer, “On Street, Pay Vaults to Record,” Wall Street Journal, February 2, 2011.
8 Matt Taibbi, “The Great American Bubble Machine,” Rolling Stone, April 5, 2010.
9 See Index Mundi: www.indexmundi.com/commodities/?commodity=food-price-index&months=60.
10 Graphs are available at Index Mundi: www.indexmundi.com/commodities/?commodity=wheat.
11 Roxana Tiron, “Senate OKs Defense Bill, 68–29,” The Hill, October 22, 2009; Robert Higgs, “The Trillion-Dollar Defense Budget Is Already Here,” Independent Institute, March 15, 2007, www.independent.org/newsroom/article.asp?id=1941; Laicie Olson, “Growth in U.S. Defense Spending Since 2001,” Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, March 11, 2010, http://armscontrolcenter.org/policy/securityspending/articles/fy11_growth_since_2001 (accessed January 13, 2011).
12 “U.S. Individual Income Tax: Personal Exemptions and Lowest and Highest Bracket Tax Rates, and Tax Base for Regular Tax,” Tax Years 1913–2008, Table 23, IRS.gov, www.irs.gov/taxstats/article/0,,id=175910,00.html. For more recent data, see “Revenues, Outlays, Deficits, Surpluses, and Debt Held by the Public, 1971 to 2010, in Billions of Dollars,” Budget and Economic Outlook: Historical Budget Data, Congressional Budget Office, January 2011, Table E-1, 1.
13 “Dealing in Doubt: The Climate Denial Industry and Climate Science” (report by Greenpeace International, Amsterdam, March 24, 2010), 4; also see Chris Mooney, The Republican War on Science (New York: Basic Books, 2005).
14 “Exxon Still Aids Climate Skeptics,” The Australian, July 20, 2010.
15 Jane Mayer, “Covert Operations: The Billionaire Brothers Who Are Waging a War Against Obama,” The New Yorker, August 30, 2010; “Koch Industries: Secretly Funding the Climate Denial Machine” (report by Greenpeace USA, Washington, DC, March 30, 2010); “Toxic 100 Air Polluters,” Political Economy Research Institute, March 2010, www.peri.umass.edu/toxic_index (accessed on January 1, 2010).
16 Christian Parenti, “Winning the War of Ideas,” In These Times, October 2003; Kim Phillips-Fein, Invisible Hands: The Making of the Conservative Movement from the New Deal to Reagan (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2009).
17 “Fewer Americans See Solid Evidence of Global Warming Modest Support for ‘Cap and Trade’ Policy,” Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, October 22, 2009, http://people-press.org/report/669/.
18 Andrew Malone, “My Life on the Run: The Police ‘Spy’ Lifts Lid on Eight Years As Eco-Warrior,” Daily Mail (UK), January 17, 2011; Matthew Taylor and Paul Lewis, “Undercover Police Officer Mark Kennedy at Centre of International Row,” The Guardian (UK), January 13, 2011. This outrageous abuse of police power took place under a Labour government purportedly committed to addressing climate change, and some of the intelligence gathered on radical grassroots activists went all the way to Prime Minister Tony Blair’s desk.
19 Brian Tokar, Toward Climate Justice: Perspectives on the Climate Crisis and Social Change (Grenmarsvegen, Norway: Communalism Press, 2010), 13.
20 Suzanne Goldenberg, “Barack Obama’s Key Climate Bill Hit by $45m PR Campaign,” The Guardian (UK), May 12, 2009.
21 Robert S. Eshelman, “Cracking Big Coal,” The Nation, May 3, 2010.
22 Henry Miller, Tropic of Capricorn, 293.
23 “Bolivia: Government to Announce Stimulus Package for SMEs,” El Deber, September 2, 2009.
24 John Vidal and Jonathan Watts, “Copenhagen Closes with Weak Deal That Poor Threaten to Reject—Non-Binding Accord Limits Temperature Rises but Includes No Emissions Targets,” The Guardian (UK), December 19, 2009.
25 Pablo Solon, “Why Bolivia Stood Alone in Opposing the Cancún Climate Agreement,” The Guardian (UK), December 21, 2010.
26 Damian Carrington, “WikiLeaks Cables Reveal How US Manipulated Climate Accord,” The Guardian (UK), December 3, 2010; also see the cable sent February 26, 2010, at 22: 41, “Secret Section 01 Of 03 STATE 018437,” Guardian.co.uk, www.guardian.co.uk/world/us-embassy-cables-documents/251174?intcmp=239.
27 “Methane,” Environmental Protection Agency, www.epa.gov/methane.
28 Jennifer Kho, “The Largest Cleantech VC: China,” GigaOM, February 26, 2010; also see “Towards a Global Green Recovery: Recommendations for Immediate G20 Action” (report submitted to the G20 London Summit, April 2, 2009).
29 “EU Energy Chief Wants 1 Trillion Euro Network Revamp,” Reuters, November 10, 2010.
30 Quoted in Christian Parenti, “The Case for EPA Action,” The Nation, April 15, 2010.
31 On IBM, see Linda Weiss and Elizabeth Thurbon, “The Business of Buying American: Public Procurement As Trade Strategy in the USA,” Review of International Political Economy 13, no. 5 (December 2006): 701–724: 704. For a view of the Indian government’s role in building up a technology sector with its purchasing power, see Rajeeva Sinha, “Government Procurement and Technological Capability: Case of Indian Electrical Equipment Industry,” Economic and Political Weekly 29, no. 48 (November 26, 1994): 142–147.
32 For discussion of leftist green theories of capitalism, see Robyn Eckersley, Environmentalism and Political Theory: Toward an Ecocentric Approach (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992); Ted Benton, Natural Relations: Ecology, Animal Rights and Social Justice (London: Verso, 1993).
33 John Bellemy Foster, Marx’s Ecology: Materialism and Nature (New York: Monthly Review Press, 2000).
34 Karl Marx, Capital (New York: Penguin Classics, 1976), 1: 637.
35 Mary Douglas, Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo (New York: Routledge, 1966), 41.
36 Heather Rogers, Gone Tomorrow: The Hidden Life of Garbage (New York: New Press, 2006).